Test 3 Study Guide
Test 3 Study Guide APR 221
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaylin Wallen on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to APR 221 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Michael Little in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 137 views.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
Test 3 Study Guide Chapter 7 Cont. The key to building brand equity is to develop interdependent, mutually satisfying relationships with customers Relationship Marketing: Creating, maintaining, and enhancing long-‐term relationships with customers and other stakeholders that result in exchanges of information and other things of mutual value Value: The ratio of perceived benefits to the price of a product To succeed, companies must focus on managing loyalty among customers and stakeholders Important because: 1. The cost of lost customers. Lifetime customer value (LVC): The total sales or profit value of a customer to a marketer over the course of that customer’s lifetime 2. The cost of new customers Defensive marketing typically costs less than offensive marketing because it is hard to lure satisfied customers away from competitors 3. The value of loyal customers Levels of relationships: Basic transactional relationship The company sells the product but doesn’t follow up in any way Reactive relationship The company sells the product and encourages customers to call if they encounter any problems Accountable relationship The company contacts the customers shortly after the sale to check whether the product meets expectations Proactive relationship The company contacts customers from time to time with suggestions about improved product use or helpful new products Partnership The company works with customers to discover ways to deliver better value IMC is what makes relationship marketing possible Synergy: When the sum of the parts is greater than that expected from adding together the individual components Endcap promotion: A merchandising method that uses special displays on shelving at the end of aisles in stores Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC): Building and reinforcing mutually profitable relationships with the stakeholders and the general public by developing and coordinating strategic communications programs that make contact with a brand through media Inside-out IMC: A way to coordinate and manage their marketing communications to give the audience a consistent message about the company Outside-in IMC: sees customers as partners in an ongoing relationship, recognizes the terminology they use, acknowledges the importance of the whole communications system, and accepts the many ways they come into contact with the company or the brand The Four Sources of Brand Messages: Planned Messages: Traditional marketing communication messages Have the least impact Product Messages: Messages communicated by a product, its packaging, price, or distribution elements Service Messages: Messages resulting from employee interactions with customers Have greater impact than planned messages Unplanned Messages: Messages that emanate from gossip, unsought news stories, rumors, or major disasters Companies have little control Can dramatically affect customers’ attitudes The Integration Triangle: how perceptions are created from the various brand message sources Say Planned Messages Confirm Do Unplanned Messages Product, service messages Advertising Plan: Directs the companies advertising effort Reviewing the marketing plan Information from the situation analysis should be organized into a SWOT analysis Setting advertising objectives Tasks to be taken on by advertising is determined Advertising objectives should be specific, realistic, and measurable The Advertising Pyramid: Action Desire Conviction Comprehension Awareness Advertising Strategy: describes how to get to the advertising objectives 2 Sub-‐categories: Creative Strategy: A written statement that serves as the creative team’s guide for writing and producing an ad Media Strategy: A document that helps media planners determine how messages will be delivered to consumers. Defines the target audience, the communication objectives that must be achieved, and the characteristics of the media that will be used for delivery of the message Allocating Funds for Advertising: Advertising is a current business expense Increase in market share related to increase in marketing budget in consumer goods marketing Requirement of consistent investment due to brief durability Presence of levels: Below which advertising has no effect on sales Above which additional ad expenditures have no effect on sales Methods of allocating funds: Percentage-‐of-‐sales method Based on a percentage of the previous year’s sales, the anticipated sales for the next year, or a combination of the two Share-‐of-‐market/share-‐of-‐voice method Based on: Determining the firm’s goals for a certain share of the market Applying a slightly higher percentage of industry advertising dollars to the budget Objective/task method Defines objectives and how advertising is to be used to accomplish them Chapter 8 The Creative Team: Copywriter: Creates the words and