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Midterm 2 Need to Know facts

by: madelineemyers032 Notetaker

Midterm 2 Need to Know facts PSY 1113

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These notes cover everything that will be tested on the second midterm
Elements of Psychology
Jenel Cavazos
Study Guide
Psychology, learning, social cognitive learning theory, memory, short term memory, Improving Long Term Memory
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by madelineemyers032 Notetaker on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Oklahoma.

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Date Created: 10/11/16
unit 2: chapter5: consciousness: subjective understanding of the environment around us and our private internal  world unobservable to outsiders ­personal ­different for everyone higher lever­ in class ­lower level­ auto pilot walking watching tv altered state of consciousness ­using drugs adrenaline hypnotism meditation subconscious awareness ­sleeping and dreaming non conscious ­coma circadian rhythms: ­sleep wake cycle­its light out wake up dark out go to bed ­body temperature­fluctuates ­NIGHT PEOPLE­cold in morning ­night­warmest when they are being productive suprachiasmic nucleus Problems with Biological Clock ­blindness ­jet lag ­Seasonal Affective Disorder­light affects mood ­cold weather makes people sad Resetting the clock­ ­spend time outside ­hormone melatonin as we get older we need less sleep amount of sleep is a function of person and age adaptive evolutionary function ­night is dangerous ­safety ­energy conservation  least safe least productive restorative function  body rejuvenation and growth brain plasticity enhances synaptic connections  memory consolidation awake­quick movement of waves as u get deeper sleep the waves get slower and larger amplitudes/magnitude why does time get distorted­flashbacks of events not whole event…could feel like hours go by  because the event lasted hours shallow level of sleep­something disrupts you its easy to get back up why do some people sleep harder than others  ­which sleep stage you are in ­more sensitive reticular formation  as we get deeper sleep brain waves change stage two­ might prepare for sleep spikey brain waves in the middle of low waves REM very light sleep almost like being awake why people can get woken up from a dream REM­rapid eye movement sleep that occupies a little over 20% of an adults sleeping time is characterized  paradox of sleep increase irregular heart rate increased blood pressure increased breathing rate erections in males usually accompanied by dreams persons body is typically paralyzed Rebound effect: spending more time in REM sleep after deprivation as time goes on­the longer you stay asleep­the less deep your sleep gets to be rem stage becomes longer throughout the night sleep gets shallower throughout the night most common sleep disturbance: insomnia: difficulty falling or staying asleep ­1/4 of Americans  clinical sleep apnea: difficulty breathing during sleep ­weight and snoring are risk factors ­snoring, wake themselves up because they stop breathing ­brain step­keep you alive, stop breathing, it will wake you up­not necessarily conscious  but maybe level 1 they may not realize they are awake possibly a cause of SIDS ­sids­sudden infant death syndrome babies go to sleep and they never wake up brain stem might not be mature enough to wake up nervous system isn't sophisticated enough rem sleep disorder:  lack of paralysis during rem phase of sleep unaware of surroundings dream of someone coming at them­they will run to or from can be violent sleep medication or sleep in a room with just a mattress night terrors:  extreme nightmares hat occur during non REM (usually stage) ­uncontrollable sleeping that occurs while the person is awake ­cataplexy, hypnagogic/hypnapompic hallucinations ­most people go into first stage ­Narcoleptic people go into REM ­feel like they have not slept ­hard to wake up ­genetic component ­symptoms of sleep deprivation ­sleep paralysis can last moments while feel like it lasts infinitely long ­cataplexy­strong emotion/laughter causes a person to trigger paralysis unconscious wish fulfillment (FREUD) ­dreams symbolic ­dreams represent unconscious wishes ­latent­disguised meaning­what you really want ­manifest content­what dreamer saw/storyline 2 theories of dreams: cognitive theory­ ­dreams are subconscious cognitive processing ­uses memory, information processing, thinking ­dreams are dramatizations of real life activation synthesis theory­ random electrical energy stimulates random memories  ­the brain makes sense of memories by building a potentially meaningful story ­memories all throughout the brain ­brain wants to form a cause and effect nightmares­ negative, scary dreams ­provides a trial runoff handling emergences psychoactive drugs: drugs that influence a person’s emotion, perception and behaviors tolerance­the need to take more of a drug