Texas Politics 1133 Final Review Pt. 1
Texas Politics 1133 Final Review Pt. 1 Texas Politics 1133
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Texas Politics 1133
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Texas Politics 1133
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Dykes on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Texas Politics 1133 at University of Texas at San Antonio taught by Dr. Henry Esparza in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Texas Politics and Society in Politics at University of Texas at San Antonio.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
Texas Politics TEST 1 REVIEW I. Countries that Ruled Texas a. Spain i. First modern European country to lay claim to Texas 1. Alonso Alvarez de Pineda explored and mapped the Texas coastline in 1519 2. 1540: Francisco Vasquez de Coronado intentionally surveyed the interior of Texas and claimed it was full of treasures - Spain left for a century and half when no treasure was found ii. Spain came back in 1689 and found Fort Louis (French) so they increased settlement 1. Established missions and presidios (fortified settlement) in eastern parts of Texas 2. Brought Spanish immigrants from Mexico called Tejanos - settled in Rio Grande Valley iii. Spanish left permanent influence 1. Rivers names 2. Laws concerning land ownership and rights iv. By 1803 - Anglos were coming to Texas through Louisiana - because of Louisiana Purchase v. Mexico declared independence from Spain in 1823 b. France i. 2nd nation to settle in Texas 1. Rene-Robert Cavelier and Sieur de La Salle overshot NOLA and landed on Texas coast near Matagorda (1685) a. Established Fort Louis i. It failed c. Republic of Mexico i. Northeastern territory combined with another province to form the Mexican state of Coahuila and Texas ii. 1820s Southern U.S Anglos started settling with African American slaves 1. They were white protestants - very different from the Spanish Catholic settlers already there iii. 1835 Texans were ready to revolt against President Santa Anna who declared himself dictator of Mexico 1. Battle over the six pound cannon in Gonzales Texas - "Come and Take It" flag 2. White Anglos began favoring independence from Mexico iv. First battle: Siege of the Alamo in 1836 1. Texans lost but the soldiers bravery inspired the independence movement and Texas' provisional government declared independence on March 2, 1836 d. The Republic of Texas i. Sam Houston - general of Texan Army - Texas had to survive the battle with Mexico 1. Had terrible, unorganized army a. Goliad Massacre i. Santa Anna killed all 350 of James Fannin's troops 2. Defeated Santa Anna on San Jacinto river - Treaty of Velasco: recognized Texas' independence from Mexico a. Texas struggled being a new nation - limited infrastructure and resources ii. Texas was not accepted as a state initially because of slavery e. 1845 - Texas becomes 28th state II. Policymaking Process a. Vocab i. Public policy: response/ lack of government decision makers regarding an issue 1. Public policies: government action designed to meet a public need or goal as determined by elected or authorized officials ii. Political culture: values shaped by a society regarding government and politics b. Policymaking environment: set of factors outside of government that impacts the policymaking process either directly or indirectly c. Political environment: how we approach an issue can be affected by i. Money ii. Sexual orientation iii. Socio-economics iv. Gender v. Media vi. Age vii. Ethnicity 1. All non government things that influence government d. Steps in the process i. Agenda building identification 1. Identifying a problem: parking at UTSA ii. Access and representation 1. Finding the right people to fix it: student group going to President Romo iii. Policy formulation 1. Finding solutions iv. Policy adoption and legitimation 1. Picking a solution v. Policy implementation 1. Enforcing the solution: police officers giving citations for people who park in the wrong spot vi. Policy evaluation 1. Did the solution work? III. Introduction to Texas History and Politics a. How we have changed - b. Politically i. Democratic party dominated Texas from the end of Reconstruction to mid 1970s 1. Third parties became primary challengers to Democratic party during the "progressive era" a. Greenback party, Farmers alliance, populists --> progressives because the believed in doctrine of progress i. The concept that governing institutions can be improved by bringing science go bear on public problems b. 3rd parties meant Democratic party had to adopt a lot of progressive reform proposals into its own platform c. By start of 20th Century Texas was effectively a one party state with Progressive Democrats and Conservative Democrats contesting offices i. Lack of meaningful competition from Republicans often led to straight ticket party voting in elections ii. Vocab: Yellow Dog Democrat 1. Coined to describe an individual who would vote only for Democratic candidates - described the voting pattern of Texans iii. 1920s - WWII 1. Texas Democrats were conservative - their conservative business interests aligned with the Republican party at the time so the state voted for Hoover (1 of only 4 instances before 1970s) 2. Great Depression soured Texans of Republicans though - Democratic New Deal brought Texans back into the party a. Progressive democrats supporting job programs and military developments helped attract more liberal minded citizens to the party iv. 1952 Texans voted for Dwight Eisenhower (Republican) because of Shivercrats 