Animal Science 111 Review Sheet
Animal Science 111 Review Sheet 111
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Notetaker on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 111 at University of Wisconsin - River Falls taught by Jill Larson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Animal Science 111 in Agricultural And Food Systems at University of Wisconsin - River Falls.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
Animal Science 111 Review: Exam 1 Introduction to Animal Science: Name a challenge animal science faces: o Environmental issues o Growing population o Animal activists What is animal science? o Focuses on the study of domestic animals or those who live with humans. Know animal science disciplines and definitions (matching) o Genetics, nutrition, physiology, animal health, ethology, meat science, dairy product science, and biotechnology What do animals contribute to our society? o Food source, Work, Transportation, Research, Fertilizer Animal Products: Meat, Milk and Eggs: Advantages of animal products in our diet: nutrient dense and essential AA Role of animal products in a balanced diet (animal food vs plants provide) o Animal Food: Protein, zinc, iron, calcium. Vitamin: A,D,E,K, and B12 Fats and Lipids o Plants Fiber Vitamin C Minerals Know what edible byproducts are and give examples o Page 21 TABLE 2-2 of Intro to Animal Science (fourth edition-Damron) Brain Lungs Stomach Know the classifications of red meat, poultry, seafood & other & where they are obtained from o Red Meat Beef (>12 months) Veal (3 months) Lamb (>13 months) Mutton (less than 13 months) Pork/Roaster Pigs Goat Cabrito (4-8weeks) Chevon (6-9 months of age) o Poultry Less myoglobin Less binding iron and oxygen Eggs o % Of Meat Pig: 39% Chicken: 27% Beef: 24% Other: 10% Consumption trend of whole milk in the U.S. o Slide 33 in Animal Food Products Consumption of Whole Milk went down drastically from 1950 290 to 45 o 84% from Cattle o 12% Buffalo o 640million metric tons of milk/year Major carbohydrate in milk: lactose Top 3 dairy cow milk producing states o California o Wisconsin o Idaho Understand the global egg production increase and value o >90% are Hen Eggs o Increases by 3% every year Top 3 egg producing states o IOWA 53201 o OHIO 27100 o INDIANA 22805 Reproduction: Basic anatomy and function of male reproductive system o Testes: Site of sperm/testosterone production o Epididymis: Connects testicles to vas deferens Responsible for sperm cell storage, maturation, and increase of concentration o Scrotum: protective covering of testicle. Aids in temperature regulation o Vas Deferens: connects epididymis to accessory sex glands Removed during vasectomy o Accessory sex glands: Ampulla, Prostate, Seminal Vesicles, Bulbourethral Glands o Sigmoid Flexure: Occurs during erection (straightens muscle) o Retractor Penis Muscle: Softens during erection o Types of Penis Fibroblastic and Vascular (blood cells) Know species with the highest volume of sperm per ejaculate and the greatest sperm concentration per ejaculate o Boar: Highest Volume of Sperm 225ml o Ram: Highest Concentration 3.1billion/ml Basic anatomy and function of female reproductive system o Vulva: external genitalia, opening to vagina o Vagina: between vulva and cervix Site of semen deposition during natural mating o Cervix: between vagina and uterine body Contains folds o Uterus: between cervix and oviduct Latin word for womb Uterine Body/Horn Hormone: Prostaglandin o Oviduct: between uterine horns and ovary Where sperm meets the ova Site of fertilization o Ovary: primary sex organ Egg(s) Hormones Progesterone o Corpus Luteum Estrogen o Follicles The hormone that remains increased during the estrous cycle and pregnancy Progesterone remains during entire pregnancy Decline in Response to Estrogen Know the difference between estrous and estrus o Estrous is an adjective o Estrus is a noun Understand when the majority of fetal growth occurs during gestation o 2/3 of Fetal Growth occurs in the last 1/3 of Gestation Define parturition and what initiates it o Initiated when Fetus will release cortisol Understand the 3 steps involved in parturition o Cervical Dilation o Delivery of Calf o Expulsion of the Membranes (Placenta) Know the cycle length, duration of estrus and gestation length