Cultural Anthropology Midterm Study Guide
Cultural Anthropology Midterm Study Guide ANT2410
Popular in Cultural Anthropology
Popular in Cultural Anthropology
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maria Valencia on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT2410 at University of South Florida taught by Dr. Melina Taylor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in Cultural Anthropology at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
Midterm Study Guide Chapters 1-5, 9&10 Chapter 1 Background • Came about after European colonialism with the discovery of the new worlds (Africa, Asia, South America) Anthropology wasn't always understanding——> “dark times” • Unique Approach • No longer remote cultures, local now too. • Focuses on details of human life in local communities and THEN examine how certain cultures connect with the rest of humanity. • Study people and larger structures of power among them Four Lens Approach What does it do? • -considers life experience of people everywhere -compares and contrasts cultural beliefs to understand human similarities/ differences on a global scale. -Researches contemporary world as well as deep human history. -Offers insights to nature vs nurture through its holistic perspective. • 4 kinds -Physical Anthro -Archaeology -Linguistic Anthro -Cultural Anthro Globalization • Key Dynamics -Time Space Compression -Flexible Accumulation -Increasing Migration -Uneven Development -Rapid Change -Adapting to New World -Shaping Natural World -Humans and Climate Change Important People • Franz Boas (a founder of American anthropology) worked to lessen the radicalized views of immigrants during the 20th century debates when government ofﬁcials saw different people of Europe to be different races; favoring one over the other. Chapter 2 Culture • Is taught and learned not “born into” • Never static, always changing and being negotiated • A group thing, not individual • Anthro's don't think of cultures as completely separate from one another but argue that a common cultural core exists. • 4 elements anthro’s consider -Norms -Values -Symbols -Mental Maps of Reality Culture Concept Evolved • People are savage • Anthro is a science and ﬁeldwork is science experiment (British POV) Culture and Power Culture = set of ideas + powerful institutions • Hegemony • • Human Agency Biology and Culture • We feel, see, taste, smell and hear world but culture inﬂuences what we think, how we behave, etc • Nature vs Nurture • Culture is learned • How is Culture Created? - Culture created over time, always changing not ﬁxed - Capitalism deeply tied to culture of consumerism - Advertising - Financial Services/Credit Cards • How Globalization Changing Culture? - Homogenizing effect - Migration and two way transference of culture - Increasing cosmopolitan Important People Edward Burnett Taylor, James Frazer, and Lewis Morgan, leading anthropologists, • suggested that vast diversity of cultures represented different stages in the evolution of human culture. • Historical Particularism: Idea attributed to Franz Boas that cultures develop in speciﬁc whats because of their unique histories. • Ruth Benedict———> Focused on cultural traits and entire cultures uniquely patterned and integrated. • Margaret Mead———> Focused on enculturation and effects on cultural patterns and personality traits. Chapter 3 Ethnographic Fieldwork • Begins with people • Shapes the anthro • Is strategy for gathering data about human condition • Is an experiment • Is an art • Informs daily life • How Did It Develop? • Intense globilaztion in 19th century when increased international movements of Europeans. Was not a common practice at the beginning • Professionalization • Unilineal culture evolution out the door, four ﬁeld approach in. • How Do Anthro’s Get Started? - Prep - Learn language, search contracts, research question/prob, grant application, permission to conduct study, protocols, anthro toolkit - Strategies - Quantitive/ qualitative data, participant observation, seek informants, interviews, map human relations. ﬁeld notes - Mapping - Spatial awareness - Skills and Perspectives • Open minded, aware of prejudice, cultural relativism • Skilled listener • Patient, ﬂexible and open to unexpected • Open to mutual transformation • How to Write Ethnography - Polyvocilty - Reﬂexivity - Ethnographic authority Morals and Ethics? • Do No Harm • Obtain informed consent • ensure anonymity Important People • “Body Ritual among the Nacirema” ——> Horace Miner • Brackette Williams suggests ﬁeldwork can be “homework” • Nancy Scheper-Hughes ——>Brazils Alto de Cruzeiro Franz Boas: Fieldwork and the Four-Field Approach • Bronislaw Malinowski: The Father of Fieldwork • • E. E Evans-Pritchard wrote The Neur, a classic ethnography, based on research with Sudanses tribe over a period of 11 months documenting the groups social structure. • Margaret Mead——> Fieldwork in the 1920s examining teen sexuality in ethnography Coming of Age and then gender