PGY 206 Exam 2 possible questions
PGY 206 Exam 2 possible questions PGY 206
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sharon Liang on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PGY 206 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Dexter Speck in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Elementary Physiology in Physiology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
PGY 206 Exam 2 1) If the stalk of the pituitary gland is cut or destroyed in any way, which of these hormones would be most likely to have normal plasma levels? Thyroxine (TH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), aldosterone, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Note: if 2/4 choices are CRH and ADH, ADH would be the correct one. If ADH isn’t a choice, then CRH is the right one 2) A. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is hydrophilic and is STORED in the Hypothalamus, infundibulum, anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary B. ADH is hydrophilic and is PRODUCED in the Infundibulum, anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary, hypothalamus Note: oxytocin is also produced in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary 3) A. Which of the following is TRUE when epinephrine (Epi) binds to adrenergic receptors? It triggers the “rest and digest” response, the receptor dimerizes and binds to DNA, it stimulates release of ACTH, G proteins are activated, the receptor may stimulate production of cAMP or Ca 2+ 2ndmessenger systems, it triggers the “fight or flight” response B. Which of the following is FALSE when epinephrine (Epi) binds to adrenergic receptors? G proteins are activated, the receptor may stimulate production of 2+ nd cAMP or Ca 2 messenger systems, it triggers the “fight or flight” response, It triggers the “rest and digest” response, the receptor dimerizes and binds to DNA, it stimulates release of ACTH 4) A. Mineralocorticoids that regulate ionic homeostasis in the kidneys are made in the: Zona reticularis, zona fasciculata, zona adrenal medulla, zona glomerulosa B. Androgens such as dihydropiandrosterone (DHEA) that regulate secondary sex characteristics are made in the: Zona fasciculata, zona adrenal medulla, zona glomerulosa, zona reticularis C. Glucocorticoids such as cortisol, corticosterone, and cortisone that regulate glucose metabolism are made in the: Zona reticularis, zona adrenal medulla, zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata D. Stress hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine that regulate the sympathetic nervous system are made in the: Zona glomerulosa, zona reticularis, zona fasciculata, zona adrenal medulla 5) A. Thyroid stimulating hormone is: Stimulated by CRH and inhibited by iodine, stimulated by CRH and inhibited by cortisol, stimulated by TRH and inhibited by calcium, stimulated by TRH and inhibited by T4 B. ACTH Stimulated by GnRH and inhibited by estrogen, stimulated by CRH and inhibited by estrogen, stimulated by GnRH and inhibited by cortisol, stimulated by CRH and inhibited by cortisol 6) A. Which of the following is TRUE about insulin? It can be taken orally, its receptor dimerizes in the nucleus, it prevents cellular uptake of glucose, it’s hydrophilic, it can’t be taken orally, it activates secondary messenger systems after binding to its receptor B. Which of the following is FALSE about insulin? It can’t be taken orally, it activates secondary messenger systems after binding to its receptor, it’s hydrophilic, it prevents cellular uptake of glucose, its receptor dimerizes in the nucleus 7) Cortisol binds to receptors in the _______, which in turn decrease secretions from the __________. Hypothalamus; POSTERIOR pituitary, zona fasciculate; cell nucleus, zona glomerulosa; cell membrane, hypothalamus; ANTERIOR pituitary 8) A. Beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans secrete _______ which acts to _________ blood glucose levels Glucagon; increase, glycogen; decrease, calcitonin; increase, insulin; decrease B. Alpha cells in the Islets of Langerhans secrete _______ which acts to _________ blood glucose levels Insulin; decrease, glycogen; decrease, calcitonin; increase, glucagon; increase 9) Which of the following pairs of hormones have antagonistic effects on Ca 2+in blood? Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and insulin, insulin and glucagon, ACTH and calcitonin, calcitonin and PTH 10) A. Which of the following statements about the “fight or flight” response is FALSE? It occurs rapidly (within minutes), it stimulates increased glycogenolysis and lipolysis, it’s stimulated by direct innervation from the spinal cord, it’s triggered by direct innervation from the anterior pituitary gland, it’s triggered by the parasympathetic nervous system, it occurs gradually (within minutes to hours) B. Which of the following statements about the “fight or flight” response is TRUE? It’s triggered by direct innervation from the anterior pituitary gland, it’s triggered by the parasympathetic nervous system, it occurs gradually (within minutes to hours), it occurs rapidly (within minutes), it stimulates increased glycogenolysis and lipolysis, it’s stimulated by direct innervation from the spinal cord 11) A. Which of the following statements about cortisol is TRUE? Its secretion is stimulated by TSH, it acts to decrease blood glucose levels, it activates the immune system, it’s derived from cholesterol, it acts to increase blood glucose levels, it acts to promote immunosuppression, it’s directly stimulated by the ACTH, synthesized in the zona fasciculata B. Which of the following statements about cortisol is FALSE? It acts to increase blood glucose levels, it’s derived from cholesterol, it acts to promote immunosuppression, it’s directly stimulated by the ACTH, synthesized in the zona fasciculata, it acts to decrease blood glucose levels, its secretion is stimulated by TSH, it activates the immune system 12) Partial removal of the thyroid gland could result in the loss of 2+ Ca in bones because the production of ________ would likely be reduced Parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), calcitonin 13) An increase in the use of glucose as fuel for the production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation would occur in response to the secretion and cell surface binding of: glucagon, epinephrine, cortisol, insulin 14) A. Which of the following is FALSE concerning the ACTION of thyroid hormone? Increases heart rate, promotes maturation of nervous system, increases basal metabolic rate, increases lethargy, it binds to cell receptors that trigger 2ndmessenger systems B. Which of the following is TRUE concerning the ACTION of thyroid hormone? nd Increases lethargy, it binds to cell receptors that trigger 2messenger systems, promotes maturation of nervous system, increases heart rate, increases basal metabolic rate 15) A. Which of the following is TRUE concerning the PRODUCTION of thyroid hormone? T3 is converted to T4, circulating plasma iodine is oxidized to iodide, iodine is transported into the Parafollicular cells to make MIT and/or DIT, TSH stimulates mobilization of GLUT4 to inner membrane of follicle cells, TSH stimulates the ENDOCYTOSIS of thyroxine, iodine is transported to the colloid, iodotyrosines are coupled together, circulating plasma iodide is oxidized to iodine B. Which of the following is FALSE concerning the PRODUCTION of thyroid hormone? TSH stimulates the ENDOCYTOSIS of thyroxine, iodine is transported to the colloid, iodotyrosines are coupled together, circulating plasma iodide is oxidized to iodine, T3 is converted to T4, circulating plasma iodine is oxidized to iodide, iodine is transported into the Parafollicular cells to make MIT and/or DIT, TSH stimulates mobilization of GLUT4 to inner membrane of follicle cells Note: Be careful when it says iodine is oxidized to iodide. It is true that iodide to oxidized to iodine so be careful of the word location. 16) Insulin actions are: Stimulated by high blood glucose and antagonized by glycogen; stimulated by low blood glucose and antagonized by cortisol; stimulated by low blood glucose and antagonized by calcitonin; stimulated by high blood glucose and antagonized by glucagon 17) A. An increase in plasma [Ca ] should cause: Decreased PTH and increased 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D production, 3 increased PTH and increased 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D produc3ion, increased PTH and decreased 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D product3on, decreased PTH and decreased 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D producti3n B. A decrease in plasma [Ca ] should cause: Decreased PTH and increased 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D product3on, decreased PTH and decreased 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D producti3n, increased PTH and decreased 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D product3on, increased PTH and increased 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D produc3ion 18) Which of the following