Psychology Study Guide for Exam 2
Psychology Study Guide for Exam 2 PSY 101
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lbiador on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Mae in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology And Social Behavior at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide Sleeping and Dreaming Freud – viewed the unconscious as a storehouse for vile thoughts; reservoir of unacceptable wishes, feelings, and thoughts that are beyond conscious awareness Cartwright – information processing theory Hobson & McCarley – pioneers of activation synthesis theory of dreams; conducted a sleep study that indicated that the brain creates dream states not information processing or Freudian interpretation Biorhythms and sleep o Sleep: natural state of rest for the body and mind that involves the reversible loss of consciousness o Biological rhythms: periodic physiological fluctuations in the body that can influence behavior o Circadian rhythms: refer to biological rhythms experienced by humans and species such as sleep/wake cycle, body temperature, blood pressure, and blood sugar level About 24 hours o Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN): sends information to the hypothalamus and pineal gland to regulate daily rhythms such as temperature, hunger, and the release of melatonin o Natural sleep Light – increases wakefulness at night in humans Body temperature drops at midnight and increases at 6-8 pm Lark – morning person Owl – night person Resetting the biological clock o Retina – detects light o Hypothalamus – output from the SCN is distributed o Pineal gland – releases melatonin o Melatonin – adjusts the clock EEG – machine for sleep laps o Measures brain waves Sleep cycles o V = voltage, f = frequency o Awake: beta (lo v, hi f) o Drowsy: alpha waves become predominant (lo f) o Stage 1: theta, few minutes (hi v, lo f, lo amp) short stage where everything slow down/drops; produces hallucinations such as falling or floating; drowsy o Stage 2: Sleep spindles, mixed waves (20 minutes) don’t have a particular brain waves predominant (brief hi f wave) Function of sleep spindles: burst of rapid brain wave activity o Stage 3– (40 minutes); delta waves muscle relaxation and emergence of delta waves o Stage 4 – deep sleep where sleeper is difficult to rouse; delta waves; slow brain waves occur o REM: (lo v, hi f) – where most dreaming occurs; appears closer to being awake Perceptual Hypothesis: a guess on how to perceive a stimulus Three functions of sleep o Protective: safer to sleep at night; derived from our ancestors o Restorative: biological function, sleeping restores tissue, and function of the brain organize information and memories o Growth: most important for children; growth component for kids Sleep disorders o Insomnia: prolonged inability to sleep Recommended treatment: engage in relaxing activity, dimmed lights, avoid caffeine, regular schedule, exercise regularly, and don’t overact o Narcolepsy: periodic overwhelming sleepiness. When people suddenly falls asleep Treatment: medications o Sleep Apnea: intermittent stopping of breathing followed by snoring or gasping Treatment: sleep mask o REM behavior disorder: cause injury to the dreamer and others around them 2 chemicals that block muscles messages before leaving the brain are GATSA and Glia Features of dreams: mental experiences that have a story like quality, include vivid visual imagery and are often bizarre Three theories of dreaming o Wish fulfillment (Freud) Manifest content: contains dream symbols that disguise the dream’s true meanings Latent content: dream’s hidden content o Information Processing (Cartwright) We mull over the major problems in our lives with reduced logical constraints o Activation Synthesis (Hobson and McCarley) Dreaming occurs when the cerebral cortex synthesizes neural signals generated from activity in the lower part of the brain and that dreams result from the brain’s attempt to find logic in random brain activity that occurs during sleep o Nightmares: frightening dream that awakens the dreamer from REM sleep Learning Bandura – observational learning Skinner – operant conditioning Pavlov – classical conditioning Classical conditioning – learning by trigger association o EX: Dog learned to associate the bell with food Conditioned stimuli: learned, evokes CR – bell; Unconditioned stimuli: Naturally evokes UCR: food; produces a response without prior learning Conditioned responses: response to CS – salivated to the bell (action) Unconditioned responses: natural response to UCS – salivating to the food (action); unlearned action that is elicited by the US Embedded marketing – through technique of product placement, advertisers are hoping to get your positive feelings out of their product. Generalization – Conditioned response “spreads” to similar stimuli Discrimination - Conditioned response is restricted to a specific stimuli Acquisition – forms a new conditioned response Extinction – banish a conditioned response Spontaneous Recovery – conditioned response reappears after extinction and non exposure Drug abuse – decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations Sign tracking – signals a positive event or the reduced probability of a negative event Operant conditioning – learning through consequences through reward and punishment Skinner box – allowed Skinner to study operant conditioning Delayed