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Human Growth and Development Test 4 Stdu Guide

by: Madison Greer

Human Growth and Development Test 4 Stdu Guide EPY 2513

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > EPY 2513 > Human Growth and Development Test 4 Stdu Guide
Madison Greer

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About this Document

This is a study guide for test 4.
Human Growth and Development
Dr. Abernathy
Study Guide
Human, growth, and, development, ty, Abernathy, madison, greer
50 ?




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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Greer on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EPY 2513 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Abernathy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 10/12/16
10/12/16 Human Growth and Development Chapter 7­ Middle Childhood: Body and Mind • ages 6­11 or 7­11 • “the school years” • 90% of children are in school by age 7 • A Healthy Time ­ middle childhood • period between early childhood and early adolescence, approximately from  ages 6­11 ­ lower death rates • immunizations • less lethal accidents and fatal illnesses ­ fewer chronic conditions • better diagnostic and preventative medical care  • less secondhand smoke • better health habits • specialized programs • improved oral health • Slow and Steady Growth: Physical Activity ­ average child gains about 2 in. and 5 lbs. per year ­ benefits of physical activity can last a lifetime • advances in physical, mental and emotional health • academic achievement improvement  ­ better cerebral blood flow and more neurotransmitters ­ better mood and energy • embodied cognition aided ­ thoughts affect physical health ­ concerns • sports are not always beneficial 10/12/16 Human Growth and Development • traumatic brain injury ­ women’s soccer has most TBI • Where to Exercise ­ children can benefit from exercise in their neighborhoods, schools, and sport  leagues • finding play places may be difficult  • modern life challenges neighborhood play • indoor activities often replace outdoor play • economic barriers may limit participation in league and club activities • time for school physical activities and recess is reduced in many schools • Health Problems: Obesity ­ many 6 to 11 year olds eat too much, exercise too little, and become overweight  or obese as a result ­ childhood obesity is increasing worldwide, having more than doubled since 1980  in all three North American nations ­ excessive weight contributes to future health risk increases, average  achievement decreases, self­esteem failures, and loneliness ­ BMI (body mass index) • doesn't take muscle mass into consideration  ­ childhood overweight • in a child, having a BMI above the 85th percentile ­ childhood obesity • in a child, having a BMI above the 95th percentile • Heavier and Heavier­ pg. 243 ­ obesity increases with age ­ infants have lower rates, nurture more influential than nature  • Obesity: From the Cells of the Body to the Norms of Society ­ genetic influences  10/12/16 Human Growth and Development • dozens of genes affect weight by influencing activity level, hunger, food  preference, body type, and metabolism ­ parenting practices • infants­ no breast feeding and solid foods before 4 months • preschoolers­ bedroom TV watching and soda consumption • schoolagers­ insufficient sleep, extensive screen time, little active play • Asthma­ pg. 244 ­ hygiene hypothesis­ germaphobe mothers cause immune system not to develop, therefore causing you to be sick all the time ­ prevention • primary­ permanent change to environment • secondary­ temporary; have it when you need it • tertiary­ reaction to situation •asthma has become so common that an inhaler is almost “cool” • Cognition: Piaget and Middle Childhood  ­ concrete operational thought • Piaget’s term for the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and  perceptions (ex.­ clock makes time concrete) ­ classification  • categorization • learn to categorize • ex.­ learn to know what’s food and what’s not food ­  seriation • understand order and arrangement ­ transitive inference  • ex.­ John is taller than Jack, Jack is taller than Jamal. Who is taller, John or  Jamal? • Information Processing 10/12/16 Human Growth and Development ­ analogy that compares how a laptop processes information to how our brain’s  process information ­ knowledge base • everyone has varying knowledge bases • how well you know an area ­ metacognition • “thinking about thinking” ­ control processes • how do your cognitive processes work and how well do they work together ­ reaction time • myelination • back and forth  ­ selective attention • block other senses to focus on one ­ automatization  • doing a task without even realizing it • Memory ­ sensory memory • lightning • “picture­taking memory” ­ working memory  • short­term memory • 15­30 seconds that your brain processes information ­ long­term memory • once memories reach long­term memory, they are there forever • file cabinet  ­ don’t really have a memory until about age 4 • Learning Code: Switching ­ pragmatics 10/12/16 Human Growth and Development • ability to use words and devices to communicate in various contexts • allow children to change formal and informal codes  • Learning in School ­ international schooling ­ hidden curriculum • certain students get special treatment