BSPM Study Guide #2
BSPM Study Guide #2 BSPM 102
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Drew Nelson on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSPM 102 at Colorado State University taught by Whitney S Cranshaw; Matthew A Camper in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Insects, Science, and Society (GT-SC2) in BSPM at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
BSPM 102 Exam #2 Study Guide Fall 2016 Please make sure you have a PICTURE ID and your STUDENT NUMBER with you on the day of the test! If you need further clarification please email Matt (email@example.com) or stop by and see us. GOOD LUCK!!! I. Arachnida (Araneae, Opiliones, Scorpiones, Solifugae, and Acari) ARANEAE (true spiders) How long do tarantulas live? ● Female tarantulas can live 25 years, with males living about 8 years What is the primary defense utilized by tarantulas? ● Urticating Hairs irritating/stinging hairs, can flick these hairs off of back end Understand the different spider venoms and what spiders are associated with each type ● Neurotoxic Venom effect nervous system ○ Widow Spiders (Latrodectus species) have red/orange on underside ■ Black widow/widow North America ■ Western Black Widow Colorado ■ RedBacked Spider Australia ■ Malmignatte Europe ■ Anara capulina Mexico ○ Sydney FunnelWeb Atrax robustus most dangerous in world ○ Banana Spiders Phoneutria spp. Brazilian Wandering Spider ● Cytotoxic Venom Involves tissue death ○ Brown Spiders Loxosceles species ■ Loxosceles reclusa Brown Recluse (a.k.a. Fiddleback Spider) Know the key features in identifying the brown recluse ● Fiddleback ● Uniform coloration on legs ● Smooth abdomen with smooth dorsal structure ● 3 pairs of eyes What other spiders might be involved in bites with poor healing? ● Hobo Spider (Tegenaria agrestis) debunked, probably MRSA ● Long legged sac spiders (Cheiracanthium spp.) most common culprit of slow healing bites OPILIONES (daddy longlegs) Know the physical features ● Globular body without distinct regions Cephalothorax/abdomen appear fused ● Four pairs of legs very long legs, spindly legs ○ Front pair not used for walking (sensory) ● Two eyes, mounted on a large dorsal tubercle ○ Poor vision, usually get prey by contact ● Weak Jaws tear food with chelicerae and mix with digestive fluids ● No poison glands (Myth: most poisonous spider FALSE) ● Scent glands above first or second coxae Repugnatorial glands (Bad Taste) ● No Silk Production Life History and Habits ● Molting Very difficult with long legs ● Food soft, undefended animals (dead, dying insects) and Plant juices ● Mating ○ Females lay eggs via a long eversible ovipositor ○ Bury eggs in soil, under tree bark, or onto plant stems ● One year life cycle mature in late summer ● Males have longer legs smaller bodies, females have bigger bodies Understand appendotomy ● Appendotomy ability to readily lose appendages (as few as 3) ○ May readily lose legs when confronted with a predator or held SCORPIONES (scorpions) Know the physical features ● Four pairs of Legs ● Segments of Mouthparts ○ Chelicerae ripping and tearing ○ “Elaborated” claw like chelae pedipalps ● Stinger used for defense ● Fluoresce under Black Light due to compounds in exoskeleton No known benefit Life history, and habits ● Mating and Development ○ Complicated dance that may last for hours ○ Young Born Alive i. The 1st pair of legs becomes a “birth basket” ii. Stay on the female through 1st molt ○ Average litter size about 2 dozen (6 to over 100) ○ TIme to develop may take 683 months, may live 2025 years ● Feeding ○ Crush to allow sucking of fluids by chelicerae ○ Grab prey with claw like pedipalps (chelae) ○ Stinger is almost exclusively used for defense Medical importance?? ● 2025 species medically important significant human health effects ○ Most produce sting similar to a wasp or bee sting ○ All poisonous species in family Buthidae none in Colorado ○ In North America Arizona Bark Scorpion restricted to extreme SW i. Sting causes stinging or burning at injection site ii. Always with a positive “tap test” iii. Systemic reactions rare ● Habits of Arizona bark Scorpion ○ Does not burrow, it’s a tree climbing species wetland/riparian areas ○ Identification i. Chelae are very narrow ii. Stinger possesses small tooth ○ Reaction to Sting i. Immediate burning pain that quickly subsides 1. Site remains very painful if touched (“Positive tap test”) ii. Systemic