PLCY 110 Midterm Study Guide
PLCY 110 Midterm Study Guide 110
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This 42 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Snow on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 110 at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill taught by Dr. Zimmerman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 203 views. For similar materials see Global Policy Issues in PLCY at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
PLCY 110: Midterm Study Guide Exam Date: 10/13/16 Layout of exam: Online-go to class andgetcode and take test on laptop 50%: Multiple Choice/Fill in the blank (likethe quiz) 50%: Essay(writeone of two choices) From Dr. Siem’s email about the exam: I only have time/points to ask you 1-3 questions per lecture/reading in the short answer / multiple choice / fill in the blank section. I think the most strategic way to study for this section is to take each lecture/reading and pretend to be me and try to anticipate the 1-3 questions I might ask you. For example, what question will I ask you from Thursday's lecture? It will be (literally, this is one Midterm question): "(3 pts) What is the main challenge in documenting anti-corruption policy effectiveness? What is one approach for dealing with this challenge, and what is one limitation of this one approach?" Clearly, since there are often multiple "main points" per lecture, you should try to brainstorm 3-4 possible questions rather than only one or two so that you are over-prepared. Both on the Midterm and the Final, for the essay portion I will be asking you to quickly skim a policy document related to one of the units we have examined and then write an essay critiquing the policy in light of the information we've learned in the unit. In the first part of the essay, you will always be asked to relate unit-specific terms, the main root causes of the issue, the main policy approaches to addressing the issue, and any issue-specific considerations or challenges that have been highlighted (e.g., measuring corruption, controlling refugee policy enough to study causal relationships, etc.). Then, in the second half of the essay, you will be asked to reflect on the policy document I provide in light of that information. So, if you wanted to be over-prepared for the exams, you could actually write up the first part of the essay for each unit in advance of the exam and simply copy and paste it in. (No, this would not be cheating, as long as you do not share your answers with others, evidence of which would quickly show in your responses anyway.) Reread all readings!!!! ***I willgo througheach lecture and grabthe main points/definitions.I will attach the linksfor thereadingsand a shortsummaryofeach. Shesaidto anticipate/preparefor 1-3questionsforeach lecture. I will adda fewof the questionsI think shemay askalong with answers. Thisismerely a guidefor the exam and hereto help with the criticalanalysisduringthe exam. BESTOFLUCK STUDYING*** 1: Poverty Intro Development- improving qualityoflifefor community (usuallythrough economic improvements) Human development- improving the quality of life for a community (not often with economic means, but helps others and angroup level). Example: red cross and welfare Poverty alleviation-improving qualityof lifefor anindividual.Example:Kiva-givesout microloans Inequality- unequal distribution of resources Howpooris poor? -Less than $1/day vs “bottom billion” -Peoplevs countries -Generational vs sudden GlobalPovertyDimensions: Low income Limited capital-physical,human, social,environmental Increased uncertainty Increased risk Narrow focus on today Limited safetynet Limited choices (career, migration) Limited power- economic, political Lackof opportunity/access to services (education, health, infrastructure, paved roads) Psychological concerns (shame,inferiority, resignation) Whatis development? Long-term growth (Collier) Development (Sachs)vs Poverty Alleviation (Easterly) Sustainabledevelopment (Stiglitz)-how itgrows o Economic o Social Political o Environmental Chutes talked aboutin Collier 1. Conflict cycle:requires resources to recover, not focused on long term outcome 2. Bad governmentsandsmallcountries:corruption, theft, coercion, lowtransparency, low accountability, apathy/inaction. If you are small country and have an ineffective government, then you are become reliant on your neighbors which canbe detrimental. 3. Natural resources: generally bad because countries become dependent on them, all resources go to a small group of people, and there is no incentive to invest in human capital. 4. Landlocked with bad neighbors-noway to trade and with bad neighbors and there are no friendly recipients of trade. Growth spillover Additional chutes: 1. Health/disease-takes resources 2. Colonialism-French/Spanish vs British a. British invested in institutions and stayed to set up- so their countries are now more stableafter they left. b. French/Spanish did not stay, sothose countries are less stable 3. Conflict trap-resourceshortages breed conflict and viceversa 4. Geography-countries in tropical area less growth 5. Globalization-RTTB(racetothe bottom), migration, trade. 6. Poor governance a. Good Governance- participatory, transparent, accountable, effective, and equitable. Promotoes the rule of law -Democracy -State of capacity -Ruleof law- new -Just laws,enforced, no buy outs, property rights Readings: “Voicesof the Poor”byDeepa Narayan https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8-40ed-9c7f- 7d8b7790a678/Readings/August%2030/Voices%20of%20the%20Poor%20Excerpt.pdf Summary: It discussesthestudy conducted byNarayan and her teamon 23countries. Ithas main points of: Psychological well-being of the poor - Parents feel ashamed and embarrassed when they can’t feedtheir kids - Kids at school are made fun of when they receive free lunch and wearing old/dirty clothes Power and voice - “poor men and women very often express a sense of hopelessness, powerlessness, humiliation, and marginalization” - “Poor people often reported that they have little influence over their political representatives.” - “Rich people in Tanzania, for instance, are described as those who “set the prices,” while the poor are described as “those who are forced to accept the prices set by others” ” Generational vs Sudden Poverty - Generational- born into poverty, all you’ve ever known, super difficult to break the cycle - Sudden- people experience an event that causes them to fall to poverty- layoff, natural disaster,sickness,etc.some believegod punishes them Cultural and Social Norms - “These societal bonds can help to stabilize communities and ease the psychological stresses of poverty. “ - “maintaining social solidarity is of extreme value to poor people, and the inability to