roles in Papua New Guinea. • Julian Steward ethnography: The People of Puerto Rico • Mintz expanded ﬁeldwork to Puerto Rican sugar production to consider interactions of local histories and local production of sugar with global ﬂows of colonialism and capitalism. • Wolf reasserted forgotten local histories into story of the modern world economic system. • Annette Weiner retraced Malinowskis writings of Trobriand Islands 60 years later noticing aspects Malinowski did not include in writings. • Barbra Myerhoff ——>Number Our Days marks a turn in anthropology from study of the “other” to study of the self; in Which Victor Tuner calls “being thrice born” Chapter 4 Origin • Studied languages and communication from nearest relative • Genetic evidence: Presence of FOXP2 gene Language Shape Thinking? • May inﬂuence how we see the world but does not control or restrict our thinking. Systems of Power and Language • HOW you say not what you said actually matters. Ex: “N-Word” Language and Gender No evidence brains of men and women different resulting in difference in • language. Language and Dialect • Language vs Dialect - Dialect is not “less than” language. Language Variation Code switching • • Black English • Accents/grammar Effect of Globalization on Language • Diminishing language diversity • Increases language loss • Language revitalization • Efforts to preserve languages Important People • Noam Chomsky suggested human brain is hardwired with basic framework for organizing language that creates a universal grammar. • Edward Sapir and student Benjamin Lee Whorf.——>Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis • Laura Bohanan attempted to translate classic English literature story, Hamlet. • Deborah Tannen sides with the difference model. • Pierre Bourdieu proposes that language skills serve as a type of cultural capital. • Rickford and Rickford document how this “spoken soul” comes alive in African American community. Chapter 5 (Personal opinion:Best to look at deﬁnitions) Race • No distinct biologically races!!! • Genotype vs Phenotype Race and Colonialism • Global expression deeply rooted in systems of classiﬁcation western Euro created when expanded their colonial empires Hypodescent ——> One drop of blood rule • Closely intersected with class • Race and US • Amount of race options for census keeps changing and increasing • Racial system developed in midst of slavery -Jim Crow Laws -White supremacy • Confusion as far as categorizing races when increased migration occurred. Racism • Individual Racism • Institutional Racism • Radical ideology——> slavery is natural • “White Privilege” / Stratiﬁcation Important People • Maria Kromidas shows how even 9 year olds relate to issues of race and religion after 9/11 attacks taking mental notes of the differences in who they are. • Eduardo Bonilla-Silva critiques the contemporary calls in the US culture for color blindness. • Peggy MacIntosh writes of “an invisible package of unearned assets. Through these assets whites have become beneﬁciaries of cultural norms, values, etc Joe Feagin and Melvin Sikes write about middle class African Americans who despite • their social class stars continue to face racial discrimination. • Jane Gibson explores the area southwest of Gainesville in which a community of poor whites have been systemically cut off from local means of living. Chapter 9 Kinship • All humans genetically related sharing more than 99.9% of DNA Descent Groups • Two types -Lineage -Clan • Either matrilineal or patrilineal • The Neur of Southern Sudan——> patriarchal descent group -Studied by E. E Evans Pritchard Marriage • Arrange versus non arranged marriages • Love is subjective to culture • Monogamy, polygamy and polyandry • Incest taboos——> some cultures allow it. • Exogamy/endogamy • Biology and Marriage only bases for Kinship? • Given at birth and acquired through life • blood or other bodily substances mixing Kinship Change • Choose families instead of birth • artiﬁcial insemination, adoption, surrogacy • same sex partners Important People • Among villagers on island of Langkawi studied by Janet Carsten in 1990s kinship not only given at birth but also acquired throughout life. • Carol Stack found a dynamic set of kinship networks based on mutual reciprocity through which residents managed to survive conditions of intense structural poverty and longterm unemployment. • Susan Kahn’s ethnography reveals importance of women in kinship connections. • Kath Weston’s ethnography on gay and lesbian families shows kinship through choice. Chapter 10 (Personal opinion: People most important) Human Cultures • Egalitarian societies versus ranked societies Class and Inequality • Theories of class -Karl Marx -Max Weber -Pierre Bourdieu -Leith Mullings • How are class and inequality constructed in USA? Income and wealth • -Wealth also stratiﬁed by race. Roots of Poverty • Certain ways of thinking——> suggested by Oscar Lewis • Structural economic problem • Why is poverty invisible? • Media • Consumer