concepts for ads and commercials Art Director: determines how the ads verbal and visual symbols will fit together Creative Director: Head of the creative team of copywriters and artists Responsible for the form the final ad takes Dimensions of Great Advertising: Audience Resonance: surprise element that gets the audiences’ attention and imagination Informational Ads: Promising benefits that will offer relief from an undesirable situation or condition Tend to address negatively originated purchase motives, such as problem removal or avoidance, in an attempt to provide solutions to those problems Transformational Ads: Promising benefits that will reward consumers Tend to address positively originated purchase motives, such as sensory gratification, intellectual stimulation, or social approval, in an attempt to make people feel happier Strategic Relevance: Ad should be in alignment with the sponsor’s strategy Creative Strategy: Guides the creative team in writing and producing an ad Elements: -‐ Problem the advertising must solve -‐ Advertising objective and definition of the target audience -‐ Benefits to communicate -‐ Support for the benefits -‐ Brand personality and special requirements Message Strategy: Helps media planners determine how messages will be delivered to consumers Components: -‐ Verbal -‐ Nonverbal -‐ Technical Mandatories: Specific requirements for every ad, such as addresses, logos, and slogans Creativity: Combining two or more previously unconnected objects or ideas into something new Role in advertising: Informs Persuades Reminds Helps with the boom factor Fact-‐Based vs. Value-‐Based Thinking: Fact Based Thinking: Fragments concepts for analysis Analyzes situations to discover one discover one best solution Produces straight-‐forward layouts, fact-‐based appeals, and lots of data Value-‐based Thinking: Decisions are based on intuitions, values, and ethical judgments Produces ads that are metaphorical, subtle, soft intuitive Roles of Art Director and the Copywriter in the Creative Process: Explorer Searches for new information and unusual patterns Artist Experiments with a variety of approaches looking for an original idea Judge Evaluates the results of experiments to find the most practical approach Warrior Overcomes obstacles to bring a creative concept to realization Advertising Pyramid: Action Desire Conviction Comprehension Awareness Creative Pyramid: Action Desire Credibility Interest Attention Chapter 9: Creating Print Advertising: Design: Visual pattern or composition of artistic elements chosen and structured by the graphic artist Principles of design: Must be in balance Space within the ad must be broken up into pleasing proportions Must have a directional pattern providing a sequence to read Must hold the ad together and give it unity One element of the ad must have emphasis to dominate all others Layout: An orderly formation of all the parts of an advertisement Design and Production: Thumbnail: A rough, rapidly produced pencil sketch that is used for trying out ideas Rough: Pencil sketch of a proposed design or layout Dummy: a 3-‐D, hand-‐made layout of a brochure or other multipage advertising piece put together, page for page, just like the finished product will eventually appear Comprehensive Layout (comp): A facsimile of a finished ad with copy set in type and pasted into position along with proposed illustrations. Prepared so the advertiser can gauge the effect of the final ad Mechanicals: The set type and illustrations or photographs pasted into the exact position in which they will appear in the final ad Pasteup: illustrations or photographs pasted into the exact position in which they will appear in the final ad Camera-‐ready art: A finished ad that is ready for the printer’s camera to shoot—to make negatives or plates—according to the publication’s specifications Poster-‐Style-‐Format: employs a single, dominant visual that occupies between 60 and 70 percent of an advertisement’s total area Aka: picture-‐window layout Aka: Ayer No. 1 Illustrators: the artists who paint, sketch, or draw the pictures we see in advertising Photographers: The artists who use cameras to create visuals for advertisement Visuals: All of the picture elements that are placed into an advertisement Purpose of the visual: Capture the reader’s attention Clarify claims made by the copy Identify the brand Show the product actually being used Qualify readers by stopping those who are legitimate prospects Convince the reader of the truth of copy claims Arouse the reader’s interest in the headline Emphasize the product’s unique features Create a favorable impression of the product or advertiser Provide continuity for the campaign by using a unified visual technique in each ad Creating Copy in Print Advertising: Headlines: Words in the leading position of an ad Types: Benefit Headline: makes a direct promise to the reader News/information Headline: includes many of the “how-‐to” headlines as well as headlines that seek to gain identification for their sponsors by announcing some news or providing some promise of information Provocative Headline: written to provoke the reader’s curiosity so that, to learn more, the reader will