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Study guide Midterm 1

by: Aleena Watson

Study guide Midterm 1 10400

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Aleena Watson

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These notes are a complete guide to what we went over in lecture and notes from the book. We will be tested on material up to chapter 6.1 (chapter 6, section 1) Good luck!!
Mandy Lee Hill Cook
Study Guide
Bio, midterm, exam, Biology
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aleena Watson on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 10400 at Portland State University taught by Mandy Lee Hill Cook in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I - BI 211 - 002 in Biology at Portland State University.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
COMPLETE STUDY GUIDE EXAM 1 Chapter 1 - Biology and the Tree of Life Biology -​ bio (life) ology (study of). In short, biology is the study of life! Everything living is encompassed in biology, from you and I to crystals, the sky, cells, animals and plants. In this chapter we are narrowing in on how organisms operate at a molecular level and their evolutionary history. 5 characteristics of an organism​: Organism -​ is a living thing made up of one or more cells cell(s) -​ to be considered a cell, it must have a membrane, phospholipid bilayer Replication - the goal of a cell’s life Evolution -​ what made a cell into an organism. Also change in population characteristics over a period of time. (See notes on Darwin) Genes -​ encoded information given to the organism to continue replication Information - genes as well as environmental circumstances that allow the organism to stay alive and continue prospering. This can be information at this time and moment (environmental) as well as past (genes). Energy -​ whatever outside circumstance that’s required to keep the organism alive, such as sunlight or food Robert Hooke - coined the term “cells” Lecture note:​ He observed a piece of bark under a crude microscope which he made himself at 30X and saw what he coined “cells” which he decided they resembled because it reminded him of monk’s living quarters (also called cells) Because of microscopes we know that cells are separated by a membrane barriers. Smallest organisms - bacteria (200 nanometers) Cell theory -​ Rudolph Virchow, a German Scientist in 1858 said that cells arise from other cells that already exist. - Cell theory and theory of evolution says: 1. The cell is the fundamental unit in all living things 2. (Darwin) All species are related by common ancestry and because of natural selection have changed over time Louis Pasteur - ​conducted an experiment to figure out if Virchow’s hypothesis were correct by conducting his experiment of using a straight-necked flask which had nutrient broth. He sterilized the broth (boiled it) and set it out. This caused the broth to grow more cells because bacteria and fungi which were attached to dust particles fell into the flask. He conducted the same study with a swan neck flask and found that nothing grew in the flask because the shape of the flask caused the broth to continue to be sterile. Any dust would collect at the neck curve of the flask instead of in the tube! Lecture note​: She talked about this in class. The book has the same info on page 3 if you would like to see an illustration. Both experiments were conducted in the exact same manner (broth nutrient amount, boil time, time sitting out) the only thing that changed was the flask. Because Virchow’s theory could not be proven wrong, we continue on with the cells-from-other-cells theory… however, see chemical evolution in “Vocab” Cell division​ - because the purpose of a cell is to live, it must replicate and it does so by most of the time by dividing and making an exact copy of themselves Charles Darwin & Alfred Russel Wallace​ - in 1858 discovered the 2nd greatest founding idea in biology which is that all identifiable types of​ rganisms are connected by ancestry Darwin - wrote O​ n the Origin of Species - Descent with modification​ - contrasted the idea at that time which was believed that as generations continued, species didn’t change. Spouted the talk of evolution. - Natural selection ​- 2 conditions make an individual fall into the category circumstance