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UK / Physiology / PHSL 206 / What will happen if the stalk of the pituitary gland is cut or destroy

What will happen if the stalk of the pituitary gland is cut or destroy

What will happen if the stalk of the pituitary gland is cut or destroy

Description

School: University of Kentucky
Department: Physiology
Course: Elementary Physiology
Professor: Dexter speck
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: muscle, Endocrine system, and Physiology
Cost: 50
Name: PGY 206 Exam 2 possible questions
Description: Questions from previous exams. Best test taking strategy is to remember the red and green answers.
Uploaded: 10/12/2016
12 Pages 379 Views 3 Unlocks
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PGY 206 Exam 2


What will happen if the stalk of the pituitary gland is cut or destroyed in any way?



1) If the stalk of the pituitary gland is cut or destroyed in any way, which  of these hormones would be most likely to have normal plasma levels? Thyroxine (TH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), aldosterone,  corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Note: if 2/4 choices are CRH and ADH, ADH would be the correct one.  If ADH isn’t a choice, then CRH is the right one

2) A. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is hydrophilic and is STORED in the  Hypothalamus, infundibulum, anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary B. ADH is hydrophilic and is PRODUCED in the

Infundibulum, anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary, hypothalamus ∙ Note: oxytocin is also produced in the hypothalamus and stored  in the posterior pituitary  


What is the meaning of antidiuretic hormone (adh)?



3) A. Which of the following is TRUE when epinephrine (Epi) binds to  adrenergic receptors?

It triggers the “rest and digest” response, the receptor dimerizes and  binds to DNA, it stimulates release of ACTH, G proteins are activated,  the receptor may stimulate production of cAMP or Ca2+ 2nd messenger  systems, it triggers the “fight or flight” response If you want to learn more check out What is the satisfaction a consumer obtains from the consumption of a good or service?

B. Which of the following is FALSE when epinephrine (Epi) binds to  adrenergic receptors?

G proteins are activated, the receptor may stimulate production of  cAMP or Ca2+ 2nd messenger systems, it triggers the “fight or flight”  response, It triggers the “rest and digest” response, the receptor  dimerizes and binds to DNA, it stimulates release of ACTH


Mineralocorticoids that regulate ionic homeostasis in the kidneys are made in what?



4) A. Mineralocorticoids that regulate ionic homeostasis in the kidneys are made in the:

Zona reticularis, zona fasciculata, zona adrenal medulla, zona  glomerulosa

B. Androgens such as dihydropiandrosterone (DHEA) that regulate  secondary sex characteristics are made in the:

Zona fasciculata, zona adrenal medulla, zona glomerulosa, zona  reticularis

C. Glucocorticoids such as cortisol, corticosterone, and cortisone that  regulate glucose metabolism are made in the: Don't forget about the age old question of How is gdp calculated?

Zona reticularis, zona adrenal medulla, zona glomerulosa, zona  fasciculata

D. Stress hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine that  regulate the sympathetic nervous system are made in the: Zona glomerulosa, zona reticularis, zona fasciculata, zona adrenal  medulla

5) A. Thyroid stimulating hormone is:

Stimulated by CRH and inhibited by iodine, stimulated by CRH and  inhibited by cortisol, stimulated by TRH and inhibited by calcium,  stimulated by TRH and inhibited by T4 Don't forget about the age old question of What are the derived traits of plants called?

B. ACTH

Stimulated by GnRH and inhibited by estrogen, stimulated by CRH and  inhibited by estrogen, stimulated by GnRH and inhibited by cortisol,  stimulated by CRH and inhibited by cortisol

6) A. Which of the following is TRUE about insulin?

It can be taken orally, its receptor dimerizes in the nucleus, it prevents  cellular uptake of glucose, it’s hydrophilic, it can’t be taken orally, it  activates secondary messenger systems after binding to its receptor B. Which of the following is FALSE about insulin?

It can’t be taken orally, it activates secondary messenger systems after binding to its receptor, it’s hydrophilic, it prevents cellular uptake of  glucose, its receptor dimerizes in the nucleus If you want to learn more check out Is american indian the same as native american?

7) Cortisol binds to receptors in the _______, which in turn decrease  secretions from the __________.

