HIST 221 Beamish Midterm study guide
HIST 221 Beamish Midterm study guide POLS 220 001
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Popular in Comparative Politics
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Landry Notetaker on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 220 001 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Dr. Frost in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Comparative Politics in Political Science at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
Midterm Exam Study Guide TERMS ONLY SUMMARIZED YOU NEED TO PICK WHAT YOU THINK IS SIGNIFICANT SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS ARE NOT CONTAINED IN THIS STUDY GUIDE BECAUSE THEY CAN BE ANSWERED IN MANY WAYS Columbian Exchange an exchange of goods between isolated places (new world and old world) Positive: crops and ideas o Crops, ideas Negative: new diseases such as small pox Richard Hakluyt • Major advocate for English colonization of North America and other parts of the world • Establishes Jamestown • Well educated • Obsessed with maps • Pushed the Queen and others to go to the New world • Rewarded by escorting to Jamestown Roanoke • Found on the outer banks of North Carolina • First English attempt to settle in New World • Queen at the time: Elizabeth • Did not think about climate • Many expeditions • Hard times and no food and supplies • Colony disappeared • Many theories Walter Raleigh Renaissance man Risks were foolish Went to prison for marrying one of the queen’s ladies in waiting Issued a six year charter by the queen Executed because of a sham trial by the Spanish Very determined to settle area despite many failed attempts John White Led Final expedition to Roanoke Find nothing when they returned • The Final Expedition (1587?) • Virginia Dare (b. 1587) • John White’s granddaughter • First born in the new world Atlantic Slave Trade • Involved Europe, Africa, North and South America • Large economic driver in Europe • Removed a huge proportion of the population in Africa • Key to the rise of economics • Especially in North and South America • World of water, oceans, and rivers • Spanned hundreds of years (1400s1800s) • English arrive late Middle Passage • Slaves loaded tightly onto ships • Crew is twice as big as a regular ship • Slaves are shelved five high • 12.5 million captives leave Africa for the Atlantic Slave Trade • 10.7 million captives disembark in the Americas • ~14% death rate on ships alone • The slave trade itself was much larger than the Middle Passage Zong • 1781 leaves Accra (in Ghana today) for Jamaica • Captains were incredibly greedy and packed twice as many slaves on ship • 440 captives • Navigation error leads to supplies running short • Overshot the island of Jamaica and went to Haiti • Throw ~140 enslaved people overboard • Made an insurance claim to get reimbursed • Claim they had to throw slaves overboard in order to save ship • Court said that they should be reimbursed • Another court said there was no need to throw people overboard because there was enough supplies left • Insurance does NOT have to pay • Slaves were treated as figures on a balance sheet than human beings • Slave trade will eventually end before slavery Jamestown Structured around a joint stock company (Virginia Company) Goal was to make money fast First permanent English colony in the New World Became a deadly place to be o Conflicts with Native Americans o Wanted to be rich but wouldn’t work for it o Weren’t growing their own food o Located by a swamp Powhatan • Jamestown settlement pushes to acquire territory from these Natives • Leads to warfare (First Anglo Powhatan War (16101614) • Wars flare up over and over again • Damages settlers and population in Jamestown Indentured Servant • Settlement still had not found ways to make money • Virginia Company figures out a way to make money since the settlers didn’t want to work • Indentured Servants • Poor people from England or English colonies who came to Jamestown but could NOT pay for their own passage • Wealthy pay for poor • Poor work for wealthy as a servant for seven years • If servants survive to the end of the seven years, they are free and receive a certain amount of land and clothing to start their own farm • Poor would never have been able to own land in England Tobacco Brides • 5 to 1 male to female ratio • Slow population growth • Wealthy men pay women to come to Jamestown and marry them Barbados • One could argue that Barbados was one of the most important influences on the southern colonies in their early history • Hub for English empire in the New World • Wealthiest part of British empire outside of England • “Jewel of Empire” • Gets goods (slaves) first • Most access to enslaved people • Wealthy Colony • Sugar and slavery • Distinct Identity • Hearth of slavery and plantation societies in the English Atlantic • Slavery was brutal The Barbados Problem • Demographic and land crisis • By 1660s all good sugar land was taken • Wealthy sons had nothing to do • Barbadian slave owners wanted desperately to find