Chemistry Exam 3 Study Guide
Chemistry Exam 3 Study Guide CH 117
Popular in Honors General Chemistry
Popular in Chemistry
verified elite notetaker
This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Ruderman on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CH 117 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Street in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Honors General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
Reviews for Chemistry Exam 3 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/11/16
CH 117 Exam 3 Study Guide 10/18/16 Chapters 5-6 equations important numbers key terms Chapter 5 Energy: the capacity to do work or transfer heat Work: the energy expended to move an object against a force w = F*d Heat: the energy that is transferred from a hotter object to a colder one Internal Energy (E): the sum of all the kinetic and potential energies of a system ????E = q + w Sign conventions: For q + meanssystem g ains heat - meanssystem loses heat For w + means work done o n system - means work done b y system For ????E + means net gain of energy -means net loss of energy Enthalpy: the total heat content of a system H = E + PV Calorimetry: how the amount of heat transferred between the system and the surroundings is measured experimentally Heat Capacity: the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a calorimeter by 1 K Molar Heat Capacity: the heat capacity for one mole of a pure substance Specific Heat: the heat capacity for one gram of a pure substance Specific heat of water = 4.184 J/g-K = 1 calorie Amount of heat absorbed by a substance: specific heat * mass * change in temperature q = C * * ????T s ΔH = qp = C Δcal Hess’s Law: if a reaction is carried out in a series of steps, ????H for the reaction will equal the sum of the enthalpy changes for the steps Enthalpy of Formation: ????H of a sfstance is the enthalpy change for the reaction in which the substance is formed from its constituent elements ????H f0 for any element in its standard state Standard enthalpy change = (????H of the products) - (????H of the reactants) f f Chapter 6 Electromagnetic radiation: carries energy through space, aka radiant energy - All electromagnetic radiation moves at the speed of light 8 Speed of light: c = 2.998 * 10 m/s c = ???? (wavelength in m * frequency in Hz) Blackbody Radiation: the emission of light from hot objects - In 1900, Max Planck theorized that a fixed amount of energy was the smallest possible quantity that could be emitted or absorbed as electromagnetic radiation - Proposed that the energy (E) of a quantum = a constant times the frequency of radiation E = hv h = Planck constant = 6.626 * 10 -34J-s Photoelectric Effect: the emission of electrons from metal surfaces when exposed to light - In 1905, Einstein used Planck’s theory to explain the photoelectric effect, asserted that light is composed of particles called photons - Decided that the energy of a photon equals Planck constant times the frequency of light Energy of photon = E = hv Rydberg equation: 1 1 1 λ = R ( H n2 − )n 2 1 2 7 -1 Rydberg’s constant = 1.0967 * 10 m Bohr’s Model: In 1913, Bohr offered an explanation of l ine spectra - Spectrum: produced when radiation is separated into its component wavelengths (like when white light goes through a prism and produces a rainbow) - Continuous Spectrum: rainbow containing light of all wavelengths - Line Spectrum: spectrum containing radiation of only specific wavelengths - Emission Spectra: t he emission of light from electronically excited gas atoms En (-hcR )Nn ) = -2.18 * 1018J (1/n ) Electronic Structure: the energies and arrangement of electrons around an atom E = hv <each photon carries energy De Broglie: suggested that electrons behave like waves and have a wavelength, an object has a characteristic wavelength that depends on its momentum h λ = mv mass in kg, velocity in m/s, h = Planck’s constant Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle: we cannot know simultaneously the exact momentum and location of an electron ????x * ????(mv) ≥ h/4???? Position * momentum is less than or equal to Planck’s constant/4???? Schrodinger’s wave equation: incorporates both the wave-like and particle-like behaviors of the electron Hψ = Eψ Quantum numbers: - n: principle quantum #, determines the energy of an orbital - l: angular momentum, describes the shape of an orbital - m: magnetic quantum #, describes the orientation in space of an orbital l Pauli exclusion principle: no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers n, l, m, and m . An orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons and they must have l s opposite spins. Electron configuration: the way electrons are distributed among the various orbitals of an atom - Ground state: most stable electron configuration, lowest possible energy state - Hund’s rule: for degenerate orbitals, the lowest energy is attained when the number of electrons having the same spin is maximized Shape of atomic orbitals: Note: all equations and constants will be provided for test.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'