of natural selection: individuals within a population which inherit traits and pass them to their successors & environmental circumstances which those traits help the individual to survive long enough to continue their duty of life: replication. So if a person or animal inherits traits that help them to reproduce, this is natural selection. The adverse is true as well, natural selection would not work in a person or animal’s favor if they did not died before reproducing. Note: ​Evolutionary change vs. natural selection - evolutionary change happens in populations of people or animals or organisms and natural selection happens in the individual. Therefore natural selection will hopefully favor many individuals within a population and the population will continue its evolutionary change for the better, keeping the species alive and thriving for generations. - Darwin & Wallace introduced the terms fitness & adaptation​ trait by observing varieties of finches from the different Galapagos Islands. Finches continue changing even today. Because of evolutionary success we see population growth but also populations of species change into other species. - Species come from preexisting species - Species are all related back to a single common ancestor Chromosome theory of inheritance - ​ proposed by Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri in 1902 says that within cells are genes which have genetic information encoded in them. The Central Dogma​ - DNA is a double stranded helix proposed by James Watson & Francis Crick. Made of 4 pieces which we use letters to symbolize the information: A, T, C, G. The sequence of these letters in the DNA strand tells us something about that gene. The sequence is the encoded genetic information, and the letters help us to identify what that gene carries by its patterns. There are some rules you should know: - A will always pair with T - C will always pair with G - Strands of double helix are connected by these pieces Central Dogma​ - how information is transmitted. See page 6 of text for DNA/RNA illustration for how DNA is transmitted Sometimes mistakes occur when DNA is copied, this means that the sequence of symbols were messed up and lead to differences in crucial proteins needed for the cell and organism to live. Because proteins control the appearance of an organism, if there is a mishap in the transmission of DNA, the organism may appear or operate differently. - For individuals DNA mis transmissions would lead that increase or decrease fitness - For populations this leads to changes in heritage passed down through generations leading to evolution of a group Two needs for an organism: - ATP (adenosine triphosphate) : action of an organism getting energy using this molecule - Getting molecules that are used for synthesis of DNA, RNA, proteins, cell membranes and complex compounds Note​: different organisms go about getting these 2 needs which creates diversity in organisms, such as otters vs. dragon flies etc. the list continues and we see it every day in different life forces. See Tree of Life on page 7 in text! Cook also has this in her slides, it’s a purple and orange chart. To loosely summarize, this tree shows species who are closely related with branches that are connected Tree of life ​- organized chart of all organisms. Sometimes called Universal Tree & Phylogenetic Tree. Continually changing because of the evolution of an organism LUCA ​- tree of life’s main node. Stands for “last universal common ancestor” 3 fundamental groups in Tree of Life: - Bacteria - Archaea - Eukarya Classify Life (Taxonomy) Carolus Linnaeus invented binomial nomenclature, this nomenclature is great because if you are anywhere in the world you can use this binomial nomenclature to identify animals. Global identification! ​ ​ - Genus - names are always capitalized and italicized ​ - species - names are always italicized See Diagram on Taxa (divisions) - animal kingdom - To classify life forms, ask movement? Nucleus? Similarity of molecular sequences? However, this classification continues evolving. - As you go from kingdom to species, the # of animals decreases Vocab: Theory -​ explanation for something such as a phenomenon that has a vast amount of evidence, such as gravity. Lecture note:​ Gravity is a theory because we cannot prove it wrong. A