reciprocate with gifts or participate in community events can have very harmful consequences ranging from humiliation, loss of honor and psychological distress to social marginalization and exclusion from important social networks. “ State Provided Infrastructure: - In a poor rural community surveyed in Nigeria, respondents claim that every inhabitant is poor precisely because the community lacks basics such as water, electricity, roads, schoolteachers, and more (Nigeria 1995). In Uganda, a distinction is made between individual and community poverty, in which community-level poverty is defined as “a lack of key infrastructure for the entire community, for example, school, roads” and lack of security or harmony (Uganda 1998). - Lack of transportation also affects children. Rural children in Cameroon often do not attend school because schools are located beyond walking distance, and teachers avoid working in the more isolated areas (Cameroon 1995). Assets ofthe Poor - The four primary classifications of assets are physical capital, which includes land and material belongings; human capital, which includes health, education, training, and labor power; social capital, which refers to the extent and nature of social networks such as kin, neighbors, and associations; and environmental assets such as trees, forests, water, and non-timber products - Assets also may be productive, as in livestock, or fixed, as in material possessions such as jewelry. Some assets may be at different times productive or fixed, such as housing which can be rented (productive) or sold (fixed). Questions: 1. How do you define a person living in poverty? a. (broad answer including: less than a dollar day//unable to afford basic needs like food, shelter, healthcare//feeling ashamed of their economic and social standing) 2. How is having a natural resource a poverty trap? a. Becausecountries become dependent on that one or few resources, all resources go to a small group of people that work/have the resource, and there is no incentiveto investinhuman capital,and ifitisnonrenewable or slowlyrenewable, the country will likely deplete the resources and once it is gone, they will have nothing. 3. Which of the following is NOT a conflict trap discussedbyCollier? a. Natural resources b. Landlocked with bad neighbors c. Badgovernance in small country d. Largepopulation i. Answer: D 2: Poverty Solutions Graduationapproach: - Program providing poor people ways and means to graduate out of poverty involve stages andinterventions soindividuals don’t fall backinto poverty traps - Self-employment - Multiple house visits - Science paper by Banerjee et al,and in BRAC (BangladeshRehabAssistanceCommittee) - How are participants selected? o Randomization of treatment/control o Reduces bias and increases validityof study Steps of the Graduation Approach: 1. Productiveassettransfer-a one-timetransferof a productiveasset.Creates jobopportunity a. Capableof generating income b. Revenue- immediate or later c. Livestock,petty trade, seeds tools,stove, etc. d. Training 2. Consumptionsupport-regulartransferoffood/cash a. Amount varied depending on PPP b. Peru- women received money bc they were better at keeping money i. Treatment and control groups both got money in Peru 3. Technical skillstraining on managingthe particularassets 4. High frequencyhomevisits.Checksto makesurethey aredoing whatis expected. a. Increased accountability of participants b. Kept them doing their tasks c. Financial capability d. Without the visits,participants may abusethe program 5. Savings-accesstosavingsaccount.Sometimes mandatory. a. Provides safetynet for sickness,disasters,etc. b. Smooth out uncertainty of income flows c. Microloans- address financial constrains i. Helps people buy something (stoveto generate their own income by baking and selling cookies) 6. Somehealth education, basic health services,and/orlife-skillstraining a. Many people in poverty have no health education b. This helps them stayhealthy, sothey do not have spend extra money on medicine in which it could have been prevented. c. Alsohelps them to stayhealthy sothey cancontinue working and generating income Finalnotes/thoughtsongraduationapproach: - Did it work?Treatmentgroupswerehigher than controlgroupsinalmost everycategory(soyeah, it definitely did something) - Spillover-treatment groupstalk to controlgroupsandtheir behavior changes.Treatmentgroupsin differentvillages to try andpreventthis. In India,therewas>50%spillover. - Results weredifferentforeach country(dueto somanydifferentfactors) - Did it untanglepovertytraps?Noevidence in this studyto get outof traps Readings: 1. “Multifacetedprogram…”byAbhijitBanerjee,EstherDuflo,Nathanael Goldberg,DeanKarlan,*RobertOsei,WilliamParienté,JeremyShapiro, BramThuysbaert,ChristopherUdry a. https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8-40ed-9c7f- 7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%201/Multifaceted%20Poverty%20Program -1.pdf b. This articleis about the Graduation Program. It discusses themethods and results of the study c. “We conducted six randomized trials in Ethiopia, Ghana, Honduras, India, Pakistan, and Peru with a total of 10,495 participants. In each site, our implementing partners selected eligible villages based on being in geographies associated with extreme poverty, and then identified the poorest of the poor in these villages through a participatory wealth-ranking process. About half the eligible participants were assigned to treatment, and half to control. In three of the sites, to measure within village spillovers, we also randomized half of villages to treatment and half to control. We conducted a baseline survey on all eligible participants, as well as an endline at the end of the intervention (typically 24 months after the start of the intervention) and a second endline 1 year after the first endline. We measure impacts on consumption, food security, productive and household assets, financial inclusion, time use, income and revenues, physical health, mental health, political involvement” d. “We found statistically significant impacts on all 10 key outcomes or indices. One year after the end of the intervention, 36 months after the productive asset transfer, 8 out of 10 indices still showed statistically significant gains, and there was very little or no decline in the impact of the program on the key variables (consumption, household assets, and food security). Income and revenues were significantly higher in the treatment group in every country. Household consumption was significantly higher in every country except one (Honduras). In most countries, the (discounted) extra earnings exceeded the program cost.” 2. “The BestWelfarReform:GivePoorPeopleCash”CharlesKenny a. https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8-40ed-9c7f- 