Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide PLSC 2013
Popular in Intro to Comparative Politics
Popular in Political Science
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elise Herenton on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PLSC 2013 at University of Arkansas taught by Jeffrey Ryan in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comparative Politics in Political Science at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
Exam 2 Study Guide • Democracies refer to governments, which are governed either directly or indirectly by the public and feature participation, competition, and liberty; communist states define a democracy as a system that promotes collective equality. • Liberal Democracies: a political system that promotes the values of participation, competition, and liberty when describing such systems • Civil Society: organizations outside of state control and which help people define and advance their interests, may also contribute to democratization • Executive Branch: responsible for carrying out the policies and laws created by the state • Cabinet: body of ministers (or secretaries) who are individually responsible for implementing a specific policy • Legislature: a deliberate body in which policies that affect a state as a whole are considered, debated, and voted on • Constitution: • Parliamentary System: the roles of head of state and head of government are assigns to spate executive offices • Coalition: a temporary alliance of pa rties that is arranged to establish a government • Vote of no Confidence: a vote among legislators to support or remove a prime minister • Semi-‐Presidential System: power is divided between a head of state and head of government, both of whom exercise power • Electoral System: the rules that decide how votes are cast, counted, and translated into seats in a legislature • Constituencies: the geographic areas that elected officials represent • Political Violence: hostile acts that occur outside of the control of the st ate and that seeks to achieve a political objective • Ideational refers to the expression of ideas. • Revolution: the public seizure of the state with the purpose of overthrowing the existing government and regime • Terrorism refers to a violent act that target s noncombatants and is intended to spread fear, or serve a political purpose. • Guerrilla Warfare: warfare involving non-‐state combatants who accept traditional rules of war and do not target civilians • Authoritarianism: any political system in which a small group exercises power and is not formally accountable to the public • Resource Trap: a development theory that suggests government access to natural resources may prevent democratization • Corporatism refers to practice by which autocratic governments solidify their rule by creating or sanctioning a limited number of organizations that represent public interest . • Clientelism refers to a system in which the state draws members of the public into the government by providing specific benefits in return for public support. • Personality Cult: a promotion of a leader as “someone who em bodies the spirit of the nation ” • Patrimonialism refers to an arrangement whereby a ruler depends on an array of supporters, who gain direct benefits in return for support of the ruler’s agenda. • Bureaucratic Authoritarianism : a system in which military leaders implement technocratic solutions to national problems without public participation Chapter 5 v How does modernization contribute to the democratization? The Distribution of Wealth? If national wealth is primarily held by elites, then they are less likely to relinquish power. But if wealth is evenly distributed, those in power may be more likely to step down peacefully. v How might the powers of the Executive branch be divided? Power may be divided between a head of state and a head of government . Ø Head of State: an executive institution that symbolizes and represents citizens of a state , primarily in international arenas Ø Head of Government: responsible for developing and implementing dom estic policy and serving as the head of a government v Be able to identify the various ways in whic h legislatures can be organized: Most legislatures can be classified as a unicameral or a bicameral system . Ø Unicameral Legislature : only feature a single legislative chamber; more common in smaller countries Ø Bicameral Legislature: feature two chamber of representatives; serve as a check on legislative power and allow for the representation of specific local interests § Be able to describe the organ ization of parliamentary system: In this system, a prime minister is a member of the legislature , who holds executive powers within the legislative chamber. Ø What are the ramifications of this organization (Ex. How does it affect a Separation of Powers?) There is a limited separation of power between the Legislative and Executive Branches in a Parliamentary system. v How is a Presidential system organized? Presidents under this system are directly elected and may draw political support from the public at large. § How is power distributed under this system? v How are elections organized in a Single Member District (SMD) system? A single-‐member district system refers to an electoral system in which a single district sends a single representative to a national legislature. § How is the winner of an election determined under this system? Members in this system are elected through a plurality-‐based system, where a winning candidate must win more votes than another candidate, even if they do not receive a majority of the votes . v How are elections organized in a Proportional Representation (PR) system? Proportional Representation (PR) refers to an electoral system in which parties compete in multi -‐member districts and seats in a legislature awarded based on a party’s strength of support . § How are seats in a legislature awarded under this system? Under this system, voters select a political party rather than a candidate. v What are the benefits and drawbacks of each type of system? Ø Benefits: Party discipline and party ideology play a stronger role in a PR system. Since voters select a party rather than an individual candidate, candidates are less likely to adopt independent positions. A PR system also may enable religious or ethnic minorities to send representatives to a national legislature. SMD