theory is true until proven WRONG. A theory cannot be proven correct… otherwise it would be fact. Hypotheses​ - testable idea which loosely proves a phenomenon or observations Theory vs. Hypotheses​ - theory: used by scientist for a broad spectrum, hypotheses: used by scientists for a more specific idea. A theory is used by scientists to zone in on building hypothesis. Chemical Evolution -​ Since Pasteur’s experiment, biologists have found Earth’s early history showed evidence proving that life started from nonlife Species -​ distinct and identifiable organism types Population - ​group of people or species living in the same specified location and time Seciation - ​populations of species which change into other species. Fitness - a species or persons ability to reproduce Adaptation -​ note: the biology definition is different from the english definition. A trait that increases fitness DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) - h consists of RNA (ribonucleic acid) -​ has multiple functions but one of the main functions is for messenger RNA molecules to communicate what the book calls “building blocks”, the A, T, C, G symbols are required to make protein which are important for the cell to live Tree of Life Vocab: Phylogeny - organism relationships to one another. Translates to “tribe-source” Phylogeny tree -​ aka: Tree of Life & Universal Tree shows relationships between different species Eukaryotes -​ Means “true kernel”. Multicellular and have nucleuses Prokaryotes -​ “before kernel”. Bacterial and archaeal cells often times lack a nucleus and are unicellular (one celled) Taxonomy - ​naming system to classify organisms Taxon(taxa plural) -​ named group Domain​ - proposed by Woese which is a category of taxon including the vocab Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Life is separated into these three domains. phylum(phyla plural) - word used when referencing large lineages of one domain such as “Insecta” which as over a million different types of insects Review of chapter 1: 3 most important ideas in biology: - Cell theory - everything that is living is made up of cells & cells are the structure of life - Theory of evolution - Common ancestry - Natural selection (over time) - Chromosome theory of inheritance - Genes are in chromosomes - DNA molecules hold vital genetic information and make up genes - Central dogma - movement of DNA to RNA to protein - Energy collection of an organism's changes depending on the organism, making organisms extremely diverse (sunflower vs. human being) Tree of Life: - LOTS of vocab! Review vocab section - All species trace their ancestry back to LUCA - Phylogeny (naming system) determined by examining genetics - 3 domains : Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya Biology: - To do biology you must first have a hypothesis and experiment using a control. Experimenting many times to narrow down your results until you cannot prove your theory wrong. Chapter 2 Notes (up to what we covered in class): In order to understand Biology, we must know a LITTLE about chemistry, since chemistry is linked to the evolution of life. We will mainly study the water and carbon molecule. Dr. Cook says biology is a “gray science” whereas chemistry and physics take a huge role in giving us hard facts proven with computation. 4 atoms linked to 96.3% of all matter: 1. Hydrogen 2. Carbon 3. Nitrogen 4. Oxygen 92 elements are found naturally on Earth Basic structure of a molecule: - The ​nucleus​ (center) is made of : - Protons​ - (+) charge - Neutrons​ - neutral (get it?) charge - Electrons​ float around the nucleus forming an electron cloud - (-) charge Periodic Table consists of: - Elements, which have: ​ - Water example: When a molecule becomes p ​ olar covalent,​ meaning they have a partial charge - Additional example of Ammonia Far Right: - Sodium chloride - this is an ionic bond which means atom have full charge. And at this point in the spectrum, there is a transfer of electrons that is happening vs. the far left where atoms had equal sharing of electrons. Chapter two continued, according to what was covered in slides: Table 2.3 is VERY IMPORTANT (slide 23 of chapter 2) We need to know the below information AND R-group 6 Functional Groups & their families: 1. Amino - Amines 2. Carboxyl - Carboxylic acids 3. Carbonyl - Aldehydes & Ketones 4. Hydroxyl - Alcohols 5. Phosphate - Organic phosphates 6. Sulfhydryl - Thiols Important info about moles (the measurement): - 1 mole of a molecule = 6.022 × 10 molecules - Moles = mass ▯ molar mass How to find a mole of something: Molar mass example: H2O = 2 H’s = 2 x 1 = 2 1 O = 1 x 16 = 16 So… Molar mass of water is 18. What if we wanted to find TWO moles of H2O molecule? 