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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Elise Herenton

Exam 2 Study Guide PLSC 2013

Elise Herenton
GPA 3.0

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Intro to Comparative Politics
Jeffrey Ryan
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elise Herenton on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PLSC 2013 at University of Arkansas taught by Jeffrey Ryan in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comparative Politics in Political Science at University of Arkansas.

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Date Created: 10/12/16
Exam  2  Study  Guide     • Democracies  refer  to  governments,  which  are  governed  either  directly  or  indirectly  by  the  public   and  feature  participation,  competition,  and  liberty;  communist  states  define  a  democracy  as  a   system  that  promotes  collective  equality.   • Liberal  Democracies:  a  political  system  that  promotes  the  values  of  participation,  competition,  and   liberty  when  describing  such  systems   • Civil  Society:  organizations  outside  of  state  control  and  which  help  people  define  and  advance  their   interests,  may  also  contribute  to  democratization   • Executive  Branch:  responsible  for  carrying  out  the  policies  and  laws  created  by  the  state   • Cabinet:  body  of  ministers  (or  secretaries)  who  are  individually  responsible  for  implementing  a   specific  policy   • Legislature:  a  deliberate  body  in  which  policies  that  affect  a  state  as  a  whole  are  considered,   debated,  and  voted  on   • Constitution:     • Parliamentary  System:  the  roles  of  head  of  state  and  head  of  government  are  assigns  to  spate   executive  offices   • Coalition:  a  temporary  alliance  of  pa rties  that  is  arranged  to  establish  a  government   • Vote  of  no  Confidence:  a  vote  among  legislators  to  support  or  remove  a  prime  minister   • Semi-­‐Presidential  System:  power  is  divided  between  a  head  of  state  and  head  of  government,  both   of  whom  exercise  power   • Electoral  System:  the  rules  that  decide  how  votes  are  cast,  counted,  and  translated  into  seats  in  a   legislature   • Constituencies:  the  geographic  areas  that  elected  officials  represent   • Political  Violence:  hostile  acts  that  occur  outside  of  the  control  of  the  st ate  and  that  seeks  to   achieve  a  political  objective   • Ideational  refers  to  the  expression  of  ideas.     • Revolution:  the  public  seizure  of  the  state  with  the  purpose  of  overthrowing  the  existing   government  and  regime   • Terrorism  refers  to  a  violent  act  that  target s  noncombatants  and  is  intended  to  spread  fear,  or  serve   a  political  purpose.     • Guerrilla  Warfare:  warfare  involving  non-­‐state  combatants  who  accept  traditional  rules  of  war  and   do  not  target  civilians   • Authoritarianism:  any  political  system  in  which  a   small  group  exercises  power  and  is  not  formally   accountable  to  the  public   • Resource  Trap:  a  development  theory  that  suggests  government  access  to  natural  resources  may   prevent  democratization   • Corporatism  refers  to  practice  by  which  autocratic  governments   solidify  their  rule  by  creating  or   sanctioning  a  limited  number  of  organizations  that  represent  public  interest .   • Clientelism  refers  to  a  system  in  which  the  state   draws  members  of  the  public  into  the  government   by  providing  specific  benefits  in  return  for  public   support.     • Personality  Cult:  a  promotion  of  a  leader  as  “someone  who  em bodies  the  spirit  of  the  nation ”   • Patrimonialism  refers  to  an  arrangement  whereby  a  ruler  depends  on  an  array  of  supporters,  who   gain  direct  benefits  in  return  for  support  of  the  ruler’s   agenda.   • Bureaucratic  Authoritarianism :  a  system  in  which  military  leaders   implement  technocratic  solutions   to  national  problems  without  public  participation     Chapter  5     v How  does  modernization  contribute  to  the  democratization?     The  Distribution  of  Wealth?  If  national  wealth  is  primarily  held  by  elites,  then  they  are  less  likely  to   relinquish  power.  But  if  wealth  is  evenly  distributed,  those  in  power  may  be  more  likely  to  step   down  peacefully.   v How  might  the  powers  of  the  Executive  branch  be  divided?  Power  may  be  divided  between  a  head   of  state  and  a  head  of  government .   Ø Head  of  State:  an  executive  institution  that   symbolizes  and  represents  citizens  of  a  state ,   primarily  in  international  arenas   Ø Head  of  Government:  responsible  for  developing  and  implementing  dom estic  policy  and  serving   as  the  head  of  a  government   v Be  able  to  identify  the  various  ways  in  whic h  legislatures  can  be  organized:  Most  legislatures  can   be  classified  as  a  unicameral  or  a  bicameral  system .   