reactions rare 1. Restlessness, Slurring Speech, thickened tongue, Staggering, Convulsions SOLIFUGAE (wind scorpions/sunspiders) Know the physical features and habits ● Feed by tearing up their prey with large Chelicerae ● Leglike pedipalps (chelae) like a 5th pair of legs ○ Used for: Sensory, Prey Manipulation, climbing (small hook at tips) ● No poison glands have been identified use brute force ● No silk production ACARI (Mites and Ticks) Know the life history and habits of the order Acari (mites and ticks) ● Rival insects in variation of habits and life history ○ Habitats find everywhere, any habit ○ Feeding Habits predators, scavengers, parasites ● Physical Features of the Order ○ Generally oval body ○ Little differentiation of body regions ○ Adults, deutonymph with normal 4 pairs of legs (Protonymph 3 pairs) ● Metamorphosis/Life History ○ Egg ○ Immature Forms ■ Protonymph/Larva Six legs & Deutonymph 4 pairs, 8 legs ○ Adult 8 legs and reproductive organs ○ Each stage is after a major feeding event How many legs does each life stage (protonymph, deutonymph, adult) have? ● Protonymph/Larva 3 pairs, six legs ● Deutonymph/Adult 4 pairs, eight legs TICKS Family: Ixodidae (hard ticks) and Argasidae (soft ticks) Know the difference between hard ticks and soft ticks. What features make each unique? ● Hard Ticks: Family Ixodid Pg. 53 ○ Scutellum plate behind head, hardened area ○ Mouthparts directed forward, stick out front ■ Hypostome imbeds and holds mouthpart in skin of host like a harpoon ■ Has numbing agents, anticoagulants ○ Host Association ■ Feed on a specific type of animal (singlehost) cattle tick ■ Some feed on multiple types of animals (multihost) most ticks ○ Life Cycle of the Rocky Mountain Wood Tick/American Dog Tick (Dermacentor Species) ■ Multiple host tick one large blood meal per instar ● Stage 1 (larva) mouse/rodent, Stage 2 (nymph) rabbit/raccoon, Stage 3 (Adult) human/dogs ■ Life cycle may extend for years with a stage per year ■ Highly resistant to starvation can last a year without food ■ Peak period of activity April through July ● Soft Ticks: Family Argasidae Pg. 53 ○ Lack hard dorsal plate (scutellum) ○ Mouthparts directed downward ○ Association with host usually associated with a denning/nesting animal ■ Repeated feedings per instar ■ Single host species What are the common diseases transmitted by ticks? ● Lyme Disease (bacteria/spirochete) ○ Most Common ArthropodBorne Disease in N.A. never confirmed in CO ○ Symptoms of Lyme Disease ■ Bullseye rash, Flulike symptoms malaise, depression ● Colorado Tick Fever (virus) ○ Most Common tickborne disease in Colorado 100’s of cases annually ○ Symptoms: ■ Develops about 36 days after bitten ■ Generally flulike, lasts a couple of days ● Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Bacteria/rickettsia) ○ Symptoms: ■ General malaise and aching, Characteristic rash spotty rash, like chicken pox, High Fever rare complications can occur ● Tularemia (Bacteria) Rabbit Fever ○ Common with animals especially rodents Humans obtain from blood exposure, not tick bites ○ Symptoms ■ High fever, Swelling, pain in lymph nodes, Infections through cuts (skinning infected animals) can produce blood poison ● Endemic Relapsing Fever (bacteria/spirochete) ○ Endemic in rodents ○ Symptoms ■ Rapidly developing fever for 310 days after bite, Fever subsides in a few days, May recur in cycles with decreasing intensity relapsing Know whether the disease is a bacteria or virus. Which tick is a vectoring for each disease. ● Lyme Disease (bacteria/spirochete) Blacklegged tick/Deer Tick ● Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (bacteria/rickettsia) Rocky Mountain Wood Tick/American Dog Tick ● Tularemia (Bacteria) Rabbit Fever Rocky Mountain Wood Tick/American Dog Tick ● Endemic Relapsing Fever (bacteria/spirochete) Soft ticks ● Colorado Tick Fever (VIRUS) Rocky Mountain Wood Tick/ American Dog Tick What is questing? ● Questing: waiting at the top of vegetation in high traffic areas, snag it when it passes MITES hugely diverse, make up most arachnids, 95% believed to be undesc ibed) For each mite know the general life history/habits/medical importance ● Follicle Mites demodex species found in follicle and sebaceous glands (23.6% 100% of the population) ○ Medical Importance null, cause no problem, feed on skin and oils ● Dust Mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus ○ An important human allergen (feces, cast