culture——> people maintain at least the experience of middle class lifestyle. Important People • Karl Marx——> Bourgeoise and Proletariat, wrote communist manifesto in efforts to form a sort of uprising but didn't happen • Max Weber——> added consideration of power and prestige to Marx’s concern for economic stratiﬁcation of wealth and income. • Pierre Bourdieu——> social mobility and social reproduction. -Habitus and cultural capital work to limit persons life chances, • Leith Mullings——> Intersectionality • Pem Davidson Buck researched intersectionality and discovered the surplus value of workers labor drains upward into the hands of successive layers of elites ——> Poor whites in rural Kentucky • Katherine S Newman explores economic and psychological struggles who survive to maintain their class positions in US culture——> downward mobilty • Karen Ho asks why in a time of record corporate proﬁts and boring stock prices, do we see rapid downsizing layoffs and dismantling of social safety net. ——> wealth, inequality and Wall Street • Oscar Lewis suggests that certain ways of thinking and feeling lead to the perpetuation of poverty among the poor. ———> “Culture of poverty” • Daniel Patrick Moynihan submitted report titled “The Negro Family: The Case for National Action” • Judith Goode and Jeff Maskovsky trace the roots of contemporary poverty in US to the impact of global economic process on the nations economy. • Gregory Mantsios suggests that the media play signiﬁcant role in hiding class stratiﬁcation in the USA by largely ignoring it. Eva Illouz suggests that even love and romance are shaped by class both by ﬁnancial • capital and by cultural capital. • Neil Smith says hurricane Katrina was an unnatural disaster because the storms most severe effects were caused by the governments failure to to adequately build and maintain the city levee system not the storm itself. Midterm Study Guide Deﬁnitions Chapter 1 • Anthropology: the study of the full scope of human diversity and the application of that knowledge to help people of different backgrounds better understand one another. • Applied Anthropology:working outside academic settings to apply strategies and insights of anthropology directly to world problems. • Ethnocentrism:human tendency to believe ones own culture/way of life is the norm, natural, or superior to others. Ethnocentric Fieldwork: primary research strategy involving living with a community • of people over an extended period of time to better understand their lives. • Agency: center role of individual and gross in determine their own lives, in face of overwhelming power. • Holism: Anthropologists are committed to looking at the whole picture of human life through culture, biology, history, language across space and time. • Four Filed Approach: Use of four interrelated disciplines to study humanity; physical anthropology, archaeology, linguistic anthropology, and cultural anthropology. Physical Anthropology: (AKA Biological Anthropology) is the study of humans from a • biological perspective, particularly focused on how they evolved • Paleoanthropology: the study of the history of human evolution through fossil records. • Primatology: Study of living nonhuman primates as well as primate fossils to better understand human evolution and early human behavior. • Archaeology: The investigation of human past by means of excavating and analyzing artifacts. • Prehistoric Archaeology: Reconstruction of human behavior in distant past (before written records) through examination of artifacts. Historical Archaeology: Explores more recent past through examination of physical • remains/artifacts AND written or oral records • Linguistic Anthropology: The study of human language past and present. • Descriptive Linguists: work to describe languages and preserve them as a written language. • Historic Linguists: study how languages evolve and move across cultures. • Sociolinguists: those who study the interaction between language and society • Cultural Anthropology: (AKA THIS CLASS!) The study of living cultures (people alive now), peoples behaviors, beliefs, and institutions. How local communities interact with global forces. Participant observation: research strategy involving both participation in and • observation of daily life of people being studied. 