reinforcement: very unlikely to associate treat with action Primary reinforcement – things reinforcing from birth (ex: food, water, belonging, approval) Secondary reinforcement – reinforced through learning with association (ex: good grades -> money in the future) Shaping – rewarding small approximations toward a goal (ex: teaching a puppy to roll over) Skinner’s contribution to WWII: trained pigeons to pilot missiles Reinforcement schedules o Continuous: reinforcing every time an animal does something right o Intermittent: reinforcing some of the time Positive reinforcement – giving something pleasant Negative reinforcement – removing something unpleasant Positive punishment – giving something unpleasant Negative punishment – remove something pleasant Insight learning – form of problem solving in which the organism develops a sudden insight into or understanding of a problem’s solution Campus diversity – provide broader knowledge and more varied perspectives than do homogeneous groups Observational learning – learning by model (through other people) Bobo’s doll study – divided into groups to see which ones are aggressive; as a result, those who watched the aggressive video were aggressive Criteria necessary for observational learning o Attention, retention, motor reproduction and reinforcement Do learning style matter to learning? Yes Dweck’s “Brainology”: experiment that teaches students that their intelligence can change Memory Three memory processes o Encoding: Putting the information into the brain using a code so the brain most likely understands it o Storage: Ability to save something into the brain, move it into long term memory Best way is to rehearse o Retrieval: Store and connect information to related information Three forms of encoding o Phonetic: encoding by their sound o Structural: encoding by their structure/lettering o Semantic: encoding by their meaning Personal relevance Nickerson & Adams (1979) penny study: the penny demonstrates that we encode and enter into long-term memory only a small portion of our life experiences Personal relevance – encoding involved in deciding how or whether information is personally relevant Three kinds of storage o Sensory memory: limited by attention, lasts a few seconds beyond exposure What you notice and what is filtered by attention Echoes in your brain a few seconds o Working memory: limited, magic 7, 20 seconds; allows us to hold information temporarily as we perform cognitive tasks Limited to a mean and average of 7 items per person If repeated once or twice, it lasts an average of 20 seconds Long term memory: unlimited o Phonological loop – store information about the sounds of language o Visuo-spatial sketchpad – stores visual and spatial information including visual imagery o Central executive – plays an important role in attention, planning, and organizing Serial effects o Primacy effects: what we learn first, we remember best o Recency effects: tend to have a better memory for things that are still echoing or recent o **Primary lasts longer because rehearsal is the strongest memory Memory over the lifespan o Infantile amnesia: recall short term events, but cannot retain long term memory o Peak: memory and cognitive functions peak at 25 o Post-peak correlates: highly liked to cognitive memory with physical exercise and social sources o Reminiscence bump: 20s to 29 where significant events throughout life or first times Theories of forgetting o Decay: pathways to information (the more pathways the better) o Interference: competing information Proactive: prior to memory interfering with later information Retroactive: later information interfering with prior memory o Repression: motivated forgetting or things we would rather forget Three causes of false memory o Schemas: generalized knowledge structures that refer to sleep activity o Repeated assertions: if something is repeated enough, we tend to believe its true o Heavy marijuana use: associated with false memory Loftus eye-witness study: focuses on distortion, bias, and inaccuracy in memory Psychology’s contribution to criminal line ups: presenting suspects one at a time is less likely to produce erroneous identifications than presenting them all at one time State dependency of retrieval o Mood o Level of Consciousness o Context Memory tricks o Mnemonic Device E.g. Roy G. Biv. o Chunking 246135987501 vs 246 135 987 501 o Spacing o Visual imagery Most effective memory strategy o Two-step active studying Testing yourself with immediate feedback Seven memory problems o Absent mindedness: failure to remember o Transience: memory decay or pathways decay o Blocking: problems retrieving because of o Misattribution: losing the source before you lose the pathway o Suggestibility: a suggestion the can create a false memory o Bias: expectancy and social cognition about how we think about other people or ourselves o Persistence: unwanted memories that are persistent when we try to forget about them Episodic vs. Semantic memory o Episodic memory – the retention of information about where, when, and what of life’s happenings; how we remember life’s episodes o Semantic memory – type of explicit memory pertaining to a person’s knowledge about the world Proactive vs. retroactive interference o Proactive interference: occurs when material learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later. o Retroactive interference: occurs when material learned