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History Review- Test 2

by: Abby Chase

History Review- Test 2 HIST 1311-010

Abby Chase
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

This review is for our test over the Federalist Era.
US history to 1865
Prof. Stephanie Cole
Study Guide
hist, 1311, UTA, history, abby, chase, jefferson, Washington, adams, madison, federalist, federal, constitution, University, Of, texas, AT, arlington
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Chase on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1311-010 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Prof. Stephanie Cole in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see US history to 1865 in History at University of Texas at Arlington.

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Date Created: 10/11/16
TestTwo Study Guide Articles of Confederation Land Ordinance of 1785  Congress decided to address the problem of westward settlement  Looks at the upward stretch of the ohio valley- lots of people are migrating there  People are moving here for farmland and the government helps people and they will pay people to survey this land and find lakes, rivers, streams  Divide up the land similar to the headright system (divide it by counties)  More or less- every American colony in the future will be settled this way  Establishes: it’s not the states who dictate what’s going to happen in territory, its congress Northwest Ordinance of 1787  Area to the north to the Ohio, east of the Mississippi, and south of the great lakes is (old north west) Northwest Territory  Don’t want the states to fight each other over new land  Congress can let people fight it out, or divide it up evenly, or they can make a new state nd  Americans considered any new states to be 2 class bc they didn’t fight for independence  Established the Northwest Territory – states cannot claim it  Cogress will administer territories  Established the process for statehood  60,000 residents  Write a constitution  Petition for statehood  All new states will be equal to existing states in prestige, representation, and power  This becomes the precedent for any states that will come in the future Shays Rebellion  States no not like that they have to pay state taxes because of the war debt  Shays stats a tax revolt with groups of farmers – they attack their county courthouses o They burn courthouses so that there aren’t documents for people knowing what the farmers own so they don’t have to pay taxes on them  Now people start to listen about needing a better government James Madison  Believes in a weak government  Strong government is inappropriate dut to the fact that the revolution was fought against a strong government Thomas Jefferson  Very smart, very strange  Believes that the liberties of the person should outweigh the power of the government Madison is Jefferson’s Protégé  The liberty group needs to be convinces that their form of government is not going to work NewJerseyPlan  Small States  One vote per state  Favored in the North  Slaves should not count Virginia Plan  Large States  Vote by population  Favored by the south  Slaves counted towards population Great Compromise  to create a government system that works as the modern American government - Executive branch has the power to nominate the judicial branch and to control the military - Judiciary oversees cases, exists to see disputes between states, has no powers of its own over the federal government - Legislature- (most important) 2 houses,  Senate: 2 representatives from each state, everything has to be run by the senate, most powerful? Highest age restriction before the presidency  House of representatives: representation by population: 1 representatives for every 700,000 people or something?? Directly answerable to the American people. This house is given the power of money. 3/5ths Compromise  slaves counted as 3/5ths of a person only for purposes of representation Constitution Federalists  pro-constitution Anti-Federalists  anti-constitution, wanted the bill of rights Bill of Rights  Added because the anti-federalists wanted it Planter/Plantation Culture Legitimacy  Respect and acknowledgement from other countries George Washington  Already being called the father of his country  Washington wins unanimously  Everything Washington does are now part of the presidency- precedent for the future  Washington could have used his power to become a king and an absolute ruler, he was very aware that he was setting the precedent, and he was very aware of seeming like he doesn’t want power.  Builds the government from the ground up  Excellent judge of character – cabinet Alexander Hamilton  Report on Public Credit 1790 - Hamilton said the country had a problem- they were in debt (war debt) - States however cannot pay off their debt  Funding and Assumption Judiciary Act of 1789  Set up a system of federal courts  Anything that has anything to do with the constitution will fall the the federal courts  13 Circuit courts – judges rode around to hear cases  Above the 13 courts there is the supreme court Report on PublicCredit  Report on Public Credit 1790 - Hamilton said the country had a problem- they were in debt (war debt) - States however cannot pay off their debt Funding and Assumption  Funding and Assumption - Federal government floats a bond at 6%  People buy to support the government and also to make money  If people invest in America theyre not going to work against it, they are going to work for the financial success of America - Some new taxes - National Bank chartered- organization designed to control the flow of american money  Control bonds/interest rates  Control currency – states now had to have the same currency  Subtreasuries - Federal government to assume all state debts  State debt should become federal debt  South does not like funding in assumption, but they agree that if the new American capital goes in the south, then the south will go along with it Necessaryand Proper Clause  Strict and loose construction Strict construction  Strict Construction: you cannot do something if that power is not specifically listed in the constitution Loose construction  Loose Construction: allows the constitution to grow and change with the times, merely an outline of the constitution rather than the letter John Adams  Jefferson’s vice president Democratic-Republicans  Liberty  Week central government  Strict Construction  Close relations with France  Agrarian outlook- believed wealth and future was in the land  Idealistic  Southern Battle of Fallen Timbers John Jay  George Washington appoints him to be the first chief justice of the supreme court  He sends jay to England to create a treaty, called Jays Treaty – US border from northern massachusettes to northern Minnesota Election of 1796 XYZ Affair  Adams was not nice to the French, becomes a good friend of the British  Adams appoints his ambassadors