Human Growth and Development Test 4 Stdu Guide
Human Growth and Development Test 4 Stdu Guide EPY 2513
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Greer on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EPY 2513 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Abernathy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
10/12/16 Human Growth and Development Chapter 7 Middle Childhood: Body and Mind • ages 611 or 711 • “the school years” • 90% of children are in school by age 7 • A Healthy Time middle childhood • period between early childhood and early adolescence, approximately from ages 611 lower death rates • immunizations • less lethal accidents and fatal illnesses fewer chronic conditions • better diagnostic and preventative medical care • less secondhand smoke • better health habits • specialized programs • improved oral health • Slow and Steady Growth: Physical Activity average child gains about 2 in. and 5 lbs. per year benefits of physical activity can last a lifetime • advances in physical, mental and emotional health • academic achievement improvement better cerebral blood flow and more neurotransmitters better mood and energy • embodied cognition aided thoughts affect physical health concerns • sports are not always beneficial 10/12/16 Human Growth and Development • traumatic brain injury women’s soccer has most TBI • Where to Exercise children can benefit from exercise in their neighborhoods, schools, and sport leagues • finding play places may be difficult • modern life challenges neighborhood play • indoor activities often replace outdoor play • economic barriers may limit participation in league and club activities • time for school physical activities and recess is reduced in many schools • Health Problems: Obesity many 6 to 11 year olds eat too much, exercise too little, and become overweight or obese as a result childhood obesity is increasing worldwide, having more than doubled since 1980 in all three North American nations excessive weight contributes to future health risk increases, average achievement decreases, selfesteem failures, and loneliness BMI (body mass index) • doesn't take muscle mass into consideration childhood overweight • in a child, having a BMI above the 85th percentile childhood obesity • in a child, having a BMI above the 95th percentile • Heavier and Heavier pg. 243 obesity increases with age infants have lower rates, nurture more influential than nature • Obesity: From the Cells of the Body to the Norms of Society genetic influences 10/12/16 Human Growth and Development • dozens of genes affect weight by influencing activity level, hunger, food preference, body type, and metabolism parenting practices • infants no breast feeding and solid foods before 4 months • preschoolers bedroom TV watching and soda consumption • schoolagers insufficient sleep, extensive screen time, little active play • Asthma pg. 244 hygiene hypothesis germaphobe mothers cause immune system not to develop, therefore causing you to be sick all the time prevention • primary permanent change to environment • secondary temporary; have it when you need it • tertiary reaction to situation •asthma has become so common that an inhaler is almost “cool” • Cognition: Piaget and Middle Childhood concrete operational thought • Piaget’s term for the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions (ex. clock makes time concrete) classification • categorization • learn to categorize • ex. learn to know what’s food and what’s not food seriation • understand order and arrangement transitive inference • ex. John is taller than Jack, Jack is taller than Jamal. Who is taller, John or Jamal? • Information Processing 10/12/16 Human Growth and Development analogy that compares how a laptop processes information to how our brain’s process information knowledge base • everyone has varying knowledge bases • how well you know an area metacognition • “thinking about thinking” control processes • how do your cognitive processes work and how well do they work together reaction time • myelination • back and forth selective attention • block other senses to focus on one automatization • doing a task without even realizing it • Memory sensory memory • lightning • “picturetaking memory” working memory • shortterm memory • 1530 seconds that your brain processes information longterm memory • once memories reach longterm memory, they are there forever • file cabinet don’t really have a memory until about age 4 • Learning Code: Switching pragmatics 10/12/16 Human Growth and Development • ability to use words and devices to communicate in various contexts • allow children to change formal and informal codes • Learning in School international schooling hidden curriculum • certain students get special treatment such as athletes international testing choices and complications • public/private school • homeschool • Developmental Psychology 4 general principles • abnormality is normal • disability changes year by year • life may get better or worse • diagnosis and treatment reflect the social context • Measuring the Mind aptitude measures potential achievement tests what you know multiple intelligences • Gardner 9 intelligences • linguistic • logical mathematical • musical • spatial • bodilykinesthetic • interpersonal • intrapersonal 10/12/16 Human Growth and Development • naturalistic • existential each associated with a region of the brain used in education Sternberg • Special Needs in Middle Childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder • comorbidity • Increasing incidence concerns Misdiagnosis Drug abuse Normal behavior considered pathological • DSM5 Diagnosis of Specific Learning Disorder Specific learning disorder Dyslexia Dyscalculia • Specific Learning Disorder: Autism Spectrum Disorder • Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) Cause and treatment disputed Equifinality applies Most diagnosis at age 4 or later 46 percent in normal or above range on IQ tests Gender and ethnic differences in rates • Three categories: Mild, moderate, severe Chapter 8 Middle Childhood: The Social World • The Nature of the Child drive for independence from parents expands the social world selfconcept 10/12/16 Human Growth and Development • ideas about sex that include intelligence, personality, abilities, gender, and ethnic background • Social Comparison and SelfEsteem involves tendency to assess ones abilities. achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially ones peers children value the abilities they have and become more realistic selfesteem typically decreases in school children • The Nature of the SchoolAge Children industry vs. inferiority • 4th part of Erikson’s eight psychosocial crisis • characterized by tension between productivity and incompetence children • attempt to master culturally valued skills and develop a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent • Signs of Psychological Maturation Developing Between Ages 6 and 11 responsibility to perform specific chores manage a weekly allowance and activities complete homework attempt to conform to peers what to do after school • Resilience and Stress resilience • capacity to adapt well to significant adversity • and to overcome serious stress important components • resilience is dynamic 10/12/16 Human Growth and Development • resilience is a positive adaptation to stress • adversity must be significant • Cognitive Coping factors contributing to resilience • circle of friends and activities • child’s interpretation of events • support of family and community • personal strengths such as creativity and intelligence • avoid parentification when a child acts more like a parent than a child • Families and Children shared and nonshared environments • influence of shared environment shrinks with age • effect of nonshared environment increases • Family Structure and Family Function family structure • legal and genetic relationships of families family function • function is more important than structure, but harder to measure • low income and high conflict interfere with family function in every nation during middle childhood, families help children by • providing basic material necessities • encouraging learning • helping them develop selfrespect • nurturing friendships • fostering harmony and stability • Diverse Family Structures 10/12/16 Human Growth and Development twoparent families 6769% • nuclear family • stepparent/ blended family • adoptive family • grandparents alone • two samesex parents singleparent families 2831% • single mother or father (never married) • single mother or father (divorced, separated, widowed) • grandparent alone • A son being raised by a single mother, despite ethnicity, is more likely to have trouble adjusting to being an adult. more than two adults • extended family multiple generations • polygamous family • Family Trouble two factors increase the likelihood of dysfunction in every structure, ethnic group, and nation • lowincome and poverty • high conflict poverty: familystress model • any risk factor damages a family only if it increases the stress on that family • adults’ reactions to poverty • The Peer Group culture of children • particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and standards 10/12/16 Human Growth and Development • Very important for kids to have friends • Unpopular children aggressiverejected children • loud and obnoxious withdrawnrejected children • quiet, introverted • Bullies and Victims bullying • repeated bullyvictim • bullies are usually the ones being bullied • Children’s Moral Reasoning Kohlberg’s level of moral thought • preconventional moral reasoning rewards and punishments • conventional moral reasoning family, friends, society people think it’s right just because other people think it’s right • postconventional moral reasoning you actually believe because something is right or wrong, and you use it in your life
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