Ø Unicameral  Legislature :  only  feature  a  single  legislative  chamber;  more  common  in  smaller   countries   Ø Bicameral  Legislature:  feature  two  chamber  of  representatives;  serve  as  a  check  on  legislative   power  and  allow  for  the  representation  of  specific  local  interests   § Be  able  to  describe  the  organ ization  of  parliamentary  system:  In  this  system,  a  prime   minister  is  a  member  of  the  legislature ,  who  holds  executive  powers  within  the  legislative   chamber.   Ø What  are  the  ramifications  of  this  organization  (Ex.  How  does  it  affect  a  Separation  of   Powers?)  There  is  a  limited  separation  of  power  between  the  Legislative  and  Executive  Branches   in  a  Parliamentary  system.   v How  is  a  Presidential  system  organized?   Presidents  under  this  system  are   directly  elected  and  may   draw  political  support  from  the  public  at  large.   § How  is  power  distributed  under  this  system?     v How  are  elections  organized  in  a  Single  Member  District  (SMD)  system?  A  single-­‐member  district   system  refers  to  an  electoral  system  in  which  a  single  district  sends  a  single  representative  to  a   national  legislature.   § How  is  the  winner  of  an  election  determined  under  this  system?  Members  in  this  system   are  elected  through  a  plurality-­‐based  system,  where  a  winning  candidate  must  win  more   votes  than  another  candidate,  even  if  they  do  not  receive  a  majority  of  the  votes .   v How  are  elections  organized  in  a  Proportional  Representation  (PR)  system?  Proportional   Representation  (PR)  refers  to  an  electoral  system  in  which  parties  compete  in  multi -­‐member   districts  and  seats  in  a  legislature   awarded  based  on  a  party’s  strength  of  support .   § How  are  seats  in  a  legislature  awarded  under  this  system?  Under  this  system,  voters  select   a  political  party  rather  than  a  candidate.   v What  are  the  benefits  and  drawbacks  of  each  type  of  system?   Ø Benefits:  Party  discipline  and  party  ideology  play  a  stronger  role  in  a  PR  system.  Since  voters   select  a  party  rather  than  an  individual  candidate,  candidates  are  less  likely  to  adopt   independent  positions.  A  PR  system  also  may  enable  religious  or  ethnic  minorities  to  send   representatives  to  a  national  legislature.  SMD  systems  allow  voters  to  directly  connect  with   representatives.   Ø Drawbacks:  Governments  are  usually  formed  through  coalitions,  since  no  party  is  likely  to  win  a   majority  of  seats  in  a  legislature .  Under  these  conditions,   governments  may  not  last  for  more   than  a  few  months.  Ideologically  driven  parties  can  also  use  coalition  building  as  a  way  to  extract   concessions  from  larger  parties .     Chapter  7   v Be  able  to  identify  the  basic  explanations  of  violence  that  were  discussed  in  class.  Institutional   explanations  suggest  that  violence  may  occur   in  response  to  the  institutions  (or  changes  to  the   institutions)  of  the  state  and  society.  Ideational  explanations  sometimes  focus  on   ideological   explanations  of  violence:  an  ideologies  identify  a  problem  and  then  provides  a  solution.  Ideologies   that  promote  revolutionary  or  reactionary  political  also  provide  an  ideational  basis  for  violence.   Individual  explanations  focus  on  the  personal  motivations  of  those  who  commit  violence.   v What  are  the  basic  features  of  a  revolution?     § How  are  they  related  to  a  Coup  d’état?   Revolutions  differ  from  coup  d’états  in  that  the   public  (in  addition  to  elites)  plays  a  major  role  in  taking  power   Are  revolutions  violent?  Revolutions  may  or  may  not  be  violent.  The  dramatic  goals  of   revolution  (and  their  probable  resistance)  make  violence  difficult  to  avoid  even  if   revolutionaries  are  attempting  to  avoid  it .   v What  does  the  “Relative  Depravation  Model”  describe?  This  stipulates  that  revolutions  will  occur   when  public  expectations  outpace  the  rate  of  change .   v What  is  the  purpose  of  terrorism?   Terrorism  is  designed  to   undermine  civilian  support  for  a   government.  This  discontent  is  intended  to  force  the  state  to  discontinue  the  unpopular  policy .   What  are  its  primary  effects?   The  primary  effects  of  terrorism  are  psychological,  and  are  intended   to  generate  fear  in  a  society.   Is  terrorism  effective?  The  effectiveness  of  terrorism  is   questionable.   v Be  able  to  describe  the  relationship  between  terrorism  and  revolution.  Terrorism  and  revolutions   generally  seek  to  achieve  the  same  objectives.   