statements about insulin is TRUE? Insulin acts as a transport protein carrying glucose across cell membrane, insulin stimulates breakdown of stored glycogen into glucose, insulin stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb glucose into bloodstream, insulin facilitates the movement of intracellular glucose transporters to the cell membrane 19) Calcitonin: Inhibits bone formation, increases plasma [Ca ], is secreted by cells in the parathyroid gland, is produced by Parafollicular cells, secreted from the thyroid gland Anterior pituitary gland: Not derived from neural tissue, principle onset for hormone production, regulated by hormonal signals from hypothalamus, all the above 20) Which of the following occurs when steroid hormones bind to cytosolic nuclear receptors? G proteins are activated, tyrosine kinases are activated after receptor dimerization, it triggers release of Ca+ from endoplasmic reticulum, the receptor complex crosses the nuclear membrane and bines to DNA half sites, receptor complex binds to DNA 21) The development of a goiter indicates: There’s a greater level of negative feedback from the thyroid to the anterior pituitary, the anterior pituitary is abnormally enlarged, the anterior pituitary is secreting excessive T4, there’s hypertrophy of the thyroid’s follicle cells Note: Follicular cells secrete T4 while Parafollicular cells secrete calcitonin 22) A. If a person with Type I diabetes took an oral glucose tolerance test, after one hour, what would you expect the results of their blood work to show as compared to a normal patient? Low insulin; low glucose, high insulin; low glucose, high insulin; high glucose; low insulin, high glucose B. If a person with Type II diabetes took an oral glucose tolerance test, after one hour, what would you expect the results of their blood work to show as compared to a normal patient? Low insulin; low glucose, high insulin; low glucose; low insulin; high glucose, high insulin, high glucose 23) Cushing’s disease is a disorder that can be caused by all EXCEPT? Oversecretion of ACTH from anterior pituitary, tumor of adrenal cortex, overproduction of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), oversecretion of anterior pituitary, hyperglycemia, muscle weakness, hypertension, excess adrenergic secretion from adrenal medulla, hypotension, hypoglycemia Note: technically caused by hypersecretion of corticosteroids which is why most green answers are hypo- 24) A person with Graves’ disease may be expected to exhibit all of the following EXCEPT? Exophthalmos, hyperactivity, increased basal metabolic rate, decreased ability to adapt to cold 25) Addison’s disease can be caused by all EXCEPT? Hypertension, weight gain, hyperglycemia, hypotension, weight loss, hypoglycemia, dehydration Note: technically caused by hyposecretion of corticosteroids which is why most green answers are hyper- 26) The actions of insulin and glucagon on blood glucose levels are an example of: Synergistic, permissive, none, antagonistic Note: same with actions of PTH and calcitonin 27) In a patient with cortisol secreting tumor, we would expect to find ________ levels of ACTH due to ________ negative feedback. Elevated; decreased, elevated; increased, depressed; decreased, depressed; increased 28) A. A person with goiter could exhibit: Weight gain, weight loss, decreased ability to adapt to cold, all the above B. A person with goiter and low levels of ACTH would exhibit: Weight gain, all the above, decreased ability to adapt to cold, weight loss 29) Cushing’s disease is caused by: Abnormally low levels of aldosterone, uncontrolled activation of TSH receptor, tumor of adrenal cortex, all the above 30) Which of the following is NOT an action of PTH? Stimulates kidneys to reabsorb calcium, stimulates formation of 1.25 vitamin D3, increase plasma [Ca ], increase kidney reabsorption of 2+ 2+ [Ca ], increase intestinal absorption of [Ca ], stimulates bone resorption, stimulates calcitonin release, increase bone deposition 31) If you ate a big lunch right before an exam and you don’t have diabetes, which of the following might be true? High level of gluconeogenesis is occurring, your glucagon levels elevate, high level of glycogenolysis is occurring, there are high levels of GLUT4 in your liver cells 32) The hypothalamus is functionally and anatomically connected to the posterior pituitary lobe by a bridge of: Blood vessels, cartilage, bone, nerve axons 33) When blood calcium levels are low, PTH stimulates Urinary excretion of calcium by kidneys, activity of osteoblasts, activity