7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%201/The%20Best%20Welfare%20Reform- Give%20Poor%20People%20Cash-The%20Atlantic-1.pdf b. Discusses thepros and cons of giving people straightup cashas formof welfare c. “When governments give people in-kind support like food, it frequently costs more to deliver that support than it would to distribute cash—and for the same or even a lesser impact.” d. “At less cost to the government, cash programs led to the same health outcomes as food-based programs, but also provided additional resources for recipients to spend on 8/14/2016 The Best Welfare Reform: Give Poor People Cash - The Atlantic http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2015/09/welfare- reform-direct-cash-poor/407236/ 4/7 schooling, medicine, and transport.” e. A big concern is that people will wastemoney on less useful things,but turns out that is normally not the case f. Cash also has a larger multiplier effect. Bring food from elsewhere to an area, and the impact of that food stops with those who eat it. Give people cash and they spend it on goods provided by local farmers and traders, who are often poor themselves and benefit as well. Questions: 1. Why was itimportant that participants instudies are randomly selected? a. To decreasebias and increasethe validity of the study 2. Why is itimportant that people living inpoverty have some health education? a. So they canspend less money on healthcare expenses and ifthey stayhealthy, they canwork more and make more money 3. Did the graduation program work? a. Overall,you cansayyes becausethe treatment group was significantlyhigherin most areas than the control groups 3: Aid and Effectson Poverty Foreignaid- Transfer-who? Gov. org, or individual (to/from combo) What? Transferof resources (money, materials,skills) Main Goal- -To accelerategrowth achieved inaggregate,ambiguous results for many specific cases Does aid leadto growth? - Almost flat line no relationship - In another graph, as aidincreases,growth decreases - Collier-aidtendstospeedup growth - Colllier doesnot havegreatcounterfactual - Easterlytakes viewpointof the poorindividual: aggregatedoesn’t matter to them- they don’tseeitand still suffer. It’snotwhat, it’show:Aid Approach: Budget support-Money$$ very efficient. Less transactioncost Aid selectivity-$$incertain places,super poor but have the potential for success Aid agencies-$$and procedures Contingent aid-$$forperformance (policies,gov.) o Common: audit your gov and you get $ o If you repeal and a bad law(likeillegalizationofhomosexuals), you get$ Earmarked aid-$$for sectors/projects- likeAIDS or climate changeprojects Aid for capacity building-$$andtraining.Helps them make $ later Aid as investment-aidforpolitics (not where they think it is a good idea, but where they canget political gain) Aid outsideofgovernment-Likeall oftheabove, but not to government o NGOs,FBOs (faithbased),Short term volunteers LoansvsGrants o Loans you pay back o Grants- apply and you usethem for a certain purpose and can justkeep it Factorsdetermining aid approach -Diminishing returns-firstmillionis usuallythemost valuable(gets the most done) - Moralhazard-countries slackoffon their own development, the more aid they receive - Timeinconsistency-aidgivenattime X to pay for changes,but aid often given contingent on changes occurring…Give conditions, ifnot met, there areno real consequences for the recipient. Effectsof Aid (outcomes) 1. Intended- a. Growth b. Self-sufficiency c. Increased quality of life d. Stopping cycles ofpoverty e. Consumption f. Diversification g. Opportunities h. Economic development i. Political development j. Sustainabledevelopment k. Achieving MDGs (or other specific benchmarks) 2. Unintended- a. State capture b. Dependency/free riding c. International priorities vs local needs d. One sizefits all (macro vs micro) e. Cultural insensitivity f. Religionand politics g. Negativeexternalities-behavior’s negativeeffect on other people (but person behaving does not have to pay/bear social cost) i. Ex: motorcycles- everyone elsehas to hear the loudness of their engines, and driver doesn’t have to pay Aid dependency- Micro -Littlegirl got a new pen with a lot of excitement, but would choose itover the counting device shemade Aid dependency- Macro -Run out of things like-passport covers,gas,etc. -Can’tfunction without aid Aid Politics Research - Aid to government is allocatedby real people - Sometimes allocateaidaccording to political factors rather than need o When does one win out over the other? - Ancient question, but difficultto study - Blackbox process - Post-hoc measurement of “need-based” vs.“politics-based” allocation Our theory- -Making allocationdecisions transparent should make aid goto people who really need it -People may feel it’s more fair -People might take actionagainstpolitical allocation Casecontext- Malawi- - Poor - Dependent on aid-37% of gov budget - Corrupt, aidtheft Subject- ward councilors - New - Elected in462 single-member wards - Authority over development decisions,particularly aid allocation - Accountable to citizens,political superiors (MPs, DCs),donors Design: factorial fieldexp. with 42-factor treatment Sample-310 councilors (93%) Interaction-askedhowto allocateeducation across constrained choice of schools (needy/political gain) Primary outcome-whetherhigh-need or high-politics schools are more likelyto be chosen Thisis a realdecision:a lottery was being held to determine which politicians receivethe goods Thisis a meaningfuldecision:councillors investedin decisionand remain engagedin the aid delivery process. Schools received: iron sheets for roofs, solarlamps,and teacher kits (notebook, chalk, and pen) ½: no one knew about decision ½: sentletter to ADC with decision Findings:used both political and programmatic criteria indecisions Transparency- neediest 20% schools were 40% more likelyto receive aid Schools with >50% votes were 12% less likelyto be selected **This means that transparency increasedthe likelihood for needy schools to receive resources** Readings: “Here’s why Ugandansresent (some)internationaldonorsand aid groups”by LauraSea https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8-40ed-9c7f- 7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%208/Aid%20Resentment%20Monkey%20Cage.pdf Summary: a. This articlediscusses thenegativesideof donors and aidwhich is that they don’t listeno the local needs or create sustainabledevelopment. b. In other words, despite international NGOs’ widely publicized commitments to listening to beneficiaries, they cannot hear this expectation of interdependence — because it conflicts with their core commitment to fostering independence rather than dependence. c. This problem was especially acute at Hope Child, where employees saw keeping