to France, a group of American diplomats in france are trying to get to the French foreign minister, Talleyrand  The French agents code named XYZ ask for bribes in order to see Talleyrand  The American diplomats are horribly offended  Becomes a dividing line Alien and Sedition Acts  Upset that the war wasn’t declared  Adams friends in congress pass the Alien and Sedation Acts - Alien acts gave American rights to throw the French out the of the country - Sedition Act made it a crime to criticize the government in public Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions  Authored by Madison and Jefferson  A proposed method for dealing with these unconstitutional laws  Compact Theory Nullification  States said they could nullify any laws that they wanted Compact Theory  States formed the government  States had the right to nullify federal laws (nullification)  States could leave or dissolve the federal government o First proposed mechanism for dealing with an unconstitutional law o Sovereignty is best held by the state governments Judiciary Act of 1801  Determined to pack the courts with supporters  Adams was scribbling out the nominations before the inauguration that day  Adams wanted to pack the courts with federalists Midnight Judges  Nominated by Adams John Marshall  Chief justice- supreme court has the right to rule whether laws are constitutional or not Marbury vs.Madison  William Marbury (1762-1835) vs James Madison (1751-1836)  James Madison is Jeffersons Protégé o Secretary of state was also the vice president o Jefferson nominated Madison as Secretary of state o When Madison walks into his office, he sees nominations for positions that have not been sent out yet o Madison decides to bury them and not give out the nominations o Marbury was expecting his nomination and never received it o Marbury says- these were rightfully signed by the president and they never got sent out o Madison says- It is the job of the executive branch to deliver appointments, and if they choose not to deliver appointments then they don’t count o This is a big picture issue and gets taken to the supreme court  John Marshall 1755-1835 (Chief Justice) o Outlasts about 3 different political parties- He is federalist o In charge of the court hearing the debate between Marbury vs Madison o In the supreme court, they vote- whoever wins get to write their opinion of the case- Marshall got to write the opinion o Marshall writes that Marbury was right and he should have received his appointment  We have a situation where a law was passed that seems to conflict with the constitution  The issue is the entire judiciary act od 1801- unconstitutional  Test case- an individual issue that results in a much larger issue o Marshall: supreme court has the right to rule whether or not laws are constitution  Most important supreme court case ever decided bc it fills in the last part of the constitution  Judicial review- Judiciary has the power to review laws to make sure it goes with the constitution  This in itself could be considered unconstitutional- but no one tried to stop him  Federal government more powerful bc the judiciary has power to check the legislature on the actions and laws of congress Louisiana Purchase  After 1795 Louisiana belongs to France again  Mississippi river line  French were not as aggressive about restricting American traffic on the river, like the French  Jefferson wants to get congress to agree to the purchase of the city of New Orleans o He wanted control on the port so that he could have control of the river o Congress agrees  Napoleon is the new king, he wants to rebuild new France and take back the colonies that England took o Between 1802-1805is the only time he doesn’t have a war going on  In 1791 a revolution started in Haiti- draws his attention away from rebuilding his empire in the USA o Haiti is the most productive and richest country in the world o Entire army that he sends dies due to disease o If he cant control Haiti, he cant build his empire  Jeffersons ambassadors show up and talk to Talleyrand, and he says that they cant have New Orleans, but they can buy the entire state of Louisiana o If he goes through and buys it, he would be breaking the constitution but it would be very practical and it would help America grow o Allowed his negotiators to buy Louisiana completed in 1803 ManifestDestiny  American belief that the land was theirs and they could take anything in their way Lewis and Clark  William Clark 1770-1838& Meriwether Lewis 1775-1809  Sacagawea 1788-1812- she knows all of the indian languages and she knows about the area due to her husband  The expedition is officially named the Corps of Discovery- departed in St. Louis which was the gateway to Louisiana in 1804  They’re going to follow the path of the Missouri river west- they end up in the Columbian river  Takes them about 2 years, but they opened new trade networks, made friends with the Indians, mapped out the land so that the Americans could know  Sent Jefferson back plant and animal samples of undiscovered things from the new land Sacagawea  she knows all of the indian languages and she knows about the area due to her husband Embargo Act of 1807  Jefferson says that America cannot trade with any country that is in war (basically every country)  Tanked the economy on purpose Impressment Chesapeake Affair War Hawks Henry Clay John C. Calhoun Nationalism Tecumseh Battle of Tippecanoe William Henry Harrison Oliver Hazard Perry Battle of Lake Erie Battle of the Thames Burning of Washington Battle of Baltimore Battle of NewOrleans Andrew Jackson Edward Packenham Treaty of Ghent Essays –I will give you two on the test,and you’ll pick one to write 1. Describe the process of creating the Constitution. What were the failings of the Articles of Confederation? Who led the charge to create a new Constitution? How did the process proceed? What debates arose in the process, and how were they resolved? What did the Federalists and Anti-Federalists each argue for, and how were their disputes resolved? What do you think are the strengths and weaknesses of the Constitution? 2. Describe the War of 1812. What actions led to its outbreak? What were each sides’ strategies? How did Britain hope to achieve its goals? What did the US hope to achieve? Describe the major battles and actions of the war. Who ultimately triumphed, and how? What effect did the war leave on American politics and nationalism? 3. Between1787 and 1815, a great debate raged between power and liberty. Describe the debate between the two. Who argued for power over liberty, and what were their main arguments? Who argued for liberty over power, and what were their main arguments? How did these disputes play out in the early national period, particularly in the presidencies of Adams and Jefferson? Which do you think won, both in the short term and the long term?


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