to achieve the same effect drugs can result in dependence (addiction) ­physical dependence­body physically desires it  ­psychological dependence­mentally need it, feel like you crave it everything (alcohol and cigarettes) decreased usage except illicit drugs DRUGS ­drugs activate the reward system in the limbic area of the brain ­produces powerful feelings of pleasure­more pleasureful because its synthetic  almost all drugs act on dopamine receptors strong drive to repeat behavior dopamine­feel­good transmitter, happy, pleasure different from serotonin­all around well being shuts down inner voice activation of limbic system­where we get processing of emotion it is evolutionarily powerful and overrides frontal lobe control the more you use the drug the stronger the feedback loop gets nothing activates the reward system any more both psychological and physical dependence  brain eventually restructures DEPRESSANTS: drugs that work by slowing down the nervous system alcohol is most common alcohol initially feels more like a stimulant but acts as a depressant as more consumed ­intoxication, euphoria, decreased inhibitions ­slurred speech, decreased muscle control, loss of consciousness frontal lobe first to go decision making poor mind moves faster than voice ­instability, poor judgment, acts of aggression, memory impairment hippocampus depressed­blackout 60% of homicides­alcohol 65% of sexually aggressive acts against women ­alcohol poisoning and death alcoholism:physical and psychological addition  ­more alcohol needed for effects ­possibly genetic­self medication depresses the most recent/sophisticated first cerebral cortex­>limbic system­>brain stem brain stem depressed=alcohol poisoning  tolerance barbituates: common in older sleeping pills Nembutol, Seconal Tranquilizer: reduce anxiety and increase sense of calm Xanax, Valium Opiates: pain medication (narcotics) Morphine, oxycodone, hydrodone  heroine STIMULANT:  drugs that affect the nervous system by causing a rise in blood pressure, heart rate, and  muscular tension ­caffeine is most common increased attentiveness ­decreased reaction time ­nervousness and insomnia ­headaches and depression from withdrawal  amphetamines: stimulants used to boost energy, stay awake, lost weight ­increases release of dopamine diet pills, meth, Ritalin(ADHD stimulant) Cocaine: amphetamine that blocks the repute of dopamine HALLUCINOGEN: drugs that are capable of producing hallucination changes the perceptual process (marijuana)­classification is controversial not physically addictive may change brain chemistry decreases testosterone production potential lung damage little evidence that marijuana is a gateway drug CHAPTER 6  learning­a relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience not due to nature (getting taller and getting better at basketball) not due to short term changes (new shoes and getting better at basketball) behaviorism: theory of learning that focuses exclusively on observable behaviors  ­observable behavior, things that can be measured  associative: making a connection or association between two events, cause and effect observational: learning that take place through the observation and imitation of another’s  behavior stimulus­> response­>consequence  classical conditioning  type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired  with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response neutral stimulus­doesn’t mean anything  stimulus before conditioning process occurs does not naturally bring about the response of  interest (bell) unconditioned stimulus­a stimulus that brings about a response without having to be learned  (food) unconditioned response­a natural innate response that is not associated with previous learning  (salivation increased) take neutral stimulus an pair is with unconditioned stimulus to create unconditioned response so when the neutral stimulus occurs the unconditioned response happens AND becomes  conditioned stimulus A NS THAT HAS BEEN PAIRED WITH A USC TO BRING ABOUT A RESPONSE FORMERLY  CAUSED ONLY BY THE UCS conditioned v unconditioned stimulus­one has to be learned one is natural behavior Ivan Pavlov­ ­scientist who studied digestion by measuring the saliva of  dogs ­discovered that does predicted the arrival of food­led to salivation Pavlov’s experiment­ ­attached to dogs salivary gland ­rang a bell then presented food (repeated pairing ­dogs soon began to salivate when bell rang­even when food wasn’t presented  JOHN B. WATSON condition a small boy to be afraid of white rats ­unconditioned stimulus: loud noises ­fear generalized to other white furry objects placed a white rat in alberts lap and then would make a loud noise behind the baby’s head that conditioned a fear in little Albert fear generalized to other objects­objects similar to anything white an fuzzy  ­white rabbit ­white fuzzy blankets ­fear was generalized  Albert’s fear was never fixed­extinction died at age of 6 experiment is often criticized