pace with international trends and best practices as a top priority — even though these trends were in direct conflict with the ethics of patronage that oriented the lives of the people they served. d. By contrast, the Catholic sisters working at Mercy House were deeply committed to an ethic of charity that corresponded with local ethics of reciprocal patronage and unrequited generosity. The sisters only took up those donor mandates that they felt were consistent with their theology and founder’s vision. Their understandings of divine providence also led them to see themselves as protected and cared for by God. This gave them courage to resist their international funders’ demands, even when if they lost some funding. Questions: 1. Describehow there canbe a moral hazard in giving aid. a. An organization may be insensitiveto a country’s need for development, sothey givethem a lot ofmoney/support and that country becomes dependent on that aid,which is detrimental for that country becauseifthe aiddisappears,then the country will fall. 2. What is an example of anexternality of a policy on aid? a. A policy that gives people free food would have a negativeeffect on the local farmers that depend on those individuals buying their products. 3. According to Collier,does aidprovide for growth? a. Yes,he believes itspeeds up growth 4: Health Intro Health-PovertyCycle Health Poverty Healthcare is expensive,soifyou’re poor, you cantafford meds If you’re sick,less timeworking, lower income Can’t buy nutritious food, so ittakes longer to recover In poverty, poor living conditions, more likelyto getsick Public health-scienceofprotecting and improving health of families andcommunities through promotion of healthy lifestyles,researchfor disease/injury prevention and detection, and control of infectious disease(CDC) Public health issue-a problem that is often to an entire community or population Healthcare-combination of resources,organization, financing,and management that culminate in the delivery of health services Typology -Chronic- public health issuethat is relativelystableand pervasive Ex: ringworm, malaria,cholera, diarrhea, obesity, etc. -Crisis-Issuethatoccurs suddenly ina specific population Ex: HIV,Ebola Actorsin GlobalPublic Health -Beneficiaries -International - International organizations -Government -Militaries -Volunteers -Media -Domestic - Government officials -Ministry of health/Health depts. -Community leaders -Health clinics (theirleadership and staff) RootCausesof Poor PublicHealth -International Lackof global standards Slow decisionmaking and reaction Supply and demand (Incr #of disease,decreasesupplyof vaccines,crops, certain drugs are more focused on in production) Limited manufacturing and procurement capacity -Domestic Limited resources to invest in healthcare systems No trash pickup, etc. Poor facilities,labs,carefacilities Poor transparency and accountability Poor transportation Limited data and computer power Low education Readings: 1. Banerjee and Duflo Chaper 1: https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8-40ed-9c7f- 7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%2013/Banerjee%20and%20Duflo%20Ch.%201.pdf Summary: a. Discusses povertyand aid. Talks about the differences between Sachs and Easterly b. Sachs-believes there aretraps that a country is inpoverty: “hot, infertile malaria infested, and often landlocked” Believes aidis keyto their success c. Easterly-thinks aid“does more bad than good” - believes aidprevents people form searching for their own solutions,and that ifthere a free markets and right incentives,success will come. d. Alsodiscusses thedistribution of bed nets and will people be more likelyto use them ifthey pay for it full price/discount price/free 2. “TheNext Epidemic- Lessons fromEbola” by Bill Gates https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8-40ed-9c7f- 7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%2013/nejmp1502918.pdf a. Discusses howweneed to better prepare for the next epidemic Questions: 1. What is an example of a domestic causeof health? a. Several possibleanswers from above 5: Cont’d Health Prevention- $ -Spraying - Bednets - Meds Treatment- $$ -Meds -Also:hospitalization, missedwork, find childcare, transport, etc. Sweden - Candy Saturday: Policy that you can eatcandy on Saturday. Swedish people love it. They think USA is fatso they need it.And they think it is sucha good idea. - In the US, we love personal freedom, economic consequences RootCausesof UnhealthyChoices - *always acombo,never just onething* - Cost - Barriers to healthcare (lackof trust inhealthcare) - Culture (“faith”) - Time inconsistency - Placebo effect(“drive to hope”) Should health things (bednets) be free? YES-economic barriers to use NO-sunk costs Readings: Banjereeand Duflo:Chapter 3 https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8-40ed-9c7f- 7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%2015/Banerjee%20and%20Duflo%20Ch.%203.pdf Summary: a. This chapter is discussing thepoverty-health cycleand how health can be a poverty trap. b. Discusses thelocationof countries (tropics) leadto greater disease(Malaria)whichis alsoassociatedwithpoverty c. Talks about how access tocleanwater and sanitationhave an impact on health d. Adding chlorine to water is a simple,cheap, and v effectiveway to decreaseinstances of diarrhea 2. “Free Malaria Bednets” https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8-40ed-9c7f- 7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%2015/IPA%20-%20Free%20Malaria%20Bednets.pdf a. Discusses thestudyconducted to seehow likelypeople are to usea bed net ifthey are givenfor free/discounted price/full price b. Found that charging even at 90% discount, there was a largedrop in demand c. Found that women were just as likelyto useit when its free as when they paidfor it Questions: 1. Why would CandySaturday not be successful inUS? a. BecauseAmericans are based on choices and freedom. Alsobecausewe love candy too much and it would be rioted. 