more sugar land and places to invest their wealth Carolina Colony (South Carolina) Voyage led by William Hilton to explore the coast of Spanish Florida and Virginia Wealthy sugar planters govern new colony Use like in Barbados to shape the colony Bring enslaved people Imports brutal slave laws Discover the crop of rice that was very successful • English Reformation Henry VIII wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon but the Pope would not grant him a divorce o Separated from the Catholic Church o Founded the Church of England where he was the Pope Puritans • Spent the early years of the 1600s struggling in England and Europe • Operate within the church of England • Work constantly from the point in which henry separates from catholic church for a century trying to change what religion in England looks like • Many of these puritans want to change it too closer to the scripture • Leave England and settle in new England • Felt that Europe and England were too corrupt to live a proper godly life • Needed new world; new start • Wanted to follow the radical Reformation from Europe, rather than the moderate English Reformation • Thought Church of England was too Catholic • Congregationalist (no authority structure like bishops… each Congregation set rules) • Most Puritans tried to remain in the Church of England and “purify” it from within • Felt England/Europe was too corrupt and wanted to start a new society in the New World Massachusetts Bay Colony Gets a grant of land in new England Mission: o Firmly believe most important mission is religious o Goal is to set up a new pure puritan religious community • Largely Puritans • Colonize what would today be New England and Upstate New York • Main purpose: • Trying to tell all puritans why they are coming to new England and what they are going to do there • Emphasize the goals of their new colonies John Winthrop Leader of the puritans Prominent puritan lawyer Governor of the colony Salem Witch Trials Time: late 1600s Location: Massachusetts Divided puritan society Overwhelming number of people attend church and centered religion in their daily life Salem was in disarray because of the influx of refugees and being close to the front of a major war New minister was not very liked Rumors of witchcraft started Witches are sending a ghostly form of themselves to physically attack people at night Accusations made o Three young girls come from well off and well connected families o Women they are accusing are not well off or well known o Girls are pushed to name specific names Three local women who were not seen as godly puritan women More accusations are made and questions arise on whether you can convict people on supernatural (spectral) evidence Prominent leaders justify use of spectral evidence Many people are tried and die Governor of Massachusetts stops the hysteria o Says evidence is not enough Seven Years’ War Global conflict French and Indian War North American Aspect • 17541763 • Consume all of north America and even Europe • Important • Completely realigns the traditional line of power • In the end the French, end up losing the war • British win war • British control vast majority of what will become the united states o Profoundly shapes the lives Leads to Acadian expulsion • British replaced French in much of the interior of North America • Transformed European presence in North America • Made North America very British George III Massive war debts from financing Seven Years War Thinks the colonists should pay for their fair share of the war debt Tax colonists even though colonists disagree because they are not represented in Parliament Stamp Act • Stamp: government permission to produce a paper product • Newspapers, books, legal documents Colonists angry because they Had no choice o Prominent People who can reach large audiences is angry about the tax “Taxation and Representation” • Colonists felt they could not be taxed directly without direct representation in British government • Only local assemblies meant only local taxes Sons of Liberty Group who oppose British authority People who are angered about stamp and sugar act Drew a lot of support o Parade through cities at night protesting o Start boycotts of British goods o Damage British economy Loosing goods from colonies Crowds become large and unpredictable British repeal stamp act after a year they oppose it • Angry about British policy and Stamp Act • Led by merchants • Boycott British products and stamps • Sometimes involved in violence and property destruction to intimidate officials • Stamp Act would eventually be repealed Homespun • Virtue of American rather than British goods • Daughters of Liberty • Simpler local clothes rather than fine imported British clothing • Extended to other goods • Especially appealing to southern plantation owners (often owed British merchants a great deal of money because of extravagant purchases of luxury goods) Boston Massacre Most important because it reflected how bad relations had gotten between colonists and Britain Paul revere to commemorate Boston