v What  conditions  lead  to  religious  violence?   Conditions  do  vary  according  to  religion  and   experiences,  but  some  basic  trends  are  evident.  Generally  speaking,  vi olent  fundamentalists  exhibit   a  hostility  to  modern  society ,  view  modern  society  as  actively  seeking  to  eradicate  religious   individuals,  and  adhere  to  apocalyptic  (and  then)  utopian  beliefs.   Be  able  to  identify  the  key  features  of  these  explanations.   Hostility  to  Modern  Society :  Violent  fundamentalists  assume  that  institutions  such  as  the  modern   state,  secularism,  and  capitalism  have  deprived  individuals  of  greater  meaning  in  their  life .  These   ideas  are  most  prominent  in  areas  where  modernity  is  viewed  as  a  foreign  value  and  does  not  well   mesh  well  with  traditional  society .   “Cosmic”  Struggle  between  the  Modern  World  and  Religious  Individuals :  Fundamentalists  fear  that   the  modern  state  not  only  marginalizes  religion  but  actively  seeks  to  eradicate  religious  individuals .   This,  in  turn,  justifies   violence  against  civilians,  because   those  who  are  not  actively  supporting  the   fundamentalist  agenda  must  be  against.   Apocalyptic  Views  of  their  Situation -­‐  Religious  individuals  are  “losing”  to  modernity.  Thus,  religious   individuals  may  use  violence  to  counter  this,  or  to  return  the  world  to  religious  values.   v What  is  likely  to  limit  the  frequency  and  likelihood  of  political  violence?   Terrorism  and  revolution  has  been  less  likely  to  occur  in   democracies.  Democracies  promote   participation,  and  so  it  is  led  likely  that  individuals  will  feel  drive n  to  violence.     Chapter  6   v How  are  nondemocratic  states  maintained?  Nondemocratic  states  are  maintained  by   restricting   individual  freedom.  Freedoms  of  speech,  assembly,  and  others  allow  citizens  to  challenge  the   decisions  of  a  government.   v Be  able  to  identify  sources  of  nondemocratic  rule  and  how  they  contribute  to  this  lack  of   development.  A  lack  of  modernization  can  prevent  state  from  developing  a  democratic  system.   States  that  are  economically  under-­‐developed  are  less  likely  to  develop  democratic  systems.  Under-­‐ development  prohibits  the  growth  of  a  middle -­‐class,  which  is  usually  a  key  feature  in  a  democracy.   v Be  able  to  identify  any  methods  a  nondemocratic  state  might  use  to  use  to  remain  in  power.  Some   autocratic  states  hold  power  through   violence.  Widespread  surveillance  also  allows  a  state  to  exert   control  over  its  citizens.   v What  is  co-­‐optation?  Some  states  attempt  to  connect  potential  dissenters  to  the  state  through  a   beneficial  relationship .  This  makes  such  individuals  dependent  on  the  government  for  rewards  and   delegitimizes  them  to  other  dissenters .   What  are  the  benefits   to  this  practice?  Such  actions  can  generate  legitimacy  for  the  government .   Provision  of  benefits  (and  limited  participation)  may   generate  legal-­‐rational  legitimacy.   v What  factors  are  crucial  in  cultivating  a  personality  cult?  Media  support  is  crucial  to  creating  a   personality  cult.  The  media  must  portray  the  leader  as  personally  appealing,  and  must  also  attribute   political  victories  to  their  leadership.   v Be  able  to  identify  any  nondemocratic  political  systems  that  limit  participation  or  political  power.     § Be  able  provide  any  examples  of  each  type.   Co-­‐operation-­‐  Nondemocratic  regimes  may  not  rely  on  violence  to  maintain  authority.   Ex.  Some  states  attempt  to  connect  potential  dissenters  to  the  state  through  beneficial   relationship.  This  makes  individuals  dependen t  on  the  government  for  rewards  and   delegitimizes  them  to  other  disenters.   Military  Rule  often  emerges  through  a  coup  d’ etat.  Military  leaders  may  directly  intervene  in   politics,  in  theory  to  provide  stability  during  a  period  of  unrest .   Ex.  Military  leader s  use  coercion  in  these  conditions  and  civil  liberties  are  quickly  restricted   while  civilian  leaders  and  political  opponents  are  arrested .  Legitimacy,  if  any,  is  earned  as  legal-­‐ rational  legitimacy;  military  leaders  solve  problems  as  they  emerge  so  people   of  society  will  be   more  on  the  government’s  side.   Theocracies  represent  attempts  to  fuse  religious  authority  with  state  authority.   Ex.  Democratic  regimes  may  exist  in  theocracies,  but  such  values  would  be  sharply  constrained   by  religious  values  and  leaders .  Iran  features  a  president  and  legislature,  but  their  decisions  can   be  overturned  by  the  Guardian  Council  and  the  Supreme  Leader.        


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