2. Which of the following is not a root causeof unhealthy choices? a. Cost b. Culture c. Lackof desireto be healthy d. Barriers to healthcare i. Answer: C 3. Does it costmore to treat or prevent diseases?Giveanexample a. It costs a lot more to treat a diseasesuchas malaria becausea bednet could be givenfor very cheapand itis very effective inprotecting againstmalaria.If infected, people would haveto pay for the medicine, transportation to health clinic,missedtime from work, and possiblyhospitalization. Recitation notes: Opportunitycost-value/costofa decisionthat economic agents have letgo ~FOMO~ Ex: going to school cost of not working and getting work Privategoods Excludable-consumption of one agents prevents consumption of another Rivalrous-consumption of one agentreduces the amount availablefor all others Public goods-arenon-excludable and nonrivalrous Ex: roads, schools,treated water, etc. Externalities-when a transaction has animpact on an agent(individual) who did not participate in the transaction Ex: negative-motorcycle noise,smoking, CO2emisions Positive-vaccines (herd immunity) Moralhazard-the riska party to a transaction takes on after the transaction happened because of lackof info Ex: not telling someone about sideeffects of medicine Adverseselection-when one party has more info than the other and uses itto their benefit Ex: caresalesman,free food at event Ex: refusing to insure an entire citybecauseof a highrate HIV Time inconsistency-whenaneconomic agent’s decisionis not the sameover time even ifthe conditions and factors are the same 6: Cont’d Health CoreFunctionsofWHO: Leadership Partnerships Researchagenda Norms and standards Policy options Technical support Monitoring health/health trends GovernmentalPublic Health Infrastructure: Community Clinical caredelivery system Employers and business The media Education Sector Government agencies (other than public health) Typesof healthcarepolicies: 1. Build institutions-indirect-$$$$ a. Governance reform b. Capacitybuilding (training) c. Monitoring and transparency- publicize 2. Build infrastructure-direct-$$$ a. Buildfacilities (laboratories,hospitals,etc.) b. Improve coordination across facilities c. Develop oversight systems (managefacilities) 3. Develop Human Resources-direct- $$ a. Global health workforce b. Provide more training c. Refineperformance training and incentives 4. ProvideConsumableinputs-direct-$ a. Healthcare supplies b. Preventative tools c. Treatments (procedures) i. Bed-nets, deworming, etc. ii. Deworming: 1. Administer at school level (policy) 2. Worms infection rate decreases (imediate) 3. School attendance increases (short-term) 4. Health growth (long term) 5. Education increases (longterm) 6. Employment increases (longterm) 7. Spillover: a. kids who miss school don’t getdeworm med b. kids that aretoo young do not get meds Roleof Intermediaries: -Health is anindividual level outcome Public health interventions areinherently disaggregatedandlabor-intensive -Intermediaries critical to “deliver” public health policies -Examples: - PTACommittees in Kenya for worms treatment - Chiefs inMalawi for childbirth health - Radiostations in India for sanitation Readings: “Deworming: A BestBuy for Development” https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8-40ed-9c7f- 7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%2020/deworming_policy_briefcase.pdf Summary: a. This articlediscusses thestudy conducted that looked at deworming students at a school inKenya and the methods of the experiment b. Saw that many children were not attending class dueto worms c. Gave deworming meds and sawincreasein attendance and risein health overall inthe kids and their neighbors Questions: 1. Give anexample of how giving a consumable input is beneficial. a. Discuss deworming project b. Or discuss thebednets 2. How can developing human resource increasehealth? a. Healthcare providers canbe more knowledgeable across a range of subjects,can spend their time more efficiently, therefore mor patients canbe seenand treated correctly 3. Name of a function of the WHO a. Leadership, Partnerships, Researchagenda,Norms and standards, Policy options, Technical support, Monitoring health/health trends 7: Refugees Migration- moving from one placeto another, either temporarily or permanently -Focus: cross-country Migrant- moving from one placeto another (voluntarily, typically for money/opportunities) Refugee-fleeing from one place to another (involuntarily) -Natural disaster,gov. pressure, civil wars -Fear of being persecuted for race,religion, nationality, membership in social group, or political pinion Who decideswho isarefugee? -The receiving country government and the UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) Screeningprocess: - CollectID documents - Perform initial Assessment o Biodata o Biometric - Interview o Initial info checked again - Only applicants who are strong candidates move forward - <1% of global refugee population actually move forward HighStakes decisionfor refugees: Safety, freedom, medical care, schooling,right to work Interests of both refugees and host countries –“migrants lets nations off the hook” Revealedpreference- “best” option among alternatives revealed by the choices people make - People who think “are the refugees really that bad?” From evidence of people continuing to die out atsea trying to getto new destination proves that yes,it probably is that bad intheir original country Timing of Outcomes - Immediate-As soon as policy is implemented, this outcome is affected o Almost always mechanical o Offensivelyobvious - Short term/Intermediate-Affectedbypolicy“downstream” still directeffect - Long term-slowmoving (often indirectly) - Adverse/perverse-negativeeffectofpolicy - Spillover/Externality-Effectonthosethat were not intended beneficiaries - Unintended-effectnot intended by policy makers Theoryof Change: Reading: (Economic impact of refugees; https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8-40ed- 9c7f-7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%2022/PNAS-2016-Taylor-7449-53.pdf ) Policy- giving cash/food to refugees in UNHCR camps in Rwanda a. Immediate: cash/food surplus of refugees b. Short-term: what they do with the money/food c. Long-term: a. Income within 10 K radius and average household income b. Effect on local economy (multiplier effect) c. Employment rate; commerce d. Adverse: Refugees who sold food drove prices down Reading: 1. “5 ThingsYou Need to Knowabout theEuropeanMigrant Crisis”by VirginieGuiraudon https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8-40ed-9c7f- 7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%2022/Five%20Things%20About%20Migrant%20Cr isis%20Monkey%20Cage.pdf Summary: This articlereveals the main points that are necessaryto know about the European migrant crisis a. 1- Are we witnessing an unprecedented “refugee crisis” in Europe? Yes and no. i. It is not larger than what has occurred in history before, but there are a largenumber b. 2- Why do people fleeing conflict resort to paying smugglers and taking dangerous sea and land routes? i. West European states started implementing measures to prevent asylum- seekers from arriving on their territory in the 1980s, including requiring people crossing their borders to have passports with proper visas and requiring transportation companies to verify those documents. c. 3- Why are people dying at sea trying to get to Europe? i. Few boats now go to the Canary Islands or brave the Gibraltar Straits. Smugglers prefer other passages to Europe, through Turkey or Greece. Many people now try to cross from Libya to Lampedusa, an island south of Italy, because there is less supervision of the Libyan coast. d. 4- Where do most refugees end up? i. More than 80 percent of people fleeing conflict end up in neighboring countries. e. 5- Where do people fleeing conflict to Europe want to go? i. People want to go to Britain despite public hostility toward refugees and unwelcoming policies because they have kinship networks, know English and have professional skills that will help them integrate into the labor market. People aren’t going to Sweden because they like cold weather. They are going because Sweden has been welcoming in the past and, thus, hosts a large number of populations from the Middle East and northern Africa. 