Hypothalamus; POSTERIOR pituitary, zona fasciculate; cell nucleus,  zona glomerulosa; cell membrane, hypothalamus; ANTERIOR pituitary 8) A. Beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans secrete _______ which acts to  _________ blood glucose levels

Glucagon; increase, glycogen; decrease, calcitonin; increase, insulin;  decrease

B. Alpha cells in the Islets of Langerhans secrete _______ which acts to  _________ blood glucose levels

Insulin; decrease, glycogen; decrease, calcitonin; increase, glucagon;  increase

9) Which of the following pairs of hormones have antagonistic effects on  Ca2+ in blood?

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and insulin, insulin and glucagon, ACTH and calcitonin, calcitonin and PTH

10) A. Which of the following statements about the “fight or flight”  response is FALSE? Don't forget about the age old question of What is the humanistic theory of psychology?

It occurs rapidly (within minutes), it stimulates increased  glycogenolysis and lipolysis, it’s stimulated by direct innervation from  the spinal cord, it’s triggered by direct innervation from the anterior  pituitary gland, it’s triggered by the parasympathetic nervous system,  it occurs gradually (within minutes to hours)

B. Which of the following statements about the “fight or flight”  response is TRUE?

It’s triggered by direct innervation from the anterior pituitary gland, it’s triggered by the parasympathetic nervous system, it occurs gradually  (within minutes to hours), it occurs rapidly (within minutes), it  stimulates increased glycogenolysis and lipolysis, it’s stimulated by  direct innervation from the spinal cord Don't forget about the age old question of What is the must when doing research?

11) A. Which of the following statements about cortisol is TRUE? Its secretion is stimulated by TSH, it acts to decrease blood glucose  levels, it activates the immune system, it’s derived from cholesterol, it  acts to increase blood glucose levels, it acts to promote  immunosuppression, it’s directly stimulated by the ACTH, synthesized  in the zona fasciculata  

B. Which of the following statements about cortisol is FALSE? It acts to increase blood glucose levels, it’s derived from cholesterol, it  acts to promote immunosuppression, it’s directly stimulated by the  ACTH, synthesized in the zona fasciculata, it acts to decrease blood  glucose levels, its secretion is stimulated by TSH, it activates the  immune system

12) Partial removal of the thyroid gland could result in the loss of  Ca2+ in bones because the production of ________ would likely be  reduced

Parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone  (TSH), calcitonin

13) An increase in the use of glucose as fuel for the production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation would occur in response to the secretion  and cell surface binding of: glucagon, epinephrine, cortisol, insulin

14) A. Which of the following is FALSE concerning the ACTION of  thyroid hormone?

Increases heart rate, promotes maturation of nervous system,  increases basal metabolic rate, increases lethargy, it binds to cell  receptors that trigger 2nd messenger systems

B. Which of the following is TRUE concerning the ACTION of thyroid  hormone?

Increases lethargy, it binds to cell receptors that trigger 2nd messenger  systems, promotes maturation of nervous system, increases heart rate, increases basal metabolic rate

15) A. Which of the following is TRUE concerning the PRODUCTION of thyroid hormone?

T3 is converted to T4, circulating plasma iodine is oxidized to iodide,  iodine is transported into the Parafollicular cells to make MIT and/or  DIT, TSH stimulates mobilization of GLUT4 to inner membrane of follicle cells, TSH stimulates the ENDOCYTOSIS of thyroxine, iodine is

transported to the colloid, iodotyrosines are coupled together,  circulating plasma iodide is oxidized to iodine

B. Which of the following is FALSE concerning the PRODUCTION of  thyroid hormone? TSH stimulates the ENDOCYTOSIS of thyroxine,  iodine is transported to the colloid, iodotyrosines are coupled together,  circulating plasma iodide is oxidized to iodine, T3 is converted to T4,  circulating plasma iodine is oxidized to iodide, iodine is transported  into the Parafollicular cells to make MIT and/or DIT, TSH stimulates  mobilization of GLUT4 to inner membrane of follicle cells

∙ Note: Be careful when it says iodine is oxidized to iodide. It is  true that iodide to oxidized to iodine so be careful of the word  location.