read the body copy Question Headline: Asks the reader a question Command headline: Orders the reader to do something Subhead: Secondary headline that may appear above or below the headline or in the text of the ad Kickers: Appear above the headline Underlines: appear below the headline Boldface: heavier type Italic: Letters that generally slant to the right Body Copy: Text of an ad that tells the complete story and attempts to close the sale Styles: Straight-‐Sell Copy: the text immediately explains or develops the headline and visual in a straightforward attempt to sell the product Institutional Copy: The advertiser tries to sell an idea or the merits of the organization or service rather than the sales features of a particular product Narrative Copy: Tells a story Sets up a problem and then creates a solution using the particular sales features of the product or service as the key to the solution Dialogue/monologue Copy: the characters illustrated in the advertisement do the selling in their own words either through a quasi-‐testimonial technique or through a comic strip panel Picture-‐caption Copy: the story is told through a series of illustrations and captions rather than through the use of copy block alone Device Copy: relies on wordplay, humor, poetry, rhymes, great exaggeration, gags, and other tricks or gimmicks Slogans: standard company statements for advertisements, salespeople, and company employees Called taglines or themelines Originated from successful headlines Provide continuity for a campaign Reduce a key theme or idea to a brief memorable positioning statement Seal: Certification mark offered by certain institutions when a product meets standards established by them Logotypes: Special design of the advertiser’s name that appears in all advertisements Signatures: Product or company’s primary graphic identity Creating Copy in Electronic Media: Script: Format for radio and television copywriting resembling a two-‐ column list showing dialogue and/or visuals Sound effects (SFX): Sounds other than music or dialogue used in radio and television Audio: Sound portion of a commercial and the right column of a script Writing Radio Copy: Advertising message must be catchy, interesting, and unforgettable Must be intrusive to attract and to hold attention Script must be clearer than any other kind of copywriting Writing Television Copy: Script – Left side is titled “Video” and the right side is titled “Audio” Video Column – Visuals and production Audio Column – spoken copy, sound effects, and music Ads must be believable and relevant Formats for Radio and TV Commercials: Straight Announcement: an announcer delivers a sales message directly into the microphone or on-‐camera or does so off-‐screen while a slide or film is shown on-‐screen Integrated Commercial: A straight radio announcement, usually delivered by one person, woven into a show or tailored to a given program to avoid any perceptible interruption Presenter Commercial: One person or character presents the product and sales message Testimonial: The use of satisfied customers and celebrities to endorse a product in advertising Demonstration: The product is shown in use (TV) Musical Commercials or Jingles: sung with the sales message in the verse Slice of Life: consisting of dramatization of a real-‐life situation in which the product is tried and becomes the solution to a problem Lifestyle Technique: The user is presented rather than the product Animation: The use of cartoons, puppet character, or demonstrations of inanimate characters that come to life in television commercials Writing for the Web: Company Websites: Effectively designed web sited help visitors find information quickly and efficiently Banner Ads: Bring Internet users to a web site other than the one they intended to visit Viral Ads: Rely on Internet users to spread messages to others, so must be highly entertaining Chapter 10: Pros and Cons of Magazine Advertising: Pros: Good color reproduction Flexible design options Prestige, authority, and believability Permanence Audience selectivity Cost-‐efficiency Selling power Reader loyalty Extensive pass-‐along readership Merchandising assistance Cons: Lack of immediacy Shallow geographic coverage Costly for broad audiences Inability to deliver high frequency Long lead-‐time Heavy competition High cost per thousand Declining circulation Special Possibilities with Magazines: Bleed: color, type, or visuals that run all the way to the edge of a printed page Cover Position: advertising space on the front inside, back inside, or back cover pages of a publication that is usually sold at a premium price Placements: Junior Unit, Island halves, Insert, gatefold Understanding Magazine Circulation: Rate Base: Circulation figure on which the publisher bases its rates Guaranteed Circulation: Number of copies of a magazine that the publisher expects to sell Circulation Audit: Thorough analysis of circulation procedures, distribution outlets, and other distribution factors Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC): Verifies circulation and other marketing data on magazines for the benefit of its members
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