2. “Migrant or refugee? That shouldn’t be a life or death question” by Jill Goldenziel https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8-40ed-9c7f- 7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%2022/Migrant%20or%20refugeey%20Monkey%20 Cage.pdf a. Summary: This article is discussing the need for a new international law to define refugees as more than what they are as migrants basically have no rights and can’t be considered a refugee legally when they, too, are living in fear back home. b. Under international law, a refugee is a person who has fled her country based on a well-founded fear of persecution on the basis of race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group. c. The word “migrant” is commonly used to refer to anyone coming to another country to seek work, refuge, escape from war, or otherwise. By using the term “migrant” and lumping these groups under it, public figures and the media imply that Europe owes them nothing. Many Syrians fleeing to Europe would not qualify as refugees under international law, and therefore can be deported home. Flight from generalized violence and war is not enough to claim refugee status. d. International law alone will not solve the migration crisis. But changing international law would go a long way toward relieving human suffering. No matter what one calls desperate, fleeing human beings, international law should treat them with dignity. 3. “Economic Impact of refugees”by J. Edward Taylora,1, MateuszJ. Filipskib , Mohamad Allousha , Anubhab Guptaa , Ruben Irvin Rojas Valdesa , and Ernesto Gonzalez-Estrada a. https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8-40ed-9c7f- 7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%2022/PNAS-2016-Taylor-7449-53.pdf b. Summary: In 2015, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees accommodated over 15 million refugees, mostly in refugee camps in developing countries. The World Food Program provided these refugees with food aid, in cash or in kind. Refugees’ impacts on host countries are controversial and little understood. This unique study analyzes the economic impacts of refugees on host- country economies within a 10-km radius of three Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda c. Simulations using Monte Carlo methods reveal that cash aid to refugees creates significant positive income spillovers to hostcountry businesses and households. An additional adult refugee receiving cash aid increases annual real income in the local economy by $205 to $253, significantly more than the $120–$126 in aid each refugee receives. d. Our simulations do not include the impacts of constructing, maintaining, or expanding refugee camps. e. Our simulations reveal that refugees, given the opportunity to interact with the economy around them, can create positive income spillovers for host-country households. Congolese refugees in Rwanda appear to generate considerably more income than the cash aid they receive. However, spillovers are smaller when refugee aid is in the form of food instead of cash, a finding potentially relevant for aid programs in general as well as refugee aid in particular. Access to supplies of food and other commodities, along with the cash to interact with the local economy, are critical to refugee welfare and refugees’ potential to create benefits for the host country. Questions: 1. What is the difference between a migrant and a refugee? a. A migrant is someone who choose to leavetheir home country to look for new opportunities or to make more money. A refugee is someone is fleeing their home country becausethey fearpersecution of race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, political opinion, etc. 2. How much of the refugee population actuallymakes it through the entire process and moves to a new place? a. <1% 3. Give anexample of a spilloveroutcome in a policy? a. In the Rwanda study, the participants spend the cashgivento them to buy food from local farmers. This creates a positivespillover as the farmers receive benefits even though they were not the intended beneficiaries 8: Cont’d Refugees New YorkDeclaration: - Protecthumanrightsof allrefugeesandmigrants o Women’srightsandhelpfindsolution - Ensureeducationofchildrenofrefugees - Preventandrespondtosexualandgenderviolence - Supportthosecountriesrescuing,receivingandhostinglargenumbersofrefugeesand migrants. - Work towardsendingthepracticeofdetainingchildrenforthepurposesofdetermining theirmigrationstatus. - Condemnxenophobia - Strengthenthepositivecontributionsmadebymigrantstoeconomicandsocial developmentintheirhostcountries. - Improvethedeliveryofhumanitariananddevelopmentassistancetothosecountriesmost affected,includingthroughinnovativemultilateralfinancialsolutions,withthegoalof closingallfundinggaps. - Implementacomprehensiverefugeeresponse,basedonanewframeworkthatsetsoutthe responsibilityofMemberStates,civilsocietypartnersandtheUNsystem,wheneverthereis alargemovementofrefugeesoraprotractedrefugeesituation. - FindnewhomesforallrefugeesidentifiedbyUNHCRas needingresettlement;andexpand theopportunitiesforrefugeestorelocatetoothercountriesthrough,forexample,labour mobilityoreducationschemes. - StrengthentheglobalgovernanceofmigrationbybringingtheInternationalOrganization forMigrationintotheUN system. Weaknesses ofNYDeclaration: - General specific - New solutions- doesn’t have any - Lackof new understanding of “Persecution” - Consequences for noncompliance- doesn’t have any - Cross-national coordination o Ex: assessing refugees-wherethey are, where they go,status - It’s very reactive, insteadof proactive/beyond relief Refugee PolicyTools in Receiving Countries: - Border control-limiting “illegal” immigration - Resettlement/integration innew place - Immediate needs (camps) - Quotas-limiting #s by country, skill level,Englishknowledge - Visa restrictions-restricting time of visas,adjusting categories ofvisas,raising requirements to obtain visas - Employer Restrictions/Incentives-Restricting and imposing costs on employing immigrants or insteadproviding incentives to help “match” immigrants to opportunities - Benefits Restrictions/Promotion- limiting or subsidizing services - Resettlement support- languagelessons,housing searches,paying forflights DescriptivevsCausalResearch Descriptive-describeswhat ishappening,“snapshot”ofdata Depict patterns, methods canbe used to describe evidence Article about newspapers Shows that there is negativethoughts on refugees There is divisive“us vs.them” mentality For research paper: methods canbe used to describeevidence Causal- attempt to determinecause and effect Depict causal relationshipb/w variables For research paper: what we want to do inpape o Determine causeand effectof policy Definitely read articles fortoday- WILLBEONEXAM- Johnsonchapter1: https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8- 40ed-9c7f-7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%2029/Johnston%20Ch.