16) Insulin actions are:

Stimulated by high blood glucose and antagonized by glycogen;  stimulated by low blood glucose and antagonized by cortisol;  stimulated by low blood glucose and antagonized by calcitonin;  stimulated by high blood glucose and antagonized by glucagon 17) A. An increase in plasma [Ca2+] should cause:

Decreased PTH and increased 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 production,  increased PTH and increased 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 production,  increased PTH and decreased 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 production,  decreased PTH and decreased 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 production B. A decrease in plasma [Ca2+] should cause:

Decreased PTH and increased 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 production,  decreased PTH and decreased 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 production,  increased PTH and decreased 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 production,  

increased PTH and increased 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 production 18) Which of the following statements about insulin is TRUE?  Insulin acts as a transport protein carrying glucose across cell  membrane, insulin stimulates breakdown of stored glycogen into  glucose, insulin stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb glucose into  bloodstream, insulin facilitates the movement of intracellular glucose  transporters to the cell membrane

19) Calcitonin:

Inhibits bone formation, increases plasma [Ca2+], is secreted by cells in  the parathyroid gland, is produced by Parafollicular cells, secreted from the thyroid gland

Anterior pituitary gland:

Not derived from neural tissue, principle onset for hormone production, regulated by hormonal signals from hypothalamus, all the above 20) Which of the following occurs when steroid hormones bind to  cytosolic nuclear receptors?

G proteins are activated, tyrosine kinases are activated after receptor  dimerization, it triggers release of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum,  the receptor complex crosses the nuclear membrane and bines to DNA  half sites, receptor complex binds to DNA

21) The development of a goiter indicates:

There’s a greater level of negative feedback from the thyroid to the  anterior pituitary, the anterior pituitary is abnormally enlarged, the  anterior pituitary is secreting excessive T4, there’s hypertrophy of the  thyroid’s follicle cells

∙ Note: Follicular cells secrete T4 while Parafollicular cells secrete  calcitonin

22) A. If a person with Type I diabetes took an oral glucose tolerance  test, after one hour, what would you expect the results of their blood  work to show as compared to a normal patient?  

Low insulin; low glucose, high insulin; low glucose, high insulin; high  glucose; low insulin, high glucose

B. If a person with Type II diabetes took an oral glucose tolerance test,  after one hour, what would you expect the results of their blood work  to show as compared to a normal patient?

Low insulin; low glucose, high insulin; low glucose; low insulin; high  glucose, high insulin, high glucose

23) Cushing’s disease is a disorder that can be caused by all  EXCEPT?

Oversecretion of ACTH from anterior pituitary, tumor of adrenal cortex,  overproduction of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), oversecretion of anterior pituitary, hyperglycemia, muscle weakness, hypertension,  excess adrenergic secretion from adrenal medulla, hypotension,  hypoglycemia

∙ Note: technically caused by hypersecretion of corticosteroids  which is why most green answers are hypo

24) A person with Graves’ disease may be expected to exhibit all of  the following EXCEPT?

Exophthalmos, hyperactivity, increased basal metabolic rate,  decreased ability to adapt to cold

25) Addison’s disease can be caused by all EXCEPT? Hypertension, weight gain, hyperglycemia, hypotension, weight loss,  hypoglycemia, dehydration

∙ Note: technically caused by hyposecretion of corticosteroids  which is why most green answers are hyper

26) The actions of insulin and glucagon on blood glucose levels are  an example of:

Synergistic, permissive, none, antagonistic

∙ Note: same with actions of PTH and calcitonin

27) In a patient with cortisol secreting tumor, we would expect to  find ________ levels of ACTH due to ________ negative feedback. Elevated; decreased, elevated; increased, depressed; decreased,  depressed; increased

28) A. A person with goiter could exhibit:

Weight gain, weight loss, decreased ability to adapt to cold, all the  above

B. A person with goiter and low levels of ACTH would exhibit: Weight gain, all the above, decreased ability to adapt to cold, weight  loss

29) Cushing’s disease is caused by:

Abnormally low levels of aldosterone, uncontrolled activation of TSH  receptor, tumor of adrenal cortex, all the above

30) Which of the following is NOT an action of PTH? Stimulates kidneys to reabsorb calcium, stimulates formation of 1.25  vitamin D3, increase plasma [Ca2+], increase kidney reabsorption of  [Ca2+], increase intestinal absorption of [Ca2+], stimulates bone  resorption, stimulates calcitonin release, increase bone deposition

31) If you ate a big lunch right before an exam and you don’t have  diabetes, which of the following might be true?