of osteoclasts, reduction in calcium absorption from intestines 34) Type II diabetes is an example of endocrine disease caused by hormone: Deficiency, excess, all the above, resistance 35) Secretion of TSH can be regulated by all except: Thyroxine, iodine, TRH, cortisol 36) Glucose is stored as _______ in adipose tissues Glucagon, glycogen, lactic acid, triglycerides 37) A. If an autoimmune disorder targets pancreatic alpha cells, production of which hormone would be directly affected: Somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, insulin, glucagon 38) B. If an autoimmune disorder targets pancreatic beta cells, production of which hormone would be directly affected: Somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon, insulin 39) All are true about aldosterone, but: It’s derived from cholesterol, it’s a mineralocorticoid, it stimulates kidneys to reabsorb sodium and secrete potassium, it’s synthesized in the zona fasciculate 40) Most of the thyroxine found in the blood is bound to: T3 and T4, MIT, DIT, TBG 41) If a patient had low blood levels of sodium and high blood levels of potassium, but the cortisol levels appeared normal, the more likely cause would be: Decreased pituitary release of ACTH, increased hypothalamus release of CRH, increase activity of adrenal medulla, damage to zona glomerulosa 42) Identify a common property of a fast twitched muscle: Resistant to fatigue, many mitochondria and capillaries, adapted for sprint type tasks 43) In performing the chin-up, the biceps are considered the ______, and the triceps are considered the _____. Decentric; concentric, promoter; antagonist, none of the above, agonist; antagonist 44) What’s a typical characteristic of a smooth muscle? Calcium isn’t required for contraction, contraction regulated by troponin, striated appearance, slower contractions than skeletal muscles 45) Following a heavy snow fall, Bob’s car was stuck in the snow. In an effort to free his car from the snow, Bob tried to push the car out. He was able to move the car and free it from the snow. What type of muscle contraction was Bob performing as the car was moving? Isotonic, isoform, eccentric, isometric Notice isoform is NOT a muscle contraction. The 3 types of muscle contractions are isometric, eccentric, and concentric. Notice they all end in –tric. However, eccentric and concentric are isotonic contractions, which makes this a tricky question. As Bob pushes the car, he’s moving his body but not really moving his muscle, and therefore is isometric. 46) A. Which is TRUE for a motor unit? Each muscle fiber is innervated by multiple motor neurons, muscle fibers of a motor unit are grouped together, a motor unit is composed of different muscle fiber types, a single motor neuron innervates multiple muscle fibers B. Which is FALSE for a motor unit? A single motor neuron innervates multiple muscle fibers, each muscle fiber is innervated by multiple motor neurons, muscle fibers of a motor unit are grouped together, a motor unit is composed of different muscle fiber types 47) Cross-bridge formation is blocked by which protein? Actin, titin, troponin, tropomyosin 48) A. The appearance of smooth muscle is the result of an ABSENCE of? Thin and thick myofilaments, sarcomeres B. The appearance of smooth muscle is the result of a PRESENCE of? Sarcomeres, thin and thick myofilaments 49) A. Jane’s New Year resolution was to start working out. At the gym, she decided to start with chin-ups. As she does the chin-up, moving TOWARDS the bar, what type of contraction are her biceps undergoing? Decentric, eccentric, isometric, concentric B. Jane’s New Year resolution was to start working out. At the gym, she decided to start with chin-ups. As she does the chin-up, moving AWAY FROM the bar, what type of contraction are her biceps undergoing? Decentric, isometric, concentric, eccentric Note: The only 3 muscle contractions are isometric, concentric, and eccentric. Therefore, you can easily rule out decentric. Neither of the muscles are stabilizing so they can’t be isometric. Biceps are shortening as they move towards the bar, so they’re concentrically contracting. Biceps lengthen while moving away from the bar, so they eccentrically contract. 