massacre o Different stories of what happened Essentially been taken as a patriotic stance of what happened British troops were based on Boston o British soldiers mingling with citizens by the harbor o Eventually in 1770 breaks into violence o Engravings can tell us a great deal Look closely Engravings didn’t always look the same after printing Trying to convey o British attack and citizens are the victims o The British are shooting at defenseless colonists who have done nothing to provoke them o Face of the British No remorse o Faces of Bostonians Shocked Confused o Chrispus Attus African Revere changed it o Targeting free white men o Who is going to be involved o Woman Remorse that the Britain’s fired upon a woman o British sniper Customs house Headquarters for people assessing taxes Intolerable Acts If they cant put a stop to Boston, not going to have any authority anywhere Measures in direct response in Boston tea party and all the rebellions in Boston Three main things that greatly anger the colonists anymore: o British say they were able to quarter British troops in American homes o The port of Boston is closed to all business until merchants pay back the value of the tea All of commerce and business coming to new England is coming in in ships o The royal governor is the king’s representative in the colonies Act in the interest of the king Can now appoint all members of local and regional governments Up until this point the colonists elected these themselves Twelve of the future thirteen colonies get together to decide what to do • In response to Tea Party and other colonial resistance • Reassert British authority • Closed the port of Boston until all tea was paid for • Allowed soldiers to live in private homes • Governor (appointed by British and the King’s representative in a colony) could appoint officials, rather than holding elections George Washington Leader of the Continental Army o Most admired men Extensive military experience Man of very strong character Not from New England Truly national cause o From Virginia Elected unanimously Seen as unifier by other politicians The First Presidency and precedents he sets Washington’s Circle o Alexander Hamilton o Thomas Jefferson Common Sense Thomas Paine colonists need some persuasion Paine had been in the US for less than two years when he wrote this makes clear that Americans needs to declare independence o ridiculous for a king across an ocean to rule you o only right that these colonies should rule themselves becomes a huge bestseller 150,000 copies in around 3 weeks Big fan: o Abigail Adams Married to john Adams Liked the ideas that Paine stated about freedom Need to extend freedom further o Extend to women as well Seeds of a women rights movement Declaration of Independence • Decides to declare independence • Every state agrees • Fairly revolutionary • Majority of text is a list of grievances against King George • Justification for why the US should be allowed to be independent • Best known part is “We hold these truths to be selfevident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” • Itemized every grievance they felt • Emphasized tyranny and taxation • Declaration had lasting, global importance • Inspire many independent movements around the world over a long period of time • Movements in Belgium, China, and Vietnam (17891940s) • Significant independence document Continental Army • Few, lack discipline • Believes in a hierarchically army system • Instill respect for officials • More traditional, quick moving army • Despite Washington’s efforts • Real challenges • Based on militias • Did not expect a long, drawn out war • Camp followers • Thousands of women and children • One camp follower for every ten to fifteen soldiers • Washed clothes, domestic chores Prison Ships (British) • British don’t view them as officers and soldiers o Treason rebels Put them aboard prison ships Series new cities 15,000 American soldiers will go aboard this prison ships o Only 5,000 will get off Conditions are terrible Ships held 2x more than supposed to Convincing many loyalists to stay out of war or switch sides o 10,000 Americans die aboard them o 5,000 die in combat James Madison o James Madison kept detailed notes of constitutional convention Edited notes Lot of work of writing documents Note taker Voice of Thomas Jefferson Long time student and ally of Jefferson Reputation of being a brilliant political thinker Alexander Hamilton Not born in the colonies Comes to the US as a very young man to serve in the army with Washington From the West Indies Comes with big hopes Forceful personality and brilliant mind Conflicted figure Cautious antislavery stances Uses slaves Most influential in building the economy Compelling figure Wanted a very powerful and active federal government Didn’t trust Americans Those who weren’t intellectually capable Constitutional Convention (1787) - Independence hall in Philadelphia o Decide what the process will be Agree that it would be a bad idea for the public to know Shut the windows and lock the public out o James Madison