High level of gluconeogenesis is occurring, your glucagon levels  elevate, high level of glycogenolysis is occurring, there are high levels  of GLUT4 in your liver cells

32) The hypothalamus is functionally and anatomically connected to  the posterior pituitary lobe by a bridge of:

Blood vessels, cartilage, bone, nerve axons

33) When blood calcium levels are low, PTH stimulates Urinary excretion of calcium by kidneys, activity of osteoblasts, activity of osteoclasts, reduction in calcium absorption from intestines

34) Type II diabetes is an example of endocrine disease caused by  hormone:

Deficiency, excess, all the above, resistance

35) Secretion of TSH can be regulated by all except: Thyroxine, iodine, TRH, cortisol

36) Glucose is stored as _______ in adipose tissues

Glucagon, glycogen, lactic acid, triglycerides

37) A. If an autoimmune disorder targets pancreatic alpha cells,  production of which hormone would be directly affected: Somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, insulin, glucagon

38) B. If an autoimmune disorder targets pancreatic beta cells,  production of which hormone would be directly affected: Somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon, insulin

39) All are true about aldosterone, but:

It’s derived from cholesterol, it’s a mineralocorticoid, it stimulates  kidneys to reabsorb sodium and secrete potassium, it’s synthesized in  the zona fasciculate

40) Most of the thyroxine found in the blood is bound to: T3 and T4, MIT, DIT, TBG

41) If a patient had low blood levels of sodium and high blood levels  of potassium, but the cortisol levels appeared normal, the more likely  cause would be:

Decreased pituitary release of ACTH, increased hypothalamus release  of CRH, increase activity of adrenal medulla, damage to zona  glomerulosa

42) Identify a common property of a fast twitched muscle: Resistant to fatigue, many mitochondria and capillaries, adapted for  sprint type tasks

43) In performing the chin-up, the biceps are considered the ______,  and the triceps are considered the _____.

Decentric; concentric, promoter; antagonist, none of the above,  agonist; antagonist

44) What’s a typical characteristic of a smooth muscle? Calcium isn’t required for contraction, contraction regulated by  troponin, striated appearance, slower contractions than skeletal  muscles

45) Following a heavy snow fall, Bob’s car was stuck in the snow. In  an effort to free his car from the snow, Bob tried to push the car out.  He was able to move the car and free it from the snow. What type of  muscle contraction was Bob performing as the car was moving? Isotonic, isoform, eccentric, isometric

∙ Notice isoform is NOT a muscle contraction. The 3 types of  muscle contractions are isometric, eccentric, and concentric.  Notice they all end in –tric. However, eccentric and concentric  are isotonic contractions, which makes this a tricky question. As  Bob pushes the car, he’s moving his body but not really moving  his muscle, and therefore is isometric.

46) A. Which is TRUE for a motor unit?

Each muscle fiber is innervated by multiple motor neurons, muscle  fibers of a motor unit are grouped together, a motor unit is composed  of different muscle fiber types, a single motor neuron innervates  multiple muscle fibers

B. Which is FALSE for a motor unit?

A single motor neuron innervates multiple muscle fibers, each muscle  fiber is innervated by multiple motor neurons, muscle fibers of a motor

unit are grouped together, a motor unit is composed of different  muscle fiber types

47) Cross-bridge formation is blocked by which protein? Actin, titin, troponin, tropomyosin

48) A. The appearance of smooth muscle is the result of an ABSENCE of?

Thin and thick myofilaments, sarcomeres

B. The appearance of smooth muscle is the result of a PRESENCE of? Sarcomeres, thin and thick myofilaments

49) A. Jane’s New Year resolution was to start working out. At the  gym, she decided to start with chin-ups. As she does the chin-up,  moving TOWARDS the bar, what type of contraction are her biceps  undergoing?

Decentric, eccentric, isometric, concentric

B. Jane’s New Year resolution was to start working out. At the gym, she decided to start with chin-ups. As she does the chin-up, moving AWAY  FROM the bar, what type of contraction are her biceps undergoing? Decentric, isometric, concentric, eccentric

∙ Note: The only 3 muscle contractions are isometric, concentric,  and eccentric. Therefore, you can easily rule out decentric.  Neither of the muscles are stabilizing so they can’t be isometric.  Biceps are shortening as they move towards the bar, so they’re  concentrically contracting. Biceps lengthen while moving away  from the bar, so they eccentrically contract.