18 x 2 = 36 Molarity - concentration of molecules per liter Solutions: - Comprised of solvents and solutes. Solvents being the dissolvers and solutes being the dissolved - Ie: water is the “universal solvent” Wacky Water: (more in lecture notes!!) Cohesion & adhesion characteristics - cohesion (attracted to water), adhesion (any compound that allows water to form hydrogen bonds) Review table 2.2!! P. 65 of notes or 35 of slides Ionizes (pH) Ionization - when ions spontaneously form pH scale - acids(below 7), neutral, bases (above 7) Chemical reactions: Vocab: - Reactants (molecules before reaction) & products (result of reaction) - Types: (these appear after the molecule to indicate their form in the reaction) - Gas (​ g) - Liquid ​(l) - Solid​ (s) - Aqueous solution ( ​ aq) - Reactions will always be balanced! - Temperature - can cause a chemical reaction - Concentration - Catalysts (factors that speed up chemical reaction) Spontaneous Chemical Reactions - Products will have lower energy - Ie: think about match example. After you strike a match that potential energy from the red tip is gone. - Products will usually have more entropy (disorder in a system) than reactant Energy - Heat and work Potential energy - stored Kinetic energy - motion activated Thermal - kinetic energy of molecules System - interacting components (molecules) Endothermic (“within heating”)/Endergonic (input of energy) - when a system turn liquid to gas after absorbing enough thermal energy Ie: baking bread Exothermic (“outside heating”)/Exergonic (release of energy) when systems go from vapor to liquid Ie: rust Review slide 53 on chemistry of water! Oxygen most electron negative bond, then nitrogen, carbon Non polar covalent - long, weak bonds Polar covalent bonds - shorter, stronger bonds Biology takes place in water - Ionic bonds dissociate making them weaker in biology - Non polar covalent bonds strong in biology because they stay together in water Organic structure Ways to display molecules: 1. molecular formula (shortest way to display just with Letters and subscripts) 2. Structural formula (more information than structural) 3. Ball-and-stick models (3D shows bond angles, color matters) 4. Space-filling models (most accurate, relative sizes, color matters) That’s the basic chemistry we are going to do in this course. Carbon is the basis for all living things Organic means carbon Carbon can form 4 different bonds or 2 double bonds “Functional groups” REVIEW TABLE 2.3 - NEED TO KNOW MAJOR FUNCTIONAL GROUPS AS THEY APPLY TO BIO - Amino NH2 group - Carboxyl - C double bond OOH - Hydroxyl - Make molecules dissolve in water - Phosphate - Important for ATP - Sulfhydryl - Interact with each other, making a stable structural bonds Need its name, recognize formulas 6 functional groups, ID how it should act in a biological system Molecular weight - quantity of molecules using a unit of mole. Mass equal to weight expressed in grams Molarity - concentration, often times we are talking about something that is in liquid form Water is essential, critical for life to exist. When exploring other planets, we look for water to indicate life. Water is wacky: Oxygen is most electronegative, and that puts it above hydrogen. It kind of looks like Micky Mouse’s head upsidedown. Highly polar. They very reaidly form a 3rd type of bond: hydrogen bond. Partial charge from polar covalent bond which is exceptionally weak but in bulk they are strong - Hydrogen bond ex: belly flopping Likes H-bonds Water molecules exclude non polar molecules - Oil & water Hydrophobic- means “water-fearing” molecules non polar molecules shrink when conacting with water Hydrophilic - means “water-loving” molecules polar molecules which want to mix with water and bond with it Water and oil do not make solutions because they don’t mix. Water - “universal solvent” Solution vocab: - Solvent & solute Ionic (and polar) compounds dissolve in water Hydrogen