6 months to 1 year+ • Ethnography: Result of participant observation, after one has come back from observation to write and publish ﬁndings. • Ethnology: Compares different ethnography’s across cultures. Looks at different pockets of works, comparing data from different places or times. • Globalization: worldwide intensiﬁcation of interactions and increasing movement of money, people, goods and ideas within and across national border. • Time Space Compression: the rapid innovation of communication and transportation technologies have changes how we think about distance and time. • Flexible Accumulation: advances in transportation and communication have allowed companies to move facilities to where its more beneﬁcial for them. • Increasing Migration: accelerated movement of people within and between countries. • Uneven Development: unequal distribution of the beneﬁts of globalization. • Rapid Change: dramatic transformation of economics, politics, and culture characters of contemporary globalization. Chapter 2 • Culture: Is a system of knowledge, beliefs, patterns of behaviors, artifacts and institutions that are created, learned and shared by a group of people. • Enculturation: Process of learning culture • Norms: ideas or rules about how people should behave in a particular situation or toward certain other people • Exogamy: Marriage outside ones “group” • Endogamy: Marriage within one “group” • Values: Fundamental beliefs about what is important, true or beautiful and what makes a good life. • Symbol: Anything that signiﬁes something else. An abstract representation of an idea, concept, etc Mental Maps: Taking the complex world and putting it into understandable categories. • • Cultural Relativism: Tool/method used to remove judgment and ethnocentrism. • Moral Relativism: No absolute morality, no right or wrong • Militant Anthropology: against cultural relativism • Unilinear Cultural Evolution: Theory proposed by 19th century anthropologists that all cultures naturally evolved through the same sequence of stages from simple to complex. • Historical Particularism: Idea attributed to Franz Boas that cultures develop in speciﬁc whats because of their unique histories. • Structural Functionalism: Conceptual framework positioning that each element of society serves as a particular function to keep entire system in equilibrium. • Interpretivist Approach: Conceptual framework that sees culture primarily as a symbolic system of deep meaning. • Thick Description: Research strategy that combines detailed description of cultural activity with an analysis of the layers of deep cultural meaning in which those activities are embedded. • Power: Ability of potential to bring change through action or inﬂuence. • Stratiﬁcation: Uneven distribution of resources and privileges amongst participants in a group or culture. Hegemony: Ability of dominate group to create, consent an agreement with • population without the threat of force. • Cosmopolitan: Global outlook emerging in response to increasing globalization. Chapter 3 • Ethnographic Fieldwork: Primary research strategy in cultural anthropology involving living with a community of people over an extended period to better understand their lives. • Salvage Ethnography: Fieldwork strategy developed by Franz Boas to rapidly collect four ﬁeld approach information about the US Native populations being devastated by westward expansion. • Cultural Relativism: Understanding a groups beliefs and practices within their own cultural context without making judgements. • Participant Observation: a key anthropological research strategy involving both participation in and observation of the daily life of the people being studied. • Reﬂexivity: Critical self-examination of the role the anthropologists plays and an awareness that ones identity affects ones ﬁeldwork and theoretical analyses. • Literature Review :The process of reading all the available published material about a research site and/or research issues, usually done before ﬁeldwork begins. • anthropologists toolkit: the tools needed to conduct ﬁeldwork, including notebook, pen, camera, voice recorder and dictionary. Quantitative Data: statistical info about a community that can be measured and • compared • Qualitative Data: Descriptive data drawn from non statistical sources, including participant observation, personal stories, interviews, and life histories. • Rapport: The relationship of trust and familiarity developed with members of the community being studied. • Key Informant: a community member who advises the anthropologist on community issues, provides feedback and warns against cultural miscues. AKA “cultural consultant”. • Interview: a research strategy of gathering data through formal or informal conversation with informants. • Life History: a form of interview that traces the biography of a person over time, examining changes and illuminating the interlocking network of relationships in the community. • Surveys: an information gathering tool for quantitive data analysis • Kinship Analysis: traditional strategy of examining genealogies to uncover the relationship built upon structures such as marriage and family ties. Social Network Analysis: method for examining relationships in a community, often • conducted by identifying who people turn to in times of need. • Mapping: the analysis of the physical and/or geographic space where ﬁeldwork is being conducted. • Built Environment: intentionally designed features of human settlement, including buildings, transportation and public service infrastructure, and public spaces. • Zeros: elements of a story or a picture that are not told or seen and yet offer key insights into issues that might