50) World-class marathon runners do not hit the so-called "wall" because they do not deplete their leg muscles of glycogen. The yard able to spare their muscle glycogen stores by deriving most of their energy from: Phosphocreatine, protein, ADP, fatty acids 51) Betty was given a muscle sample but was unsure of the type. She could tell by looking at the muscle sample under the microscope that it was striated in appearance. Using electrodes, she next directly stimulated a single muscle fiber within the muscle sample and the entire muscle contracted as a single unit. From this observation, what structures are essential and unique to this type of muscle? Actin/myosin, troponin, titin, gap junctions 52) Which of the following is TRUE for a twitch contraction? Produces more force than a tetanic contraction, requires multiple action potentials, once fused it leads to fatigue, relaxes completely between action potentials 53) What process must happen for skeletal muscle to relax? Propagation of action potentials along the sarcolemma, continued activation of VG channel in the transverse tubules, binding of acetylcholine to the nicotinic Ach receptor in the sarcolemma, calcium ions pumped into the SR by the Ca-ATPase 54) It was rumored after the Battle of Sterling Bridge in 1297, William Wallace of Braveheart fame was unable to let go of his sword. What molecule was deficient in the muscles of his forearm causing him to be unable to release his sword? Calcium ions, inorganic phosphate (Pi), ADP, ATP 55) During typical aerobic metabolism, which process occurs? Production of lactate from the breakdown of fat, consumption of CO by2 the working muscle, utilization of phosphocreatine to resynthesize ADP, utilization of fat to generate ATP 56) Tom just won a gold medal in a running event in the Summer Olympics. To understand how he could perform at such a high level, scientists took a biopsy to examine his skeletal muscle under a microscope. His leg muscle had many mitochondria and blood vessels and was red in appearance. Based on these characteristics, what type of runner is he most likely? Sprinter, none, both, endurance Note: If blood vessels are white, he’s a sprinter 57) Bob is a world class sprinter capable of running a 100 m race is less than 10 seconds. During a race, what’s the primary energy system used to maintain ATP levels in his leg muscles? Aerobic, fermentation, anabolic, anaerobic Note: can only be aerobic or anaerobic. Anything for a short time period must be anaerobic 58) As the sarcomere shortens during muscle contraction, what happens? The length of the A band becomes shorter, the length of the thin myofilaments become shorter, the length of the I bands become longer, the distance between Z discs shorten 59) Which is true for BOTH cardiac AND skeletal muscle cells? Function as one unit (syncytium), joined by gap junctions, are bifurcated, myofilaments form sarcomeres 60) For myosin heads to assume a high energy configuration, which process must occur? ADP hydrolysis, ATP binding, release of Pi, ATP hydrolysis 61) John decided he wanted to be the next Arnold Schwarzenegger so he started doing a lot of barbell curls. In the first moth of working out, he doubled the amount he could curl from 100 to 200 pounds. Unfortunately, his biceps couldn’t get any bigger. How was he able to lift more weight while his biceps remained the same size? Decrease the frequency of muscle stimulation, relax the agonist muscle groups, reposition the muscle from 100% to 60% of optimal length, activate more motor units 62) Last year Dr. Speck was on a Caribbean cruise and it was 75˚F. As he lay out in the sunshine on the deck of the moving ship, you expect that he: Experienced a significant increase in body temperance, utilized convection conduction and evaporation to control his body temperature, used only vasomotor activity to regulate his body temperature 63) Prolonged immersion in a hot tub maintained at 102˚F is dangerous because: Your skin gets all wrinkly, the temperature causes skin arterioles to constrict, the high ambient temperature prevents sweating, conductive heat loss can only occur after your body temperature exceeds tub temperature 64) The basal metabolic rate: Defined as the metabolic rate immediately after eating, not dependent on body size, the rate of metabolism when you’re asleep, affected by hormonal influences, greater than the rate when sleeping 65) A whale is a homeotherm which dives to very deep depths where the water is very cold. If the whale were swimming vigorously and her metabolism increased her body temperature above normal resting levels, you would expect her to: Allow her body temperature to rise, increase sweating and evaporative heat loss, come to the surface where radiation and convective heat loss would increase, vasodilate the cutaneous circulation 66) Many cultures in very warm, humid, tropical climates take an afternoon siesta and