for being unethical conditioning in the media:  advertising campaign: ­pairing a product with something desirable increases our chances of buying that product DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT  classical­stimulus+response creating a new response operant­stimulus+response+consequence strengthening or weakening a response Thorndike’s Law of Effect: Responses that lead to more satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated reward­do it again punished­wont do again Skinner Box: Demonstrated that animals learn to obtain reward by manipulating their environment within the  box SHAPING: we reward successive approximations of behavior  ­closer to the end goal “Rituals are superstitions: they are adventitiously reinforced. The more conspicuous and  stereotyped the more behavior upon which the reinforcer is accidentally contingent. the greater  the effect.” superstitions:  ­by ritualizing behavior we lead our mind into believing it and therefore have a self fulfilling  prophecy that they are likely to have ­superstitions occur when you make associations lucky shirt=won game black cat ran across road=bad day “in the tradition view, a person is free. he is autonomous in the scene that his behavior is  uncaused. He can therefore be held responsible for what he does and justly punished if he  offends. that view, together with its associated practices must be re examined when a scientific  analysis reveals unsuspected controlling relations between behavior and environment” free will elf on the shelf we don't want to get in trouble  Reinforcement: increases the probability of a behavior occurring again primary reinforcer: innately satisfying (no learning needed) (food) secondary reinforcer: reinforcing because of it association with a primary reinforcer (ex:  money) Punishment: decreases the probability of a behavior occurring again THESE ARE SUBJECTIVE: WHAT REINFORCES SOMEONE MAY PUNISH SOMEONE  ELSE positive: any stimulus that is offed to the environment  something is given not necessarily good  negative: any stimulus that is removed from the environment something is taken away not necessarily bad reinforcement and punishment can be positive or negative positive reinforcement: stimulus added that increases the likelihood of a behavior add something they like examples: ­parents give you compliments for good grades ­giving you food for doing something good ­giving an m&m for going on potty when potty training ­money for good grades ­mall trip for good behavior negative reinforcement: take away a stimulus that increases the likelihood of a behavior remove something they dislike examples: ­good grades no chores positive punishment: stimulus added that decreases the likelihood of a behavior add something they don't like examples: ­eat dessert before dinner now eat 2 helpings of vegetables  ­shock collar in a dog negative punishment: a stimulus removed that decreases the likelihood of a behavior take away something they like  examples: ­time out­take away freedom ­grounding­take away freedom ­take phone away ­going to jail wording counts: the way you word  it matters speeding ticket given a speeding ticket­positive having to pay it­negative both are right. therefore we have to explain why  schedules fo reinforcement  because when you do it is just important as what you do scheudles of reinforcement: different patterns of frequency and timing of reinforcement following desired behavior continuous reinforcment: reinforcing a behavior overtime it occurs example: vending machine  partial reinforcement: reinforcing a behavior some of the time that it occurs ­better at keeping a behavior go long term ­because they don't know when it'll happen next example: slot machine four types of partial reinforcement schedules fixed vs. variable ratio vs. interval RATIO: number of responses reinforcement is given after a specific number of responses ­free cup of coffee after purchasing 9 cups the average rate of response  VARIABLE: reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses ­slot machine INTERVAL: reinforcement is given after a certain period of time weekly paycheck Fixed ratio works better/higher rate of response because: up to us controlled by us Chapter 7: Memory encoding: initial recording of information storage: information saved for future retrieval: recovery of stored information  first step in encoding: PAY ATTENTION active learning (you don't learn through osmosis) divided attention/multitasking=poor encoding  ­just because we have seen it multiple times doesn't mean you have paid enough attention to  remember, just because you see things a bunch of times does not mean u learn it you have to  pay attention  ­ levels of processing theory  the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed shallow processing (penny) physical and perceptual features are analyzed the lines, angles, and contoured that make up the physical appearance of an object such as a car are defective intermediate