1. A faction of Texas Dems who followed conservative Democrat Gov. Allan Shivers v. National Democratic Party was becoming more liberal and conservative Texans were becoming disenchanted with the party 1. Civil Rights movement also pushed conservative Dems away from Democratic party vi. Texans started supporting Republicans - 2002 Texas had fully transitioned from conservative Democrats to Republican 1. Aggressive reaction to Obama - conservatives were elected to offices c. Economically i. Before reconstruction (1820s-1860s) - KING COTTON 1. Cotton was the state's major cash crop 2. Giant cattle ranches in the south and west Texas developed cowboy culture and the mystique of the frontier Texan a. Cattle became Texas' economic mainstay after the Civil War ii. 1901: Spindletop oil field near Beaumont 1. Oil sparked transition from agricultural economy to industrial a. High tech peripheral jobs and industries developed to support or benefit from oil industry 2. Oil accelerated the growth of Texas' population and brought in new citizens from all over US. a. New citizens brought new ideas that challenged and diversified the ideas of Texas Democrats and Republicans 3. Oil accelerated the demographic shift from a rural society to an urban society a. By 1950, 60% lived in urban areas iii. Had a recession in 1980s --> pointed to a need for a diversified economy iv. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994 1. Offered promise of economic growth because of increased trade with Mexico v. New high tech industries in Houston, Dallas, and Austin 1. Texas instruments --> calculators 2. Texas has become a leader in scientific and technological research and development a. As indicated by number of international patents - Texas was 4th among 50 states vi. Now - Service Industry dominates the economy - 76% of the private sector workforce 1. Population expansion has led to increase in need for healthcare and education services 2. Trade and population has sparked growth of leisure and hospitality industry vii. Texas is an international trade hub 1. Expansion and implementation of NAFTA viii. Texas economic regions 1. We have 13 but book merges it into 6 a. East Texas/ piney woods: traditionally agriculture, timber and oil i. Agriculture and oil are declining but timber is still important. Some diversification with manufacturing b. Plains i. Agriculture and ranching - now more diversified c. Gulf coast region: petrochemical, engineering, manufacturing and shipping i. Addition of high tech industries and largest concentration of organized labor unions d. South texas/ Rio Grande Valley: agri- citrus and veggies d. Population trend/ Demographics i. Texas is diverse, every size, color, ethnicity, race and sexual orientation ii. Right now Texas is a minority-majority state but it wasn’t 50 years ago i. Texas is 2nd in land size and population 1. 2nd largest growth rate due to birthrate and newcomers 2. We got 4 seats in the House - 2 shifts - rural to urban and suburban and majority minority demographics ii. Urban and rural 1. 84.7 percent of Texans live in urban areas - overall population of Texas is increasing while proportion of Texans living rural areas is declining 2. Added 4 new congressional districts which have been established in urban centers and will capture a significant number of minority voters a. Minority groups are concentrated in major cities because of minority migration to urban centers and higher birth rates for minorities along with white migration to suburban areas iii. Majority-minority 1. Since 2004, Texas has been majority minority state a. Minority groups that make up a majority of the population of the state 2. 2001-2002 is first school year white Hispanics outnumber whites a. Migration has steadily increased - Hispanics make up 38.2% of population (2012) 3. African American population has remained steady a. Concentrated mostly in Austin, Houston and Dallas 4. Asian Americans constitute less than 1 percent of the pop a. But projected to increase in the years ahead i. Mostly Chinese in Houston ii. Korean Americans in Dallas iv. Religion in Texas 1. Religion in Texas bears the Roman Catholic imprint of its Spanish and Mexican roots as well as the conservative Protestantism of its later Anglo settlers 2. Christians, Protestants, and Roman Catholics make up most of Texas a. Due to large pop of Evangelical Protestants Texas has lots of megachurches 3. Evangelical Protestants overwhelmingly Republican 4. Christians are evenly split 5. Protestants of black church tradition are overwhelmingly Democratic v. In-migration and immigration 1. In-migration most popular in 20th Century a. Texas has inexpensive housing market, attractive natural and business climate b. High tech workers were drawn by job market c. Hurricane Katrina and devastation in Florida's housing market led people to come to Texas d. Florida and California are most likely sates of origination for in- migrants to Texas 2. Immigration from Mexico both legal and illegal is most prevalent in Texas IV. Political cultures a. Daniel Elazar looks at 3 strains of political culture b. Moralistic i. Government viewed as a positive force to achieve a common good for all citizens 1. Politics is regarded as a responsibility of all citizens, who have an obligation to participate in government 2. Leadership roles are not for personal gain but to serve the public 3. Government has a right and an obligation to intervene in the private affairs of citizens when deemed necessary fort the public good or the well being of the community c. Individualistic i. Government that benefits