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Bill 2041

by: Jaskiran Kaur

Bill 2041 BIOL 2041

Jaskiran Kaur

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About this Document

Exam 2
Dr. Hyunju Kim
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Microbiology

Popular in Microbiology

This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jaskiran Kaur on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2041 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. Hyunju Kim in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Microbiology at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
Chapter 21  Antibiotic: type of antimicrobial agent from a microorganism that kills or slows the growth of  other microbes, specifically bacterial  Antimicrobial agents: a general term for the drugs that kill or slow the growth of microbes  Paul Ehrlich: chemotherapy; “magic bullet”  Alexander Fleming: discovered penicillin  ­Antimicrobial era began in 1936 when Roosevelt was admitted for a throat infection, and the  drugs used to cure infections at the time were called sulfonamide  Characteristics of an ideal antimicrobial agent   Solubility in bodily fluids  Selective toxicity   Toxicity is not easily altered   Non­ allergenic     Maintenance in concentration of blood and tissue fluid   It is harder to gain resistance for microorganisms  Long shelf life   Reasonable Cost  Mechanism of Antibiotics    Inhibit cell wall synthesis by destroying peptidoglycan  o All have ­lactam ring  Penicillin’s ­lactam antibiotics are gram positive and broad spectrum  o This prevents the final step in the synthesis  Damages cell membrane by destroying is permeability   Interferes with Nucleic acid synthesis  o Quinolones   Broad spectrum   Blocks DNA replication   Uses topoisomerase that alters the supercoiled form of DNA   Ex.­ciprofloxacin   Interferes with protein synthesis  o Chloramphenicol   Broad spectrum   Gram­positive  Inhibits peptide bond formation; binds to 50s  o Tetracycline’s   Broad spectrum   Binds to 30s and blocks tRNA into the ribosomes  o Aminoglycosides   Gram­negative   Binds to 30s  o Erythromycin   Gram positive   Causes strep throat   Binds to 50s  o Metabolism   Folic acid synthesis which also happens in eukaryotic cells   Polymyxin B destroys outer membrane The disadvantage antimicrobials is that microbial gain resistance  MRSA: The first strains of Staphylococcus aureus resisted methicillin  Acquired resistance   Enzymes destroy drug   Changes target   Prevents entry or an exit   Can be linked to genetic mutations  3 main mechanisms   Beta lactamase   Tetracycline Resistance   The target in the bacterial cell changes  Chapter 9  Sterilization removes all microbial life used on inanimate objects  Disinfection reduces growth on a non­living surface  Decontamination is the mechanical removal of most microbes  Antisepsis reduces microbial growth on living tissue  Micro­biocidal kills microorganisms  Micro­biostatic inhibits the growth   Cide means to kill   Stat means to inhibit  Decimal reduction time and heat treatment are important calculations in the industry and for labs  Resistance Levels   Least: most vegetative cells   Moderate: some fungi spore, protozoan cysts   Highest: prions, bacterial endospores  Thermal Death Point   Lowest temperature in a liquid culture in 10 minutes will kill all microbes  Thermal Death Point   Length of time required to kill all bacteria in a liquid culture at given temperature  Moist Heat: kills cells by denaturing proteins  Dry Heat: interfere with the cells oxidation Pasteurization: eliminates proteins that denature proteins to slow spoilage  Chapter 10    Domain   Kingdom   Phylum   Class   Order   Family   Genus   Species (smallest)  Hackel: classified organisms into either plant or animal kingdom  Chatton: separated between prokaryotic and eukaryotic Whittaker: recognized the 5 kingdom scheme  Woese, Kandler, and Wheelis: three domains of eukarya, bacteria, and archaea    Chapter 12  Study of fungi is called mycology  Study of algae is called phycology  Fungi   All eukaryotic   Can grow in highly acidic, low­moisture, aerobic environments   Heterotrophic   Absorptive   Dimorphic cause disease in animals and humans  o Y­M shift is when yeast goes to the mold or mycelial form  Algae   All eukaryotic  Autotrophs   Oxygenic photosynthesis   Lack tissue differentiation   Major fixers of CO   2  Primary producers of aquatic food chain   Can’t live in human body     


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