be too sensitive to discuss or display publicly. • Mutual Transformation: the potential for both the anthropologists and the members of the community being studied to be transformed by the interactions of ﬁeldwork. • Emic: involving an approach to gathering data that investigates how local people think and how they understand the world. Etic: involving description of local behavior and beliefs form the anthropologists • perspective in ways that can be compared across cultures. • Ethnology: The analysis and comparison of ethnographic data across cultures • Polyvocality: practice of using many different voices in ethnographic writings and research question development allowing the reader to hear more directly from the people in the study • Informed Consent: protects the subjects being studied by ensuring that they are fully informed of the goals of the project and have clearly indicated their consent to participate. • Anonymity: Protection of the identities of the people involved in a study by changing or omitting their names or other identifying characteristics. Chapter 4 • Language: is a system of communication organized by rules that uses symbols such as words, sounds, and gestures to convey information. • Productivity: the linguistic ability to use known words to invent new word combinations. • Displacement: ability to use words to refer to objects not immediately present or events occurring in the past of future. Descriptive Linguistics: study of the sounds, symbols, and gestures of a language, • and their combination into forms that communicate meaning. • Phonemes: smallest units of sounds that can make a difference in meaning. • Phonology: study of what sounds exist and which ones are important for a particular language. • Morphemes: the smallest units of sound that carry meaning on their own. • Morphology: study of patterns and rules of how sounds combine to make morphemes. • Syntax: speciﬁc patterns and rules for constructing phrases and sentences. • Grammar: combined set of observations about the rules governing the formation of morphemes and syntax that guide language use. • Kinesics: study of the relationship between body movements and communication • Paralanguage: an extensive set of rises (such as cries) and tones of voice that convey signiﬁcant info about the speaker. • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: idea that different languages create different ways of thinking. • Lexicon: All the words for names, ideas and events that make up a languages dictionary. • Focal Vocabulary: the words and terminology that develop with particular sophistication to describe the unique cultural relatives experienced by a group of people. • Sociolinguistics: study of the ways culture shapes language and language shapes culture, particularly the intersection of language with cultural categories and systems of power such as race, gender, class and age. • Dialect: nonstandard variation of a language vs language that is complete system of communication. • Prestige Language: a particular way of speaking or language variation, that is associated with wealth, success, education and power. • Code Switching: switching back and forth between one linguistic variant and another depending on the cultural context. • Historical Linguistics: the study of the development of language over time, including its changes and variations. • Language Continuum: the idea that variation in languages appears gradually over distances so that groups of people who live near one another gradually speak in a way that is mutually intelligible. • Language Loss: The extinction of languages that have very few speakers. Chapter 5 • Race: A ﬂawed system of classiﬁcation with no biological basis, that uses certain physical characteristics to divide the human population into supposedly discrete groups. • Racism: Individual thought and actions and institutional patterns and policies that create unequal access to power, privilege, resources and opportunities based on imagined difference among groups. • Genotype: The inherited genetic factors that provide the framework for an organisms physical form. • Phenotype: The way genes are expressed in an organisms physical form as a result of genotype interaction with environmental factors. • Colonialism: The practice by which a nation-state extends political, economic, and military power beyond its own borders over an extended period of time to secure access to raw materials, cheap labor, and markets in other countries or regions. Miscegenation: A demeaning historical term for interracial marriage • • White Supremacy: The belief that whites are biologically different from and superior to people of other races • Whiteness: A culturally constructed concept originating in 1691 Virginia designed to establish clear boundaries of who is white and who is not, a process central to the formation of U.S racial stratiﬁcation. • Jim Crow: Laws implemented after the U.S. Civil War to legally enforce segregation, particularly in the