the individual rather than society in general 1. Created strictly for utilitarian reasons to handle functions demanded by the people it is created to serve 2. Gov't is not concerned with the creation of a "good society" 3. Gov't intervention in the private sector should be kept to a minimum a. Politics is for those willing to dirty their hands b. Necessary evil but not an obligation d. Traditionalistic i. Government that maintains existing political order for the benefit of the small elite 1. Public only has limited power and influence 2. Political participation by the public is discouraged 3. A class based social structure helps to maintain the existing order e. Texas is a mix of individualistic and traditionalistic f. Texas' political culture is shaped by i. Size Low taxes Natural resources Weak unions Politics Weak political parties Economics Weak gov't Geography Border ties V. The Texas Constitution a. Constitution: establishes the fundamental rules by which states govern i. Basic document that provides a framework for government and limits what the government can do b. Current Texas constitution, ratified in 1876, reflects the conservative nature of the state, distrust in government, and the desire to limit the government's ability to act i. SIDE NOTE: popular sovereignty: the idea that power granted in state constitutions rests with the people c. 1st Constitution: 1824: Republic of Mexico i. Constitution used to immerse Texans into Coahuila 1. Created unicameral legislature and governors with 1 term, Texas had two representatives 2. No bill of rights 3. Catholicism was state religion --> no slavery d. 2nd Constitution: 1836: Republic of Texas i. Unitary instead of federal: bicameral w/ 3 branches 1. 4 tier system a. Justice, country, district, and state supreme court 1. Limited term of president to 3 terms with no consecutive reelection 2. Couldn't raise an army without consent of congress 3. Freedom of religion and property rights protection --> slavery was legalized a. Shows that Texas distrusted government --> traditionalistic southerners wrote the document e. 3rd Constitution: 1845: Statehood Constitution i. First constitution of Texas when it joined the union - Texas became the 28th state under President Polk on December 29, 1945 1. It was a problem because Texas was a slave state and at the time there was not another free territory that could become a state to balance the free vs slavery states 1. Women were grantede property rights equal to men, especially in marriage 2. A persons homestead was protected from forced sale to pay debts 3. Limited executive authority, biennial sessions of legislature, and 2 year terms for most officials f. 4th Constitution: 1861, 1866, 1869 Civil War and Reconstruction Constitutions i. 1861 1. Essentially same as 1845 document but with an added prohibition against the emancipation of slaves, a provision to secede from the union and a provision to join the confederacy ii. 1866 1. Constitutions for rejoining the Union a. Abolished slavery, nullified the ordinances of secession, renounced the right to future secession, and repudiated the wartime debts of the state iii. 1869 1. Reconstruction or carpetbagger's constitution 2. Written by radical republicans a. Limited vote and political rights of ex confederate 3. Texas v White (1869) a. Court case that decided secession was illegal because the US was an "indestructible union" g. 5th Constitution: Constitution of 1876 i. E.J Davis was the governor and wrote this constitution 1. Integrated education and state police 2. Concentrated entire state power to his office and raised taxes ii. This constitution reflected the antigovernment sentiments of the traditionalistic/ individualistic culture of the state 1. Re-imposed shorter terms of office 2. Severely restricted the governments authority to act iii. Constitutional Convention of 1875 1. 75 democrats and 15 republicans a. Most republicans were replaced by Democrats and Grange i. The Grangers were white males who wanted no taxes, a government beholden to the people, and a debt ceiling 2. The slogan was Retrenchment and Reform a. Retrenchment referred to the dismantlement of E.J Davis administration b. Reform referred to reconfiguring and rewriting the previous constitution 3. At this convention the writers decided to restrict the 3 branches of the government a. Large cities voted against it and rural population made sure it passed VI. Texas Constitution a. Bill of rights i. The Texas bill of rights is reflective of section found in the US constitution but the Texas constitution is significantly more detailed 1. Contains an equal rights amendment, property owners rights 2. Only problem is section 32 defines marriage as union between a man and a woman ii. Bill of rights is found in the beginning of each document b. A constitution convention was called in 1974 to revise the Texas Constitution and it failed i. Texas has a traditionalistic/ individualistic political culture which does support broad change ii. Texas legislature deadlocked and adjourned without making any recommendation for change to preserve special interests of the elite VII. American Federal System a. Federal system of government (US) i. Division of powers between a national government and regional governments b. Unitary system of government (most of the world) i. Power is centralized in a national government and regional and local governments operate within powers granted by the national government ii. Functions of government are controlled by the central government c. Confederal system of government (confederate states) i. Most