%201.pdf And Collier chapter 5 Criteria for CausalRelationship: - Temporal precedence no reverse causality - Covariation of causeand effect,but not spurious o Causeand effectgo together always (when there is no cause,there is no effect) - No plausiblealternative explanations no common cause o 90% of our paper rd o No alternative explanation (3 variable) o Discuss selectionbias o Prove your cases arevery similar(selectionbias)sothere is no 3 variable o Think: “What evidence would make me think otherwise?” - Example: o There was research done that saidgoing on a honeymoon could decreasethe chance of divorce o Saying that not going on a honeymoon causes divorce o Several plausibleexplanations for this: Honeymoons Improve Marriage Causal Relationship Marriage Improves Honeymoons ReverseCausality Something ElseAffects Marriageand Honeymoons Common Cause Marriage and Honeymoons Covary by Chance Spurious Correlation Readings: 1. “The representation of refugees,asylum seekers andimmigrants in British newspapers” by Majid KhosraviNik a. https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8-40ed-9c7f- 7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%2027/Content%20Analysis%20of%20News paper%20Coverage.pdf 2. “When lives are put on hold: Lengthy asylum processes decrease employment among refugees ” by Jens Hainmueller, Dominik Hangartner, Duncan Lawrence a. https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8-40ed-9c7f- 7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%2027/Hainmueller.pdf Questions: 1. What is the criteria for a causal relationship? a. Temporal precedence, covariation of causeand effect that is not spurious, and no other plausibleexplanation for the relationship 2. What is an example of a refugee policy inreceiving countries? a. Resettlement support suchas paying for flights to location and help with search for housing and food 3. What is one weakness of the New York Declaration? a. There are no consequences for noncompliance 9: Corruption Corruption is definedas anindividual illicitlyputting their personal interests above those of the people they have to serve Useof public officeforprivategain—Self-interest Individual forms of corruption: - Embezzlement- theft of public funds - Bribery- taking payment for serice quid pro quo exchange - Maybe- o Inefficiency-likeofficials with2 jobs (cannot spend adequate time and energy into their public office job) o Failing to follow procedures and rules not being monitored so no consequences Nepotism or favoritism with friends’ companies o Taxrate manipulation o Nepotism- unqualified person or person not competing for job - Separate from society-level “syndromes” of corruption as discussedinJohnston’s book What causes corruption? Lackof transparency and oversight Individual differences of people Financial incentive/economic need Nigeria:very corrupt becausenew governemtn o Corrupt culture/beliefs Asymetric info b/w officals andcitizens Limited oversight and few consequences Culture- Gift giving or patronage o In Malawi,people thank leaders by giving gifts (not corrupt) but canget blurry (bc officials maybegin to do things solelyfor those gifts,or not do things when they do not get gifts) o Havet-shirts that say“corruption is not our culture” Quote from evaluation officer: “poorsalaries lead to corruption” Whyis it a policy issue? - Expensivefor societies - Marginalizes groups of citizens - Barrier to development o There is a researched negative relationship between country’s economy and level of corruptness - Barrier to government effectiveness o Aid theft/Diversion Corruption isexpensive! In Malawi,82% saycorruption problem in district 40% income from corruption 70% officials corrupt in lastsixmonths 7% - 28% of transactions involve corruption Corruptionisatax - Researchin Malawi was done to look atbribery from taxi drivers to police officers o Powerful rich people (portrayed as taxi drivers) paid less inbribes than poorly portrayed people o 93% of drivers were stopped, and 2/3 of those paid a bribe Corruption impedesgovernment efficiency - Take resources from aid for their own personal gain Readings: 1. Johnson Chapter 1: a. https://sakai.unc.edu/access/content/group/02b17a89-e5c8-40ed-9c7f- 7d8b7790a678/Readings/September%2029/Johnston%20Ch.%201.pdf b. Deep deomocratization- continuing process of building workable rules and accountability by bringing more voices and interests into the governing process. It is “deep” by drawing from many levels ofsociety and itextends deep into the institutions and proves ofgvernemtn. c. Syndromes: i. Influence Markets- private wealth interests seekinfluenceover specific processes and decisions w/Istrong public institutions (bribery and channeling funds to/thru political figures)(ex:US, Japan,and Germany) ii. EliteCartels-elites (political,bureaucratic, business,military,etc_ maintain high-level collusivenetworks by sharing corrupt benefits and staveoff political and economic competition (Ex:Italy, South Korea, and Botswana) iii. Oligarchs andClans-small number of contentious elites backed by personal or familyfollowings pursue wealth and power inweak institutions using bribes and connections and sometimes violenceto get what they want (Ex:Russia,Philippines,andMexico) iv. Official Moguls-powerful individuals and small groups, either domination undemocratic regimes or enjoying the protection of those who do, use stateand personal power, to enrich themselves with impunity. Loyalties are from personal or political sources of power rather than official.(Ex: China,Kenya, and Suharto’s Indonesia) Questions: 1. Why is corruption a policy issue? a. It is expensive,a barrier to development and government efficiency, as well as marginalizes a group of people 2. Name, define, and givean example of a type of corruption a. Nepotism is when a position is givento someone becausethey are a family member or friend, are unqualified, and had no competition for the job. An example could be a governor choosing his son to work for himeven though he has no education or training inpolitics. 