50) World-class marathon runners do not hit the so-called "wall"  because they do not deplete their leg muscles of glycogen. The yard  able to spare their muscle glycogen stores by deriving most of their  energy from:

Phosphocreatine, protein, ADP, fatty acids

51) Betty was given a muscle sample but was unsure of the type.  She could tell by looking at the muscle sample under the microscope  that it was striated in appearance. Using electrodes, she next directly  stimulated a single muscle fiber within the muscle sample and the  entire muscle contracted as a single unit. From this observation, what  structures are essential and unique to this type of muscle? Actin/myosin, troponin, titin, gap junctions

52) Which of the following is TRUE for a twitch contraction? Produces more force than a tetanic contraction, requires multiple  action potentials, once fused it leads to fatigue, relaxes completely  between action potentials

53) What process must happen for skeletal muscle to relax?

Propagation of action potentials along the sarcolemma, continued  activation of VG channel in the transverse tubules, binding of  acetylcholine to the nicotinic Ach receptor in the sarcolemma, calcium  ions pumped into the SR by the Ca-ATPase

54) It was rumored after the Battle of Sterling Bridge in 1297, William Wallace of Braveheart fame was unable to let go of his sword. What  molecule was deficient in the muscles of his forearm causing him to be  unable to release his sword?

Calcium ions, inorganic phosphate (Pi), ADP, ATP

55) During typical aerobic metabolism, which process occurs? Production of lactate from the breakdown of fat, consumption of CO2 by the working muscle, utilization of phosphocreatine to resynthesize ADP, utilization of fat to generate ATP

56) Tom just won a gold medal in a running event in the Summer  Olympics. To understand how he could perform at such a high level,  scientists took a biopsy to examine his skeletal muscle under a  microscope. His leg muscle had many mitochondria and blood vessels  and was red in appearance. Based on these characteristics, what type  of runner is he most likely?

Sprinter, none, both, endurance

∙ Note: If blood vessels are white, he’s a sprinter

57) Bob is a world class sprinter capable of running a 100 m race is  less than 10 seconds. During a race, what’s the primary energy  system used to maintain ATP levels in his leg muscles?

Aerobic, fermentation, anabolic, anaerobic

∙ Note: can only be aerobic or anaerobic. Anything for a short time period must be anaerobic

58) As the sarcomere shortens during muscle contraction, what  happens?

The length of the A band becomes shorter, the length of the thin  myofilaments become shorter, the length of the I bands become  longer, the distance between Z discs shorten

59) Which is true for BOTH cardiac AND skeletal muscle cells? Function as one unit (syncytium), joined by gap junctions, are  bifurcated, myofilaments form sarcomeres

60) For myosin heads to assume a high energy configuration, which  process must occur?

ADP hydrolysis, ATP binding, release of Pi, ATP hydrolysis 61) John decided he wanted to be the next Arnold Schwarzenegger  so he started doing a lot of barbell curls. In the first moth of working  out, he doubled the amount he could curl from 100 to 200 pounds.

Unfortunately, his biceps couldn’t get any bigger. How was he able to  lift more weight while his biceps remained the same size? Decrease the frequency of muscle stimulation, relax the agonist  muscle groups, reposition the muscle from 100% to 60% of optimal  length, activate more motor units

62) Last year Dr. Speck was on a Caribbean cruise and it was 75˚F.  As he lay out in the sunshine on the deck of the moving ship, you  expect that he:

Experienced a significant increase in body temperance, utilized  convection conduction and evaporation to control his body  temperature, used only vasomotor activity to regulate his body  temperature

63) Prolonged immersion in a hot tub maintained at 102˚F is  dangerous because:

Your skin gets all wrinkly, the temperature causes skin arterioles to  constrict, the high ambient temperature prevents sweating, conductive heat loss can only occur after your body temperature exceeds tub  temperature

64) The basal metabolic rate:

Defined as the metabolic rate immediately after eating, not dependent  on body size, the rate of metabolism when you’re asleep, affected by  hormonal influences, greater than the rate when sleeping

65) A whale is a homeotherm which dives to very deep depths where the water is very cold. If the whale were swimming vigorously and her  metabolism increased her body temperature above normal resting  levels, you would expect her to:

Allow her body temperature to rise, increase sweating and evaporative  heat loss, come to the surface where radiation and convective heat  loss would increase, vasodilate the cutaneous circulation

66) Many cultures in very warm, humid, tropical climates take an  afternoon siesta and eat a very small lunch. A good physiologic  explanation for these behaviors is that:

Food consumption decreases the metabolic rate and may decrease  body temperature, it’s a cultural decision in these environments,  decreased activity results in less heat production, all the above

67) If the ambient temperature falls below freezing and you’re  walking leisurely across campus, you would expect that: The arterioles supplying your fingers would dilate, your walk would  initiate sweating, you would maintain temperature homeostasis as if  you’re in the thermoneutral zone, eating breakfast would be likely to  decrease the amount of shivering

68) Which conditions would result in a metabolic rate CLOSEST to the BMR?

A recently well fed person sitting in class, an athlete immediately after  completing an exercise session, a person lying in a cold room and  shivering, a bed ridden patient watching TV prior to breakfast

69) If you were locked in a hot attic (110˚F and 100% humidity), your best response to maintain body temperature homeostasis would be to: Turn on a fan, remove clothes, eat the candy bar in your pocket before  it melts, lay down for a nap

70) The normal body response to prolonged exposure in a cold  environment is to:

Decrease metabolism, vasodilate the skin, increase body surface area,  decrease voluntary muscle activity, increase plasma cortisol levels 71) A. If it was 99˚F with 100% humidity, the best way to control  body temperature would be: increase sweating, sit in front of a fan,  vasodilate the skin, drink lots of room temperature water, take a siesta B. If it was 99˚F with 20% humidity, the best way to control body  temperature would be: sit in the shade, take a siesta, vasodilate the  skin, drink lots of room temperature water, increase sweating 72) The BMR for a 70 kg male is:

About 200 kcal/hr, determined in a seated restful position, determined  during a short snap, not affected by hormones, lower than the  metabolic rate observed shortly after breakfast

73) In a warm environment, thermogenesis is increased by: Reducing metabolism, hyperventilation, presence of brown fat,  vasoconstriction of skin arterioles, eating a meal

74) In a thermoneutral environment, as heat production increases  slightly, the rate of heat loss is adjusted by changes in:

Rate of sweating, metabolic activity of muscles, convection, vasomotor activity of skin

75) The normal body response to a cold environment is to: Decrease metabolism, decrease plasma levels of thyroid hormone,  increase body surface area, decrease voluntary muscle activity,  Vasoconstrict the cutaneous circulation

76) Which of the following pairs are both contractile proteins in the  skeletal muscle?

Actin and troponin, myosin and tropomyosin, troponin and  tropomyosin, actin and myosin

77) According to the sliding filament mechanism of muscle  contraction, sarcomeres shorten: following the bonding of calcium to  myosin, as troponin slides over tropomyosin, following the bonding of  actin to Z lines, as actin slides over myosin

78) The neuromuscular junction is an area of the cell membrane of a  muscle cell where:

T-tubules connect to SR, sarcomeres attach to acetylcholine receptors,  somatic motor neurons attach to sodium channels, somatic motor  neurons release acetylcholine

79) Drugs that inhibit _________ would result in an increase in the  force of muscle contraction associated with a single twitch. Calcium channels on somatic motor neurons, acetylcholine receptors,  calcium receptors on troponin, acetylcholinesterase

80) Action potentials on the T-tubules of skeletal muscle cells: Activate calcium pumps within the cytoplasm, cause tropomyosin to  change shape, activate myosin receptors on actin, cause the release of calcium from SR

81) As you’re sitting here taking this exam, the postural control  muscles that are keeping you upright are contracting:

At a tetanic frequency, isotonically, with the max number of available  motor units, isometrically

∙ Note: The 3 types of muscle contractions are isometric,  eccentric, and concentric. Notice they all end in –tric. However,  eccentric and concentric are isotonic contractions, which makes  this a tricky question.

82) In an isotonic muscle twitch, the fibers develop: Enough force (tension) to move tropomyosin away from actin, force but don’t shorten, insufficient force to overcome load, enough force to  overcome load then shorten

83) Compared to slow-oxidative (red) muscle, fast glycolytic (white)  muscle fibers have more:

Blood capillaries, myoglobin, mitochondria, glycogen

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