kept detailed notes Edited notes o Have an idea of what happened but not exactly what was said o 55 men o Considered able, qualified, and brilliant o Among the men, about half of them are college educated which is unusual Going to college was very rare The Constitution Structure of Government - Basic structure o Agree on basic divisions of power Executive president Legislative Compromise Makes laws Congress o Senate Harder to get elected (6 years) Equivalent of nobility Equal representation o HOR Wanted to be strictly democratic (2 years) Population Judicial Supreme court o Each of these are seen as vitally necessary o First time US becomes truly democratic************** - Instills Federalism o Some powers will be on the federal level Military Taxation Regulate economy Foreign affairs o Some will be left to the state Education Much day to day government Law enforcement - Checks and Balances (Balanced government) o Important to founders o No single government could be no powerful Tyranny of king George o Congress enacts laws President can veto Supreme court can overturn o President appoints Justices Approved by Congress Life term protects them 3/5 Clause How the US counts it’s population Calculating representation Shapes the US How early presidents get elected Federalists - In favor of passing the constitution - Get name from the federalist papers - The constitution protects their liberties Group around Adams Washington sympathetic tow Most powerful during Washington reign Believe in a more powerful US government than republicans Want US to build up military and assert more power around the world Develop a wellrounded economy More away from agriculture to manufacture Believe in Hamilton idea of keeping national debt Stronger, more centralized banking system Against French revolution Support Britain More beneficial who live in cities, who are wealthy, and working in things that are not in agriculture Stronger government, diversified economy, change Republicans Madison and Jefferson Believe that US’s best future is relying on agricultural centrally Believe in French revolution Want more power left to local and state authorities and less to federal government No national debt Don’t want federal government to regulate government Small government, agricultural interest, farmers and slave owners Liberty in France Quasi War XYZ Affair o Conflict between US and France France angry with US since breaking of the treaty Adams and congress start to think they may have to go to war with France Worries that US will not be prepared Doesn’t agree with a professional standing army Adam says they need to build a navy o Just trying to get what he wanted o Adam tries to negotiate with France Negotiates with French agents XYZ These agents have said that the only way for us to have peace with France is to bribe them with money o Feeds into American worries that they aren’t being taking seriously Decide to go to a war o QuasiWar Undeclared war Use of navy o Costly and real and leads France and US to the brink of actual warfare Jefferson allies think Adam is trying to build up navy Alien and Sedition Acts Passed through Congress Do not target the French Restricting the freedoms of Americans Keep the US unified but at a high cost Sedition act o Passed during Quasi Makes conspiracy and revolt illegal Speaking or writing that criticizes president or congress is illegal Unconstitutional according to Bill of Rights People targeted by this was newspapers Newspapers are NOT objective Federalist newspapers are targeted Alien Acts o Make it harder to get citizenship Targeting French o Cause trouble for French immigrants o Republicans say it was unconstitutional Adam restores sanity, pursues peace of France and cams things down Confirms the fear of writes that the Bill of Rights can be violated by Congress Adams repeals these acts Adams loses support of political allies Marbury v. Madison o Madison responsible for dealing with these judges o Goes all the way to the Supreme Court Marbury is right, not required Marbury to be a judge Adams wasn’t allowed to appoint these judges in the first place o Sets precedent First time supreme court declares a law unconstitutional Never been done before Constitution doesn’t say that the SC can do this o Establishes power of SC to invalidate laws if they see it as unconstitutional Thomas Jefferson When Jefferson takes office people call it a revolution o Jefferson presents himself as in opposition to a huge amount of what US has done to this point (12 years) Military expanded Reduce military and navy o Reduce by a third and a half Dramatically cuts taxes and spending So much that the only income US and only taxes are custom taxes and US gets money from selling land in the west Gets rid of all population based of taxes Slave holders no longer pay taxes but get the votes Ideal US government consists of postal offices (1:07) Regulate war if necessary and postal service and trade Louisiana Purchase (1803) Biggest event of Jefferson presidency Jefferson and Hemmings James Callender • Political pamphleteer and