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Exam #1

by: Alanna Thornton

Exam #1 FDSCI201

Alanna Thornton
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

Exam on first section of the class:earthquakes. Answers and notes based on Professor given study guide
Natural Disasters
Study Guide
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alanna Thornton on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FDSCI201 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Probability- the likelihood of a specific type of event occurring in a specific place, at a specific magnitude, and during a specific time frame Risk- calculated as the product of extent, effects, probability, and importance of the outcome Natural hazard- hazardous natural condition *They do not become disasters until they affect people. Disaster- a natural or man-made emergency whose response needs exceed the available resources of the affected community Mitigation- activities to reduce losses from future disasters, including prevention and protection 1. Altering the Hazard- Modify the hazard to eliminate/reduce the frequency of its occurrence. Ex) triggering avalanches under controlled conditions 2. Averting the Hazard- Redirecting the impact by using structural devices or land treatment to shield people and development from harm. Ex) Dikes, levees, and dams 3. Adapting to the Hazard- Modify structures and altering design standards of construction. 4. Avoiding the Hazard- Keep people away from the hazard area or limiting development and population in a risk area. Ex) zoning regulations, building codes and ordinances Theory of Continental Drift  Alfred Wegener  the remarkable fit of the South American and African continents  the drifting of continents after the break-up of Pangaea explained the matching fossil occurrences  fatal weakness: What kind of forces could be strong enough to move such large masses of solid rock over such great distances? Wegener suggested that the continents simply plowed through the ocean floor… Theory of Plate Tectonics 1) a convecting mantle 2) slab pull and 3) ridge push. *The fundamental difference between continental drift and plate tectonics is their explanations of the role of the seafloor crust. Continental drift said the oceanic crust was fixed and does not move. Plate tectonics says that the oceanic crust is part of the mobile plates, and moves along with the continents Divergent boundaries- where new crust is generated as the plates pull away from each other. Convergent boundaries- where crust is destroyed as one plate dives under another. Transform boundaries- where crust is neither produced nor destroyed as the plates slide horizontally past each other. Plate boundary zones- broad belts in which boundaries are not well defined and the effects of plate interaction are unclear. Hotspots- volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle Elastic rebound theory- that strain built up in the earth’s crust like the stretching of a rubber band which at some point, the earth would have to snap, sending shockwaves through the earth in an earthquake. The block of rock above a fault is called the hanging wall, and the block of rock below the fault is called the footwall. Seismic Waves P-Waves: Primary Wave, causes most damage S-Waves: Secondary Wave, L-Waves: Love Wave, R-Waves: Rayleigh Wave, Intensity vs. Magnitude- Intensity is based on the observed effects of ground shaking on people, buildings, and natural features. It varies from place to place within the affected region depending on the location of the observer to the earthquake epicenter. Magnitude is related to the amount of seismic energy released at the hypocenter of the earthquake. It is based on the amplitude of the earthquake waves recorded on seismometers, and unlike intensity, is a single number that does not depend on location or distance. Liquefaction- Liquefaction may occur when water-saturated sandy soils are subjected to earthquake ground shaking. When soil liquefies, it loses strength and behaves as a viscous liquid (like quicksand) rather than as a solid.


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