10: Cont’d Corruption Measures takeseveralforms-need to “triangulate”to showfinding isrobust Direct Quantitative Measurement- data on variables capturing concepts exactly o May still beissues inconceptualization pertaining to differences in definition Indirect Quantitative Measurement- data on proxy variables capturing related concepts o Proxy= very closeto actual variable you want to study o Ex: type of roof is a good proxy variablefor level of income QualitativeMeasurement- Info from media, interviews, Facebook posts,etc. Two Ever-PresentChallenges: Measurement error: no measure is perfectly operationalized o Systemic constant bias-always under or always over by sameamount OK o Systemic variable bias-always under or always over by different amounts Not OK o Random constant bias-samelevel of difference but can be over or under. OK o Random variable bias-canbe under or over-estimated by a different amount Eh Selection bias/missing data-data missing for setof units o Ex: rich people, employed people, villages farthestfrom roads, etc. SourcesofQualitative data Cross-National (atcountry level) o Nation Master o CIAWorld Factbook o World Bank- Worldwide gov. indicators o Transparency International- Corruption Barometer, Corruption Perceptions Index o Varieties of Democracy o Qualityof Government o ICRG Cross-National and Sub-National (atindividual level): o Afrobrarometer o Americac Barometer o Asia Barometer o Arab Barometer Policy Toolsfor Affecting Corruption: DecreaseMotivation - individual factors o Pay scale o Meritocracy-allowpeopleto be promoted due to merit Ceiling with this bc you can only go sofar up in public offices o Performanceevaluation o Performanceevaluationtied to merit bonuses DecreaseOpportunities -institutional design o Institutionaldesign democratic institution Separation of power- checks and balances Selection mechanisms- free and fair elections abilityfor citizens to kick officials out BUT corruption is lowestin most and leastdemocratic countries Inverted U “deep democratizatoion” o Removing “human error” Taking people out altogether Ex: “smart card” in India from reading IncreaseTransparency -monitoring o Anti-corruptionBureau o WhistleBlowing o Information Campaigns o Text MessageCampaign o Telling people how corrupt their officials are o Consequences for corruption o Regulationfor how elections should be o Definecorruption and compare to other people/countries IncreaseAccountability -Punishment and Rewards o Necessary for transparency o Known mechanismfor voicing concerns Elections Letters to higher level officials Torching buildings Refusing to pay taxes Traditional protest o But they don’t takehold.Why? Actions must have consequences- “teeth” Actions must be publicized (citizens need to know they are available to them) Common understanding of “good” officials Readings: Collecting Evidence for Policy Memos -Theory/Hypothesis: IV (independent variable=Intervention/policy) leads to DV (dependent variable=outcome) -“Measure” of IV- specific policychangein a country -In order to test hypotheses, you need to “operationalize” outcomes -Translatethem from concepts to measures Measures takeseveralforms-need to “triangulate”to showfinding isrobust Direct Quantitative Measurement- data on variables capturing concepts exactly o May still beissues inconceptualization pertaining to differences in definition Indirect Quantitative Measurement- data on proxy variables capturing related concepts o Proxy= very closeto actual variable you want to study o Ex: type of roof is a good proxy variablefor level of income QualitativeMeasurement- Info from media, interviews, Facebook posts,etc. Two Ever-PresentChallenges: Measurement error: no measure is perfectly operationalized o Systemic constant bias-always under or always over by sameamount OK o Systemic variable bias-always under or always over by different amounts Not OK o Random constant bias-samelevel of difference but can be over or under. OK o Random variable bias-canbe under or over-estimated by a different amount Eh Selection bias/missing data-data missing for setof units o Ex: rich people, employed people, villages farthestfrom roads, etc. SourcesofQualitative data Cross-National (atcountry level) o Nation Master o CIAWorld Factbook o World Bank- Worldwide gov. indicators o Transparency International- Corruption Barometer, Corruption Perceptions Index o Varieties of Democracy o Qualityof Government o ICRG Cross-National and Sub-National (atindividual level): o Afrobrarometer o Americac Barometer o Asia Barometer o Arab Barometer Policy Toolsfor Affecting Corruption: DecreaseMotivation - individual factors o Pay scale o Meritocracy-allowpeopleto be promoted due to merit Ceiling with this bc you can only go sofar up in public offices o Performanceevaluation o Performanceevaluationtied to merit bonuses DecreaseOpportunities -institutional design o Institutionaldesign democratic institution Separation of power- checks and balances Selection mechanisms- free and fair elections abilityfor citizens to kick officials out BUT corruption is lowestin most and leastdemocratic countries Inverted U “deep democratizatoion” o Removing “human error” Taking people out altogether Ex: “smart card” in India from reading IncreaseTransparency -monitoring o Anti-corruptionBureau o WhistleBlowing o Information Campaigns o Text MessageCampaign o Telling people how corrupt their officials are o Consequences for corruption o Regulationfor how elections should be o Definecorruption and compare to other people/countries IncreaseAccountability -Punishment and Rewards o Necessary for transparency o Known mechanismfor voicing concerns Elections Letters to higher level officials Torching buildings Refusing to pay taxes Traditional protest o But they don’t takehold.Why? Actions must have consequences- “teeth” Actions must be publicized (citizens need to know they are available to them) Common understanding of “good” officials Collecting Evidence for Policy Memos -Theory/Hypothesis: IV (independent variable=Intervention/policy) leads to DV (dependent variable=outcome) -“Measure” of IV- specific policychangein a country -In order to test hypotheses, you need to “operationalize” outcomes -Translatethem from concepts to measures Measures takeseveralforms-need to “triangulate”to showfinding isrobust Direct Quantitative Measurement- data on variables capturing concepts exactly o May still beissues inconceptualization pertaining to differences in definition Indirect Quantitative Measurement- data on proxy variables capturing related concepts o Proxy= very closeto actual variable you want to study o Ex: type of roof is a
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