journalist • Comes to US because he has to flee from Scotland • His time in US comes in time with the rise of Hamilton and Jefferson • Comes to Philadelphia • Three years after US exists • representative of a class of journalists at this time • Newspapers aren’t objective o Considered a republican writer o Close ally of Jefferson o As his service to republicans Writes a controversial piece Exposing an affair between Hamilton and a married woman Sally Hemmings Slave of Jefferson that he fathered children from War of 1812 Metaphysical war Fought over the US’s right to exist among the Europeans New nation trying to establish itself on a military stage Reason Madison and congress give for going to war o Britain boarding US ships and oppressing crews Violation of their neutrality and sovereignty Not being treated as a significant nation Support o South Agricultural regions o Federalists: Mid atlantic and new England Against war o Republicans South and west In favor of war War Reflects the political division between the republicans and the federalists Becomes known as the republican war Congress authorizes a slightly larger army Military and government unprepared Invade Canada because they thought it was an easy target o Military disaster Increase army and build navy Americnas and British fight back and forth in the Great Lakes Area Briitish destroy the capital US holds on to Baltimore War leads to US Bankruptcy o Leads to the Hartford Convention Creek War Dedicate military power to fight the Creeks Under Andrew Jackson, the US gets a significant military force in the southeast and essentially uses war time to break native American power in the coastal south The entirety of the territory gains of the war of 1812 is the creek war front Acquire a massive amount of territory from the creeks o Jackson exceeds instructions of treaty and instead demands even more and creeks disappear during the war of 1812 o Many historians more than the outcome of war, most important development of the wear of 1812l Hartford Convention o Federalists are so upset with the conduct of the war in the US o Considering to commit treason o Considering to make a separate peace with Britain o Federalists have been supplying British ships o Working against the war effort o Discouraging people to support US o Some states in new England are withholding taxes o Some argue that they should recede from US o Government of Massachusetts offers main with a new peace treaty o Real in radical members of he party o Try to prevent radicals from receding o In the end Don’t push for succession Issue set of demands US has been dominated for too long 3/5 clause needs to go Government is too prone to radical action o Require two thirds majority o No consecutive terms for president Only serve four years Issue these demands and hold good cards As federalists issue demands at convention The US signed peace treaty for ending of the war of 1812 o Federalists unaware of this Peace o Makes federalists look weak Deeply unpopular Convention ends federalist party James Monroe Good Feelings and Compromise Federalists power is broken and republicans control American politics See people almost preordained as president o James Monroe Inauguration Last of the revolutionaries and founding fathers 1817, wears dated clothing o Remind people that he is the tie the US has to its founding period Starts the trend of an inauguration being held at the capital o DC Most buildings haven’t been rebuilt First Florida/Seminole War o Americans are frustrated with marooned settlements in Florida o Worried about provoking war with Spain o Sends in US general Burns a village in retaliation Creeks attack a US boat that carried soldiers Monroe sees they need stronger military response Person in charge is Calhoun Sends general back into Florida o Demand reparation as compensation for ship o If refused you can attack native American villages Cannot attack Spanish settlements Replace commander with Andrew Jackson o Feared by troops o Effective in objectives o Supposed to continue these orders Jackson gets frustrated because villages are deserted o Decides to take all of east Florida AdamsOnis Treaty o Leverage Jacksons actions in acquiring Florida o Adam negotiates to acquire Florida o Adam says its sprains fault they had to invade Issue on fleeing slaves o The Spanish negotiator is hand tied because of Quincy Adams secretary of state Told by Spain that Spain doesn’t have military ability to keep Florida Get best deal o The US able to acquire Florida for a very small sum o Renegotiate their borders by the Louisiana purchase o Set up a pattern for Jackson time after time Do things to increase power and land for the US even though it is controversial Profound impact on the US o Not much warfare during Monroe’s time as president A rise in patriotism and national sentiment in the US o White Americans from all classes gain prosperity from gaining land of their own o Optimism is eventually punctured Plunged into worse economic depression in history
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