South, after the end of slavery. • Hypodescent: Sometimes called the “one drop of blood rule”; the assignment of children of racially “mixed” unions to the subordinate group. • Nativism: The favoring of certain long-term inhabitants over new immigrants. • Eugenics: A pseudoscience attempting to scientiﬁcally prove the existence of separate human races to improve the populations genetic composition by favoring some races over others. • Racialization: The process of categorizing, differentiating, and attributing a particular racial character to a person or group of people. • Individual Racism: Personal prejudiced beliefs and discriminatory actions based on race. Racial Ideology: A set of popular ideas about race that allows the discriminatory • behaviors of individuals and institutions to seem reasonable, rational and normal. • Intersectionality: An analytical framework for assessing how factors such as race, gender and class interact to shape individual life chances and societal patterns of stratiﬁcation. Chapter 9 • Kinship: The system of meaning and power that cultures create to determine who is related to whom and to deﬁne their mutual expectation, right and responsibilities. (Creation of Relatives) • Nuclear Family: The kinship unit of mother, father, and children. • Lineages: traces genealogical connection through generation by linking persons to a founding counselor. • Clan: based on a claim to a founding ancestor but lacking genealogical documentation. • Afﬁnal Relationship: A kinship relationship established through marriage and/or alliance, not through biology or common descent. • Marriage: a socially recognized relationship that may involve physical and emotional intimacy as well as legal rights to property and inheritance. • Arranged Marriage: Marriage orchestrated by the families of the involved parties. • Companionate Marriage: Marriage built on love, intimacy, and personal choice rather than social obligation. • Polygyny: Marriage between one two or more women. • Ex: Nuer of the Sudan • Polyandry: Marriage between one and two or more men. • Ex: Nyar of India Monogamy: A relationship between only two partners. • • Incest Taboo: Cultural rules that forbid sexual relations with certain close relatives • Exogamy: Marriage to someone outside the kinship group • Endogamy: Marriage to someone within the kinship group • Bridewealth: the gift of good or money from the grooms family to the brides family as part of the marriage process. • Dowry: the gift of goods or money from the brides family to the grooms family as part of the marriage process. • Family of Orientation: The family group in which one is born, grows up, and develops life skills (but expected to reach adulthood and detach) Family of Procreation: The family group created when one reproduces and within • which one rears children. Chapter 10 • Class: A system of power based on wealth, income, and stays that creates an unequal distribution of a society resources. • Egalitarian Societies: A group based on sharing of resources to ensure success with a relative absence of hierarchy and violence. • Reciprocity: The exchange of resources, goods, and service among people of relatively equal status;meant to create and reinforce social ties. • Ranked Society: A group in which wealth is not stratiﬁed but prestige and status are. • Redistribution: A form of exchange in which accumulated wealth is collected from the members of the group and reallocated in a different pattern. • Potlatch: Elaborate redistribution ceremony practiced among the Kwakiutl of the Paciﬁc Northwest. • Bourgeoise: capitalist class that owned means of production • Means of Production: The factories, machines, tools, raw materials, land and ﬁnancial capital needed to make things. Proletariat: Working class who own only their labor. • • Prestige: The reputation, inﬂuence, and deference bestowed on certain people because of their membership in certain groups. • Life Chances: an individuals opportunities to improve quality of life and achieve life goals. • Social Mobility: The movement of one’s class position, upward or downward, in stratiﬁed societies. • Social Reproduction: The phenomenon whereby social and class relations of prestige or lack of prestige are passed from one generation to the next. • Habitus: self-perceptions and beliefs that develop as part of ones social identity and shape ones conceptions of the world and where one ﬁts into it. • Cultural Capital: the knowledge, habits, and tastes learned from parents and family that individuals can use to gain access to scarce and valuable resources in society. • Intersectionality: An analytic framework for assessing how factors such as race, gender and class interact to shape individual life chances and societal patterns of stratiﬁcation. • Income: What people earn form work, plus dividends and interest on investments, along with rents and royalties • Wealth: The total value of what someone owns, minus any debt.
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