eat a very small lunch. A good physiologic explanation for these behaviors is that: Food consumption decreases the metabolic rate and may decrease body temperature, it’s a cultural decision in these environments, decreased activity results in less heat production, all the above 67) If the ambient temperature falls below freezing and you’re walking leisurely across campus, you would expect that: The arterioles supplying your fingers would dilate, your walk would initiate sweating, you would maintain temperature homeostasis as if you’re in the thermoneutral zone, eating breakfast would be likely to decrease the amount of shivering 68) Which conditions would result in a metabolic rate CLOSEST to the BMR? A recently well fed person sitting in class, an athlete immediately after completing an exercise session, a person lying in a cold room and shivering, a bed ridden patient watching TV prior to breakfast 69) If you were locked in a hot attic (110˚F and 100% humidity), your best response to maintain body temperature homeostasis would be to: Turn on a fan, remove clothes, eat the candy bar in your pocket before it melts, lay down for a nap 70) The normal body response to prolonged exposure in a cold environment is to: Decrease metabolism, vasodilate the skin, increase body surface area, decrease voluntary muscle activity, increase plasma cortisol levels 71) A. If it was 99˚F with 100% humidity, the best way to control body temperature would be: increase sweating, sit in front of a fan, vasodilate the skin, drink lots of room temperature water, take a siesta B. If it was 99˚F with 20% humidity, the best way to control body temperature would be: sit in the shade, take a siesta, vasodilate the skin, drink lots of room temperature water, increase sweating 72) The BMR for a 70 kg male is: About 200 kcal/hr, determined in a seated restful position, determined during a short snap, not affected by hormones, lower than the metabolic rate observed shortly after breakfast 73) In a warm environment, thermogenesis is increased by: Reducing metabolism, hyperventilation, presence of brown fat, vasoconstriction of skin arterioles, eating a meal 74) In a thermoneutral environment, as heat production increases slightly, the rate of heat loss is adjusted by changes in: Rate of sweating, metabolic activity of muscles, convection, vasomotor activity of skin 75) The normal body response to a cold environment is to: Decrease metabolism, decrease plasma levels of thyroid hormone, increase body surface area, decrease voluntary muscle activity, Vasoconstrict the cutaneous circulation 76) Which of the following pairs are both contractile proteins in the skeletal muscle? Actin and troponin, myosin and tropomyosin, troponin and tropomyosin, actin and myosin 77) According to the sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction, sarcomeres shorten: following the bonding of calcium to myosin, as troponin slides over tropomyosin, following the bonding of actin to Z lines, as actin slides over myosin 78) The neuromuscular junction is an area of the cell membrane of a muscle cell where: T-tubules connect to SR, sarcomeres attach to acetylcholine receptors, somatic motor neurons attach to sodium channels, somatic motor neurons release acetylcholine 79) Drugs that inhibit _________ would result in an increase in the force of muscle contraction associated with a single twitch. Calcium channels on somatic motor neurons, acetylcholine receptors, calcium receptors on troponin, acetylcholinesterase 80) Action potentials on the T-tubules of skeletal muscle cells: Activate calcium pumps within the cytoplasm, cause tropomyosin to change shape, activate myosin receptors on actin, cause the release of calcium from SR 81) As you’re sitting here taking this exam, the postural control muscles that are keeping you upright are contracting: At a tetanic frequency, isotonically, with the max number of available motor units, isometrically Note: The 3 types of muscle contractions are isometric, eccentric, and concentric. Notice they all end in –tric. However, eccentric and concentric are isotonic contractions, which makes this a tricky question. 82) In an isotonic muscle twitch, the fibers develop: Enough force (tension) to move tropomyosin away from actin, force but don’t shorten, insufficient force to overcome load, enough force to overcome load then shorten 83) Compared to slow-oxidative (red) muscle, fast glycolytic (white) muscle fibers have more: Blood capillaries, myoglobin, mitochondria, glycogen
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