of the power rests with the regional and local governments and the national government has only limited powers d. The national government has the power to tax and spend to promote general welfare = grants i. Categorical grants 1. Grants used for specific purposes defined by federal government ii. Block grants 1. Grants used for broad purposes, more discretion to the states iii. Federal mandates 1. Something mandated by the federal that the states HAVE to do but the federal gov't doesn’t have to pay for it a. Ex: American Disability Act - said every public place had to be wheelchair accessible but federal gov't didn’t have to pay for the building of the ramps e. Article I: Necessary and Proper Clause i. "Congress can pass any law necessary and proper…" ii. Generally interpreted broadly - also called the elastic clause - gives more power to national government 1. McCullough v Maryland established this as the elastic clause iii. Fits under the implied powers of government iv. Powers only for the national government 1. Punish offenses against the laws of the nation 2. Lay and collect taxes 3. Establish courts 4. Raise/support armies - also declare war 5. Regulate interstate commerce f. Tenth amendment i. "any power not delegated to government is reserved for the states.." ii. Also called reserved clause iii. All about states rights and giving power to states iv. Power for the states 1. Conduct local elections 2. Establish republican forms of government 3. Build infrastructure 4. Administer family law - marriage/ divorce 5. Provide education 6. Tax estates and inheritance 7. Regulate intrastate commerce g. Shared powers i. Taxing ii. Establishing courts iii. Borrow money h. Article VI of the Constitution i. Federal law is the supreme law of the land ii. Ant state laws that are in violation of federal law can be nullified VIII. The Legislature a. House of representatives i. 150 representatives 1. Represent around 169,000 constituents ii. 2 year terms with a minimum age of 21 1. Have to have lived 1 year in the district and 2 years in the state iii. Have to be US citizen/ registered voter iv. NO term limits v. Speaker of the house 1. Elected by house members 2. Serves as presiding officer and generally controls passage of legislation a. Appoints chairs of all committees b. Appoint most members of standing committee c. Appoint members of calendar and procedural committees, conference committees, and other special and interim committees d. Serves as presiding officer over all sessions e. Refer all bills to committees i. State affairs committee aka dead bill committee b. Senate i. 31 members 1. Represent around 819,000 ii. 4 year terms with minimum age of 26 1. 1 year in district and 5 years in the state iii. US citizen/ registered voter iv. NO term limits v. Lieutenant governor 1. Presiding officer of Texas senate 2. Appoints chairs of al senate committees 3. Selects members of all senate committees 4. Appoint members of conference committees 5. Refer all bills to committees vi. When there is no lieutenant governor --> pro tempore: president of senate c. Informal qualifications for both i. Birthright --> born and raised in Texas ii. Name, Anglo, male, profession, ideology, religious (protestant) d. Most Texas legislatures are white, male and protestant i. Texas legis. Is a little more diverse than US Congress which isn't saying much e. We have a nonprofessional legislature: not a full time job i. 600 a month salary - 7200 a year but total compensation is 28,200 ii. Convenes biennially for 140 days every odd numbered year 1. Regular sessions are 5 months -> January to May f. Committees i. Standing committees 1. Committees of house and senate that consider legislation - most powerful committee ii. Conference committees 1. Work out differences in bills passed in each chamber 2. Temporary iii. Interim committees 1. That study issues between regular sessions 2. Temporary g. Census i. Every 10 years is when the legislature redraws congressional districts - reapportionment ii. Gerrymandering 1. Political: drawing legislative districts to advantage of a political party 2. Racial: legislature districts that are drawn to advantage of a minority group 3. Packing a. Ramming voters of 1 party into a district to dilute their voters in other districts 4. Cracking a. Tearing up dense pockets of party voters dilute their votes in that district 5. Stacking a. Merging 2 districts of same party to force incumbents to run against each other h. Demographic of legislature i. Minorities and women are underrepresented and most legislators are mobile white, wealthy males IX. Process of a bill becoming law a. house i. First introduced into house and read for the first time 1. Speaker assigns it to a committee ii. Committee studies bill iii. Favorable report or unfavorable report iv. Substitutes or amendments v. Bill printed on committee report and distributed vi. Bill goes to a calendar committee for assignment to a calendar vii. Second reading viii. Third reading ix. Amendment are engrossed into text of bill sent to senate b. Senate i. First reading and referred to committee by lt. governor ii. Committee studies bill iii. Unfavorable report or favorable iv. Substitutes and amendments v. Bill printed vi. Two thirds vote of senate vii. Second reading viii. Third reading ix. If not amendment bill enrolled 1. Signed by speaker and by lt. governor x. Sent to governor 1. Signs bill or refuses to sign bill a. Bill becomes law 2. Vetoes bill a. Veto is overridden by two thirds vote b. Bill does not become law
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