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Chemistry Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Julia Ruderman

Chemistry Exam 3 Study Guide CH 117

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Chemistry > CH 117 > Chemistry Exam 3 Study Guide
Julia Ruderman

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Chapters 5 (Thermochemistry) and 6 (Electronic Structure of Atoms)
Honors General Chemistry
Study Guide
Chemistry, Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Ruderman on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CH 117 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Street in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Honors General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
CH 117 Exam 3 Study Guide 10/18/16 Chapters 5-6 equations important numbers key terms Chapter 5 Energy​: the capacity to do work or transfer heat Work​: the energy expended to move an object against a force w = F*d Heat​: the energy that is transferred from a hotter object to a colder one Internal Energy (E)​: the sum of all the kinetic and potential energies of a system ????E = q + w Sign conventions: For q​ + means​system g ​ ains heat - means​system ​loses heat For w​ + means​ work done o ​ n system - means​ work done b ​ y system For ????E + ​means ​net gain of energy -​means​ net loss of energy Enthalpy​: the total heat content of a system H = E + PV Calorimetry​: how the amount of heat transferred between the system and the surroundings is measured experimentally Heat Capacity​: the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a calorimeter by 1 K Molar Heat Capacity​: the heat capacity for one mole of a pure substance Specific Heat​: the heat capacity for one gram of a pure substance Specific heat of water = 4.184 J/g-K = 1 calorie Amount of heat absorbed by a substance: specific heat * mass * change in temperature ​ q = C​ * ​ * ????T s​ ΔH = qp = C​ Δcal ​ Hess’s Law​: if a reaction is carried out in a series of steps, ????H for the reaction will equal the sum of the enthalpy changes for the steps Enthalpy of Formation​: ????H​ of a sf​stance is the enthalpy change for the reaction in which the substance is formed from its constituent elements ????H​ f​0 for any element in its standard state Standard enthalpy change = (????H​ of the products) - (????H​ of the reactants) f​ f​ Chapter 6 Electromagnetic radiation​: carries energy through space, aka radiant energy - All electromagnetic radiation moves at the speed of light 8​ ​ Speed of light: ​c = 2.998 * 10​ m/s ​ ​ c = ????​ (wavelength in m * frequency in Hz) Blackbody Radiation​: the emission of light from hot objects - In 1900, Max Planck theorized that a fixed amount of energy was the smallest possible quantity that could be emitted or absorbed as electromagnetic radiation - Proposed that the energy (E) of a quantum = a constant times the frequency of radiation E = hv ​ h = Planck constant = 6.626 * 10​ -34J-s Photoelectric Effect:​ the emission of electrons from metal surfaces when exposed to light - In 1905, Einstein used Planck’s theory to explain the photoelectric effect, asserted that light is composed of particles called photons - Decided that the energy of a photon equals Planck constant times the frequency of light Energy of photon = E = hv Rydberg equation: 1 1 1 λ = R ( H n2 − )n 2 1 2 7​ -1 Rydberg’s constant = 1.0967 * 10​ m​ Bohr’s Model:​ In 1913, Bohr offered an explanation of l ​ ine spectra - Spectrum​: produced when radiation is separated into its component wavelengths (like when white light goes through a prism and produces a rainbow) - Continuous Spectrum: ​ rainbow containing light of all wavelengths - Line Spectrum​: spectrum containing radiation of only specific wavelengths - Emission Spectra: t ​ he emission of light from electronically excited gas atoms E​n​ (-hcR​ )N​n​ ) = -2.18 * 10​18J (1/n​ ) Electronic Structure​: the energies and arrangement of electrons around an atom ​ E = hv <each photon carries energy De Broglie​: suggested that electrons behave like waves and have a wavelength, an object has a characteristic wavelength that depends on its momentum h λ = mv ​mass in kg, velocity in m/s, h = Planck’s constant Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle​: we cannot know simultaneously the exact momentum and location of an electron ????x * ????(mv) ≥ h/4???? Position * momentum is less than or equal to Planck’s constant/4???? Schrodinger’s wave equation: ​ incorporates both the wave-like and particle-like behaviors of the electron Hψ = Eψ Quantum numbers​: - n: principle quantum #, determines the energy of an orbital - l: angular momentum, describes the shape of an orbital - m​: magnetic quantum #, describes the orientation in space of an orbital l​ Pauli exclusion principle: ​ no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers n, l, m​, and m​ . An orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons and they must have l​ s​ opposite spins. Electron configuration​: the way electrons are distributed among the various orbitals of an atom - Ground state​: most stable electron configuration, lowest possible energy state - Hund’s rule​: for degenerate orbitals, the lowest energy is attained when the number of electrons having the same spin is maximized Shape of atomic orbitals: Note: all equations and constants will be provided for test.


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