processing: stimulus is recognized and labeled the object is recognized as a car deep processing: associations connected with car are brought to mind­you think about the  Porsche or Ferrari you hope to buy or the fun you and friends had on spring break when you  drove to the beach elaboration: different connections that are made around a stimulus ­memories are organized in networks (memories are interconnected/not in one  area of brain) of related concepts  stronger activation=stronger memory/network ­easier to learn stuff  ­easier to pull memory out STUDY TECHNIQUES BASED ON CHAPTER 7: ­make a psychology song ­pneumonic devices ­relate what you are doing to what you do every day in your life  memory storage: ­3 storage types/systems ­sensory memory ­short tern memory ­long term memory sensory: “snap shot” very quick, high precision but only stored for small amount of time (few  seconds)  example: walk to class you see cars, birds, squirrels most things you encounter are here short term memory: information is given meaning ­less complete representation than sensory memory ­no longer an accurate representations ­because meaning is subjective ­information is held for 15­25 seconds ­can hold 7+/­ 2 pieces of information example: seeing a backpack you like, you think “i like that backpack” short term memory=working memory working memory: a mental scratchpad that allows us to hold information temporarily as we  preformed cognitive ­serve like a mental sticky notes ­write stuff down, smack it somewhere, at some point you have to take the sticky note  and decide what to do with it phonological loop:speech  ­based information about language visuospatial working memory: visual and spatial information:  ­example: go to new restaurant: go to bathroom: be able to find table back central executive: integrates information and communicates with long term memory ­emotional connect more association more likely central executive neural connections  we don have memories that just disappear unlimited/permanent memory storage system unlimited capacity for information filed and coded so that we can retrieve it when needed (in  theory)shstesof long term memory system of long term memory (explicit (conscious) episodic: (episode) semantic: implicit memory: memory affect by prior experience without conscious recollection of that  experience ­procedural: memory for skills ­primingactiviation of stored information (gieing a hint) done by asking people to read a story that had a older person/grandparent­as a result in  comparison to those who did not read the stories the people that id walked out the door  significantly slower hippocampus: consolidation of memories; initial encoding of memories amygdala: emotional component ­memories create new connections connections are strengthened with each activation memory retrieval:triggers the stored information what ar the two type of retrieval cues we have: recall: retrieval of specific of stored information definition, short answer recognition: comparing a stimulus with a series of possible choices multiple choice encoding specificity: encoding “big picture” information at the time of learning cue dependent (sights, smells, etc) ­sitting in the same desk ­see someone who know their face but not where they are from but would recognize  them better in the environment you know them from flashbulb memories: ­memories centered on a specific, important, or surprising event very vivid, like taking a snapshot not always accurate when something unique happens—they feel so real—i know exactly every single detail examples: wedding, birth of children, 9/11, high school graduation memories are malleable  false and repressed memories: repressed memories:  ­highly controversial ­may occur in approximately 10% of abuse/trauma cases motivated forgetting false memory: Loftus “lost in the mall study” remembering alters memory: new information can sneak in  ­misinformation effect  eyewitness memory: highly unreliable reasons: ­memory fades and can be altered by new information ­fear of a weapon interferes with processing other details ­leading questions from investigators (“contacted” versus “smashed’)  ­especially unreliable in children why do we forget: failure to encode information properly ­forgetting usually happens very quickly because we didn't really learn it in the first place interference: information learned at a different time (earlier or later) interferes with retrieval pro active: progresses in time old interferes with new information retroactive new information interferes with the old information  memory dysfunction: amnesia: memory loss that occurs without other mental difficulties  retrograde: lost memory for occurrences prior to a certain event ­rare ­memories typical (but not always) return eventually ­can be selective loss anterograde: lost memory for events that follow an injury information cannot go from short term to load term memory 


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