such as athletes ­ international testing ­ choices and complications • public/private school • homeschool • Developmental Psychology ­ 4 general principles • abnormality is normal  • disability changes year by year • life may get better or worse  • diagnosis and treatment reflect the social context • Measuring the Mind ­ aptitude­ measures potential ­ achievement tests­ what you know ­ multiple intelligences • Gardner ­ 9 intelligences • linguistic • logical mathematical  • musical • spatial • bodily­kinesthetic • interpersonal  • intrapersonal  10/12/16 Human Growth and Development • naturalistic • existential ­ each associated with a region of the brain ­ used in education  ­ Sternberg • Special Needs in Middle Childhood ­ Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder • comorbidity • Increasing incidence concerns ­ Misdiagnosis ­ Drug abuse ­ Normal behavior considered pathological • DSM­5 Diagnosis of Specific Learning Disorder ­ Specific learning disorder ­ Dyslexia ­ Dyscalculia • Specific Learning Disorder: Autism Spectrum Disorder • Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) ­ Cause and treatment disputed ­ Equifinality applies ­ Most diagnosis at age 4 or later ­ 46 percent in normal or above range on IQ tests ­ Gender and ethnic differences in rates • Three categories: Mild, moderate, severe Chapter 8­ Middle Childhood: The Social World • The Nature of the Child ­ drive for independence from parents expands the social world ­ self­concept 10/12/16 Human Growth and Development • ideas about sex that include intelligence, personality, abilities, gender, and  ethnic background • Social Comparison and Self­Esteem ­ involves tendency to assess ones abilities. achievements, social status, and  other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially  ones peers ­ children value the abilities they have and become more realistic ­ self­esteem typically decreases in school children • The Nature of the School­Age Children ­ industry vs. inferiority • 4th part of Erikson’s eight psychosocial crisis • characterized by tension between productivity and incompetence  ­ children  • attempt to master culturally valued skills and develop a sense of themselves  as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent  • Signs of Psychological Maturation Developing Between Ages 6 and 11 ­ responsibility to perform specific chores ­ manage a weekly allowance and activities ­ complete homework  ­ attempt to conform to peers ­ what to do after school • Resilience and Stress ­ resilience  • capacity to adapt well to significant adversity • and to overcome serious stress ­ important components • resilience is dynamic 10/12/16 Human Growth and Development • resilience is a positive adaptation to stress • adversity must be significant • Cognitive Coping ­ factors contributing to resilience  • circle of friends and activities • child’s interpretation of events • support of family and community • personal strengths such as creativity and intelligence • avoid parentification ­ when a child acts more like a parent than a child • Families and Children ­ shared and non­shared environments  • influence of shared environment shrinks with age • effect of non­shared environment increases • Family Structure and Family Function ­ family structure • legal and genetic relationships of families  ­ family function • function is more important than structure, but harder to measure  • low income and high conflict interfere with family function in every nation ­ during middle childhood, families help children by • providing basic material necessities • encouraging learning • helping them develop self­respect • nurturing friendships • fostering harmony and stability • Diverse Family Structures 10/12/16 Human Growth and Development ­ two­parent families­ 67­69% • nuclear family • stepparent/ blended family • adoptive family • grandparents alone • two same­sex parents ­ single­parent families­ 28­31% • single mother or father (never married) • single mother or father (divorced, separated, widowed) • grandparent alone • A son being raised by a single mother, despite ethnicity, is more likely to have  trouble adjusting to being an adult. ­ more than two adults  • extended family­ multiple generations • polygamous family • Family Trouble ­ two factors increase the likelihood of dysfunction in every structure, ethnic group, and nation • low­income and poverty • high conflict ­ poverty: family­stress model • any risk factor damages a family only if it increases the stress on that family  • adults’ reactions to poverty • The Peer Group ­ culture of children • particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and standards 10/12/16 Human Growth and Development • Very important for kids to have friends • Unpopular children ­ aggressive­rejected children • loud and obnoxious ­ withdrawn­rejected children • quiet, introverted • Bullies and Victims ­ bullying • repeated ­ bully­victim • bullies are usually the ones being bullied • Children’s Moral Reasoning ­ Kohlberg’s level of moral thought • preconventional moral reasoning ­ rewards and punishments • conventional moral reasoning ­ family, friends, society ­ people think it’s right just because other people think it’s right • postconventional moral reasoning ­ you actually believe because something is right or wrong, and you use it  in your life


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