in a specie of your choice o Mare: Cycle Length: 21d Duration of Estrus: 7d Estrus to Ovulation: 5d Lactation: Know the anatomy and structure of the mammary gland o Mammary Glands: Exocrine glands/ modified sweat gland o Udder- mammary gland in farm animals Supportive system Secretory system Duct system Blood, lymph and nerve system o Species Udder Sows: 10-14 teats Mares: 2 teats Queens: 10 teats Bitches: 8-12 teats Cows: 4 teats 60% rear quarters 40% forequarters Empty weight: 12 to 30kg Average Capacity: 35kg o Alveolus: 500 liters of blood must flow to the udder to make 1 litre of milk Lumen- Opening of the alveolus that collects milk Epithelial- Milk secreting cells Duct: Transports milk from alveolus to the gland cistern Myoepithelium: Contract in response to oxytocin o Lobule Each lobule contains 150 to 220 alveoli The actual milk producing units o Duct System Transport milk from lobule to gland cistern Non-secretory o Gland Cistern Common pooling area for milk from the duct system o Teat Cistern Storage area before suckling or milking Holds 100 to 400ml of milk in the cows o Streak Canal Milk passes through before expulsion 2 ligaments that act as the support system o Lateral Suspensory Ligament (LSL) Extends along both sides to udder midline Connects to the medial suspensory ligament o Medial Suspensory Ligament (MSL) Provides most support and also elasticity Know what supernumerary teats are and why they may be removed o Too many teats o Occurs in all species o May be removed because of difficulty milking What is colostrum and why important to newborn o Provides extra nutrients and immune function to newborns Fat Protein Nonfat Solids Immunoglobulins (IgG) Understand how colostrum is absorbed o Absorbed for 24 hours after birth o Need to drink 5% of their body weight Know the main components of milk o Water o Fat o Lactose o Casein o Minerals Know the 2 stages of lactogenesis o Stage 1 Formation of Colostrum Initiated before Parturition o Stage 2 Abundant Milk secretion Secretion of normal milk Understand the role of oxytocin and when released and what might cause problems in let down o Oxytocin- responsible for milk let down Fear or stress may cause problems Vasoconstriction decreases oxytocin supply to gland Nutrition: Why do we study nutrition? o It is important to feed livestock cost effectively o Health and wellbeing o Physical health o Ability to recover from sickness Know the 2 specialty fields of nutrition and the interest groups of nutrition o Basic nutritionists: study metabolism of animals o Applied/production nutritionists: Interested in cost of feeding animals Know the 6 classifications of nutrients o Carbohydrates o Water o Proteins o Vitamins o Minerals o Fats Not a nutrient: energy Know functions of water o Lubricant o Body fluids Blood Lymph Urine Sweat o Regulates body temperature o Helps break down food Forms of carbohydrates o Sugars o Starches o Cellulose Know the 3 monosaccharides o Glucose o Galactose o Fructose Know the difference between fat soluble and water soluble vitamins o Fat Soluble: Regulate body function: vision, blood clotting, tissue maintenance, bone development o Water Soluble: Metabolic regulation Know the 4 fat soluble vitamins and their main role o Vitamin A,D,E,K Main function of vitamin C and symptoms of deficiency o Collagen synthesis in humans o Deficiency Scurvy Spotty skin Macrominerals specific group classifications by function o Ca, P, Mg- Bone minerals o Na, Cl, K- Electrolyte minerals o S- Structural Know what proteins are composed of o Lean tissue growth o Enzymes o Hormones o Body Metabolism PVT TIM HALL (be able to name 5 essential amino acids) o PHENYLALANINE o VALINE o TRYPOTOPHAN o THREONINE o ISOLUECINE o METHIONINE o HISTIDINE o ARGININE o LYSINE o LEUCINE Functions and sources of fats o High in energy o Sources Tallow Lard Various vegetable oils Categories of nutrient needs o Maintenance o Growth o Finishing o Production o Work o Reproduction Be able to identify specie digestive systems o Monastics o Ruminant stomach Rumen Reticulum Omasum Abomasum o Non-ruminant o Avian Steps of digestion (9) o Prehension o Mastication o Salivation o Deglutition o Stomach o Small intestine o Large intestine o Defecation o Micturition/Urination
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