bonding - Cohesion - attracted to water - Adhesion - attracted to unlike compounds Ice lightest form (least dense) of water. Ice floats because of hydrogen bonds Ice insulates water below it so life can form slowly below it Any other liquid would freeze from the bottom up! High specific heat because it takes a lot of energy to heat up and a long time to cool down Regulates life on earth High heat of vaporization (liquid to gas water) Evaporation cools you off and consumes heat REVIEW table 2.2!! Water ionizes (pH) Ionization - dynamic equilibrium pH Scale (log base 10 scale): Acid - below 7 Basic - above 7 Examples of basic/acidic substances and where they fall on the scale: Basic - Lye, household bleach Middle ground/ on basic side - baking soda, seawater, human blood Neutral - water Slightly acidic - milk, urine, black coffee tomatoes, wine Acidic - lemon juice, stomach acid Buffer - acts as a reservoir for hydrogen atoms Carbonic acid - major player in blood Bicarbonate - your body uses this if your blood is too acidic Stanley Miller’s “Ocean Edge” experiment - explaining origins of the building blocks (see below...amino acids) Amino Acids - Building block molecules - Have 4 components: (central carbon bonded to:) 1. H atom 2. Amino functional group (as mentioned in chapter 2 notes) 3. Carboxyl functional group 4. R-Group (ionized forms of original molecule) - Combo of amino and carboxy functional group show us how molecules behave - Functional group charges are important a) They help the amino acid stay intact in a solution and therefore be able to come into contact with other solutes creating more bonds (what valence shells on hydrogen atoms always want) b) Chemical reactivity is affected by either a (+) or (-) charge - R-group aka “side chain” - unique aspect of the amino acid - In other words, all amino acids have those core components and this is how you can tell them apart from one another! YOU WILL WANT TO MEMORIZE THESE FOR THE EXAM - Review figure 3.2 p. 80!! - Different types of ​r-groups/side chains: ​ - (charged) A ​ cidic​ (2) - C bearing / (charged) ​ asic ​ 3) - NH bearing - hydrophilic - (uncharged) P ​ olar​ (5) - Oxygen bearing - hydrophilic - Nonpolar​ (10) - (the rest!) Hydrogen bearing - hydrophobic Other tips on remembering the groups: (YOU DO NOT NEED TO MEMORIZE ALL 20 INDIVIDUALLY) - Negative charge = narrows down to Acidic or Basic. If it has a (-) charge, it’s Acidic. Loses a proton (Vice versa for Positive charge…steps again) - Positive charge = narrows down to Acidic or Basic. We know now that Acidic has a (-) charge, so it has to be Basic. Gains a proton - Uncharged = O present? Then it’s going to be electronegative which is a polar covalent… giving us polar side chain - Not charged, no O? Last resort is nonpolar. Boom. Molecule vocab: Macromolecules - large molecules made up of tons of smaller molecules Monomer (“one part”)- smaller molecules within a macromolecule Polymer (“many parts”) - tons of monomers coming together to make a macromolecule Polymerization - process of monomers coming together as a polymer. Leads to creation of proteins Condensation reactions/ dehydration reactions - new bonds that in turn make the polymer loose a water molecule Hydrolysis - breaks the polymer apart and adds a water molecule Protein functions: Catalysis​ - catalyze (speed up chemical reactions). When a protein is acting as a catalysis, it is called an enzyme! Most important protein function Defense​ - you have heard the term antibody before. This is a protein that attack and kill viruses when you are sick and/or have a disease Movement ​- when a cell needs to move, it uses motor and contractile proteins to move. This is true when we use our muscles, even. Signaling -​ Carrying and receiving messages between cells in our bodies are a protein’s responsibility. Structure -​ Literally what it means. What we see, like hair and skin, these proteins keep red blood cells flexible and in the correct disk-like shape Transport -​ getting molecules into and out of the cell. Regulation​ - how genes are expressed Spontaneous reactants have more order and potential energy - Favored in experiments (higher energy) Non-spontaneous reactions are the opposite More bonds you have you are adding potential energy Amino acid - always ionic (reacted with water) 5 things - Central carbon - R chain - Amino Use process of info to identifying amino acids: Acidic and basic - hydrophillic Polar side chain - (-) charge hydrophillic Non-polar side chain - no charge, no oxygen, hydrophobic New material: Isomers: - Structural isomer - Easiest to identify - Geometric isomer - Because of the double bond, the molecule is stuck in that specific position - Transbutine - mirrored, but upsidedown - cis - mirrored but molecules in different arrangement with relation to double bond in the center - Optical isomer - Mirrored images Polymer: protein with repeating unit - so an amino acid bound to an amino acid to an amino acid PEPTIDE BOND - how amino acids are linked to create proteins Condensation reaction/dehydration synthesis - Monomers that combine to make polymers - Then macromolecule polymers are created and make water Depolymerization (hydrolysis - hydro (water) lysis (break apart)) - Reverse previous process Proteins will not form spontaneously in a solution of amino acids and water because hydrolysis reactions are energetically favored. Dehydration sythesis: Peptide bond - has a lot of characteristics of a double bond. It gets stuck, linear because of the inflexibility of the bond. Requires energy Polypeptides bonds - Amino terminus (N-terminus) - Carboxyl terminus (C-terminus) - Synthesis (and numbering) proceeds N -> C 20 amino acids all have their own names and can be represented by a 3-letter acronymn Residue - amino acid chain (N-terminus to C-terminus, reading left to right) Peptide bonds - Backbone of protein, inflexible which stabilizes the growing polypeptide Protein structure - primary structure is a specific sequence of amino acids - So reading the residues left to right - If we change the primary structure of a protein it can have devastating impacts - Mutations are silenced in human bodies but is not always the case - Ie: sickled cell. Polypeptide should be: Pro-Glu-Glu but is Pro-Val-Glu Does not carry oxygen well Primary structure- amino acid sequence Secondary structure - motifs of amino acid sequence - (Alpha) helix - (Beta) pleated sheet Tertiary Structure - 99% of proteins final shape - Take 2ndary structure and fold it together hydrophobic on inside and hydrophilic outside - Domains of highly stable sections How proteins fold down is spontaneous reactions - and it’s not fast Chaperonins proteins - helps things go properly (folding) - They are taken in and refolded and if they do not refold for some reason they are DESTROYED Tertiary Protein structures: (final folded shape) - Hydrogen bond - Between polar side chains and peptide backbone or other R-groups - Hydrophobic - occurs within an aqueous solution with a hydrophilic polar side chain (this is intuitive, because aqueous solutions are water solutions and need to attract polar side chains which love water) - van der Waals - The further stabilized hydrophobic side chain electrical attraction phenomenon - Covalent - Disulfide (‘two sulfur“) bonds - Aka bridges - Strong links between polypeptides of the same type OR strong links between 2 completely separated polypeptides - Sulfhydrul groups - Ionic - Completely full and opposing charges so this would be between the acidic and basic groups Quaternary Structure - - When interactions and combinations happen between polypeptides Disulfide bonds/bridges Hair example: ​composed of amino acid residues - Disulfide bridges - Curly - bonds at different levels vs straight same levels Your hair is more fragile when wet! Hydrogen bonds break apart when hair is wet and that’s because instead of the H bonds connecting with the amino acids in your hair, it’s connecting with the water As it dries, they reform H-bonds with amino acids Folding is often regulated but is also spontaneous Disordered - inactive - takes less time to keep disordered, assembled and ready to go so our bodies keep proteins folded Ordered - active Unfolding of proteins Generated by a change in enviornment, such as: - Heat, salt concentration and pH imbalances Chapter 4 DNA Sugar-phosphate backbone Nitrogenous bases connecting to double strands Backbones antiparallel to each other 5’ carbon to 3’ carbon Complementary base pairing Guanine with cytosine ALWAYS PAIR 3 bonds, slightly positive polar covalent bond Adenine and thymine ALWAYS PAIR 2 bonds, slightly weaker than ^ Purine-purine not enough space Pyrimidine- pyrimidine too much Phosphodiester bond - covalent Hydrogen bonds 1double strand 2Deoxyribose 3thymine nitrogenous base RNA Nitrogenous bases hanging off backbone Tends to be more reactive/less stable 1Single strand 2Ribose sugar (5 carbon string - extra oxygen) 3uracil nitrogenous base Specific sequences fold into a 3D structure mRNA splicing Acts as a unique enzyme - “ribozyme” Foldling “stem-loop” or hairpin turns ie: tRNA RNA replication - 1. Complementary bases pair 2. Copied strand polymerizes 3. Copy and template separate 4. Copy serves as a template 5. New copy polymerizes 6. New copy is identical to original template DNA replication Semi conservative 1. Strand seperation - hydrogen bonds seperate 2. Base pairing - complementary base pairing nucleotides read and build replacements since G-> C A->T 3. Polymerization - recreate strand with hydrogen bond “RNA World” Hypothesis - Rna can fn as an enzyme - Stores info - Random populations of rna make molecules w/enzymatic activity - First self-replication, ‘living’ system Nucleic acids and proteins Chapter 5 Carbohydrates - Monomer -> polymers - Carbon hydrogen and oxygen 1:2:1 - non polar bonds polar covalent bonds - Mono & di saccharides (glucose, lactose) short term storage of energy - Carbonyl group (C=O) aldihid or keytone LOCATION MATTERS - Tri, pen, hex-ose - Hydroxyl groups (-OH) - Glucose - Linear form always the same - When it makes a ring, changes the way we process it - Alpha trans - Beta sis - Fructose - Galactose - Sugar isomers - same formula different spot sis/trans - - Different form dictates different function - Glycosidic linkage - Dehydration synthesis - Maltose & water - Alpha - 1,4 - Beta - 1,4 - Beta galactose and glucose - lactose intolerance - Polysaccharides - long term energy - Energy storage, structure, cell identity - Exoskeleton - Sugar, hydrogen, oxygen - Starch - corn, potato - long term energy storage for starch - Apha 1,6 linkages - Alpha glucose - Glycogen - long term energy storage for animals - Muscles and liver - More Alpha 1,6 linkages than starch - Cellulose - plant structural polymers - Plants - Alternate flipping allows for hydrogen bond - Beta 1, 4 glycosidic linkage - Animals cannot digest cellulose, FIBER - Fungi, bacteria and rumen and termites - Starch and cellulose - our enzymes cant digest it - Chitin - animal structural polymer insect & crustacean exoskeleton - Anti flea medicine interferes with the larvae to create an exoskeleton to become a flea - Peptidoglycan - bacteria to build cell walls - Amino acids involved - Penicillin - inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis take out good bacteria as well - Structural Carb polymers - strands organized into fibers or shees (hydrogen or peptide bonds) - Glycoproteins - protein/carbohydrate combination - cell identity - Example: A, B, O blood groups - O most common - AB - universal recipient - based on presence of glycoprotein - Transmembrane proteins - Oligosaccharide - few sugars - Completely unique per person - Reproduction - PHOTOSYNTHESIS - Plants - Carbon dioxide(polar covalent) and water in sun and make carbohydrates - Residual is oxygen - Energy gets locked into plant as a bond - Much more potential energy - Polar to non polar - Energy stored in glucose to make ATP - Stored in c-H and C-C bonds transferred to ATP - Free energy in ATP (energy currency of the cell) is used to drive endergonic reactions (not spontaneous) and perform cell work ATP makes chemical energy useful to the cell - Burning carbs to make ATP Chapter 6 Lipids (fats) Build cells Phospholipid (biolayer)- phosphate head, amphipathic (part hydrophilic and phobic) Membrane - sheets that define compartments and cells Passages thru membranes - control in/out traffic for compartments and cells LIpid - Loosely defined - Carbon containing - Insoluable in water - Non polar covalent bonds - Isoprene - Hydrocarbon chain - doesnt like water - 14-20 - 3 types: - Steroid - Carbon rings - OH group - hydrophilic - The rest is hydrophobic - Fats (true) - Glycerol linked to 3 fatty acid tails - Ester linkage - Triglyceride - Lack polar end - Phospholipids (amphipathic) - Hydrophilic head - Charged - polar head hydrophilic - Non polar tail - hydrophobic


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