later disrupts the retrieval of information learned earlier Flashbulb memories – some events; not very accurate because people think about it, strengthening the pathways and causing you to confuse it with another; personal experience where memories causes PTSD Tip of the tongue phenomenon: when we are confident that we know something but cannot quite pull it out of memory Memory disorders o Known organic causes: injuries and surgeries o Dissociative: amnesia and fungus, dementia Memory pills o Limited to age related memory loss o Only helps some/side effects o Work by increasing Thought and Problem Solving Bias blind spot – when one person is not able to see another’s bias influence Confirmation bias: the tendency to search for and use information that supports our ideas rather than refutes them Hindsight bias: tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that we accurately predicted an outcome “I knew it all along” Three types of problems and examples o Structure problems: to solve it, you need to discover relationships Ex: complete the series: 2, 4, 6,8 10 Analogies – merchant: sell, customer: buy o Arrangement problems: arrange the parts of a problem to reach a goal Anagrams: LFY -> FLY String problem: tie screwdriver and swing like a pendulum o Transformation problems: to solve it, you need to carry out a sequence of transformation to solve the problem Water jar problem What screws us up in general (4)? o Irrelevant information: information that you don’t need o Functional fixedness: hard to think outside the box o Mental set: using a solution that worked for you before even if there’s a simpler alternative o Unnecessary complaints: no restrictions Approaches to problem solving (6) o Trial and error: most commonly used o Heuristics: mental shortcuts o Forming subgroups: one problem at a time o Working backwards: o Search for analogies: looking for a familiar way to solve a problem; balance against mental set o Change the representation: taking complex material and present it in a parsimonious way Risky decision-making o Objective value – value of what you get as a reward o Subjective utility: psychological cost and benefits involved o Subjective probabilities: “ what ifs?” What screws us up in estimating probability (6)? o Availability bias: subjective to biases when estimating probability o Representative bias: thins are more likely/probable if they look typical o Ignoring base rates: when people tend to ignore relevant base rate information and rely on mental shortcuts o The conjunction fallacy: one thing is more probably than general ones; guessing the odds of two events o The gambler’s fallacy: thinking that the next probability will have the same pattern o Ignoring sample size: looking at the second sample to be more correct Language Acquisition Whorf: argued that language determines the way we think Skinner: argued that language represents nothing more than chains of responses acquired through reinforcement Chomsky: argued that human come into the world biologically prewired to learn language at a certain time and in a certain way Story of Genie (1970 – California social worker) – orphan who was not able to communicate because she was locked in her own house with no company Criteria for language o Symbolic: consists of random symbols but convey of meaning because of shared consensus in a culture regarding meaning o Structured: implies rules that govern the arrangement of words into phrases or sentences o Infinitely generative – you can learn everything Vocabulary spurt: 12- 20 months Progression (from babbling to…) o Babbling: mostly findings so lips and tongues are learning to make different sounds; using vocal muscles to find sounds o Holophrases: using a single word as a whole sentence o Telegraphic speech: using just nouns and verbs (ex: “baby cry”) o Whole sentences: grammar is better o Metalinguistic awareness: implies the ability to think and discuss language Theories of language acquisition o Behaviorists (Skinner): imitation and reinforcement o Nativists (Chomsky) Original sentences: grouping of words never heard before Overregularizations: when general voice is used incorrectly Window of opportunity: first 12 years to learn language Innate language acquisition device: function of neural networks and firings learning other information and acquire other new skills o Interactionists: recognizing both the theories of language acquisition 3 examples of how language shapes thought o Linguistic relativity (Whorf): more words in language has in concept, the more complex a speaker can think about the concept o Framing: bring out certain characteristics and de- emphasize others o Semantic slanting: purposely crafting language to elicit or to no emotion (ex: “you are let go” which means “you are fired”) Language comprehension o Word recognition: having the first and last letter of the word makes it easier to read if you know the language o Advantage of nonverbal: easier to interpret message over the phone and in person than in email due to posture, expressions, tone, etc. o Extraneous noise: “um,” “you know,” and “like” which can create major interference in communicating Can animals learn? o Rudimentary counting: putting things in ascending order o Limited insight: not being able to discern the true nature of a situation Do animals exhibit language? o Communicate? Yes o Language? No
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