systems allow voters to directly connect with representatives. Ø Drawbacks: Governments are usually formed through coalitions, since no party is likely to win a majority of seats in a legislature . Under these conditions, governments may not last for more than a few months. Ideologically driven parties can also use coalition building as a way to extract concessions from larger parties . Chapter 7 v Be able to identify the basic explanations of violence that were discussed in class. Institutional explanations suggest that violence may occur in response to the institutions (or changes to the institutions) of the state and society. Ideational explanations sometimes focus on ideological explanations of violence: an ideologies identify a problem and then provides a solution. Ideologies that promote revolutionary or reactionary political also provide an ideational basis for violence. Individual explanations focus on the personal motivations of those who commit violence. v What are the basic features of a revolution? § How are they related to a Coup d’état? Revolutions differ from coup d’états in that the public (in addition to elites) plays a major role in taking power Are revolutions violent? Revolutions may or may not be violent. The dramatic goals of revolution (and their probable resistance) make violence difficult to avoid even if revolutionaries are attempting to avoid it . v What does the “Relative Depravation Model” describe? This stipulates that revolutions will occur when public expectations outpace the rate of change . v What is the purpose of terrorism? Terrorism is designed to undermine civilian support for a government. This discontent is intended to force the state to discontinue the unpopular policy . What are its primary effects? The primary effects of terrorism are psychological, and are intended to generate fear in a society. Is terrorism effective? The effectiveness of terrorism is questionable. v Be able to describe the relationship between terrorism and revolution. Terrorism and revolutions generally seek to achieve the same objectives. v What conditions lead to religious violence? Conditions do vary according to religion and experiences, but some basic trends are evident. Generally speaking, vi olent fundamentalists exhibit a hostility to modern society , view modern society as actively seeking to eradicate religious individuals, and adhere to apocalyptic (and then) utopian beliefs. Be able to identify the key features of these explanations. Hostility to Modern Society : Violent fundamentalists assume that institutions such as the modern state, secularism, and capitalism have deprived individuals of greater meaning in their life . These ideas are most prominent in areas where modernity is viewed as a foreign value and does not well mesh well with traditional society . “Cosmic” Struggle between the Modern World and Religious Individuals : Fundamentalists fear that the modern state not only marginalizes religion but actively seeks to eradicate religious individuals . This, in turn, justifies violence against civilians, because those who are not actively supporting the fundamentalist agenda must be against. Apocalyptic Views of their Situation -‐ Religious individuals are “losing” to modernity. Thus, religious individuals may use violence to counter this, or to return the world to religious values. v What is likely to limit the frequency and likelihood of political violence? Terrorism and revolution has been less likely to occur in democracies. Democracies promote participation, and so it is led likely that individuals will feel drive n to violence. Chapter 6 v How are nondemocratic states maintained? Nondemocratic states are maintained by restricting individual freedom. Freedoms of speech, assembly, and others allow citizens to challenge the decisions of a government. v Be able to identify sources of nondemocratic rule and how they contribute to this lack of development. A lack of modernization can prevent state from developing a democratic system. States that are economically under-‐developed are less likely to develop democratic systems. Under-‐ development prohibits the growth of a middle -‐class, which is usually a key feature in a democracy. v Be able to identify any methods a nondemocratic state might use to use to remain in power. Some autocratic states hold power through violence. Widespread surveillance also allows a state to exert control over its citizens. v What is co-‐optation? Some states attempt to connect potential dissenters to the state through a beneficial relationship . This makes such individuals dependent on the government for rewards and delegitimizes them to other dissenters . What are the benefits to this practice? Such actions can generate legitimacy for the government . Provision of benefits (and limited participation) may generate legal-‐rational legitimacy. v What factors are crucial in cultivating a personality cult? Media support is crucial to creating a personality cult. The media must portray the leader as personally appealing, and must also attribute political victories to their leadership. v Be able to identify any nondemocratic political systems that limit participation or political power. § Be able provide any examples of each type. Co-‐operation-‐ Nondemocratic regimes may not rely on violence to maintain authority. Ex. Some states attempt to connect potential dissenters to the state through beneficial relationship. This makes individuals dependen t on the government for rewards and delegitimizes them to other disenters. Military Rule often emerges through a coup d’ etat. Military leaders may directly intervene in politics, in theory to provide stability during a period of unrest . Ex. Military leader s use coercion in these conditions and civil liberties are quickly restricted while civilian leaders and political opponents are arrested . Legitimacy, if any, is earned as legal-‐ rational legitimacy; military leaders solve problems as they emerge so people of society will be more on the government’s side. Theocracies represent attempts to fuse religious authority with state authority. Ex. Democratic regimes may exist in theocracies, but such values would be sharply constrained by religious values and leaders . Iran features a president and legislature, but their decisions can be overturned by the Guardian Council and the Supreme Leader.
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