skins) ○ Feeds on a fungus that is commonly found on skin flakes ● Medical Importance ○ Allergenic components in high humidity areas What is the association between dust mites and aspergillus fungus? ● Feeds on a fungus that is commonly found on skin flakes ● Allergenic components in high humidity areas (Optimum humidity ca. 75%) What life stage of chiggers feed on humans? ● Chigger “bites” Attach to skin and secrete saliva that digests epidermis ○ Not a true bite suck up digested fluids ● Only larvae feed on skin of host animals ○ Create a reaction irritating dots What are the primary body areas colonized by scabies mites? ● Primary areas colonized Mites burrow into skin, Itching reaction (up to 6 weeks) ○ Hands and wrist 63% ○ Elbow 11% ○ Feet 9% What are the symptoms of injury for spider mites? ● Mouth parts to bust up cells, and suck out fluids “rototill and suck” ○ Whiplike chelicerae Turn leaves white ● Symptoms of Injury ○ Leaf flecking/spotting/decline ○ Webbing ○ Cast skins and eggs What mite is the most notorious (damaging to crops) worldwide? ● Twospotted Spider mite Host Range: Everywhere What is a gall? ● Gall an abnormal plant growth induced by activity of insects or other organisms ○ Produced by Eriophyid mites What types of galls are created by eriophyid mites? ● Blisters (blister gall), with mites inside the blisters ● Finger galls projections, they reside inside ● Bud galls bark clumps ● Catkingale Mite make small pollen bundles large (like grapes) ● Leaf feeding species (leaf vagrants) II. Order: ORTHOPTERA (Grasshoppers, Crickets, Katydids, etc.) Know the physical features of the order Physical Features of the Order ● Chewing mouthparts ● Antennae filament like, long and skinny ● Wings (when present) forewing thickened (tegminatype) ● Orthoptera Greek for “straight wing’ ● Legs Hind Legs modified for jumping, large femur, lots of muscle GRASSHOPPERS (Order: Orthoptera) Know the life history ● Simple Metamorphosis ● Life Cycle All grasshopper have a one year life cycle ○ Most winter as eggs (Egg: OctoberMay, Nymph: MayJune, Adult: July September) ○ Some winter as an adult and can be found in the winter or spring Where do grasshoppers lay their eggs? ● Oviposit (lay eggs) pods below ground in loose soil, laid in the fall Why is the genus Melanoplus particularly important? ● Melanoplus Important crop pests (5 species in Colorado) ● All pest grasshoppers in Colorado are Melanoplus Know the ways to control grasshoppers. ● Natural Enemies ○ Vertebrates (birds, mammals, etc) birds love grasshoppers, Lark Bunting, Coyotes, ○ Blister Beetle larva develops on grasshopper egg pods ● Fungal disease kills grasshopper, causes it to attach to top of plants with spores pathogen: Entomophthora ● Nematodes (Mermis nigrescens) parasite of grasshoppers. Grows inside and kill it How does rainfall affect survival? ● Interactions of rainfall and grasshoppers ○ Moisture prior to eggs hatch aids survival ■ Newly hatched young need succulent foliage ○ Moisture after egg hatch generally reduces problems ■ Assist spread of disease ■ Allows for plenty of food, reducing competition LOCUSTS Migratory Grasshoppers Know the mystery of the Rocky Mountain Locust ● 18601876 Outbreaks high numbers and travel in swarms ○ Move across the great plains, very devastating to crops ● Albert’s Swarm 198,000 square miles (Same size as New England) ● C.V. Reilly hired by federal government to find solutions for outbreaks ○ 1st scientist hired by the U.S. government to do science ● What happened? ○ Extinct Only pest insect in history known to have gone extinct 1902 ● Theories of why: ○ Human related activities helped wipe out species ○ Eradicating buffalo replaced with cattle, massively overgrazed ○ Cultivated (tilled or trampled) areas known for swarm origin Understand phase transformation of migratory grasshoppers? ● Produces two forms (known as phase transformation) ○ 1. Solitary Phase Pale and Nonmigratory ○ 2. Gregarious Phase Darker and Migratory What are the 2 phases of migratory grasshoppers? ● Solitary Phase Paler colored & nonmigratory ● Gregarious Phase Darker bodied, longer wings, band together & migrate in flight MORMON CRICKETS ( Anabrus simplex) How is the gregarious phase of these insects different from migratory grasshoppers? ○ Easy to distinguish male and female (long ovipositor) ■ Pass spermatophore ○ A type of wingless longhorned grasshopper/katydid, flightless ○ Have various “morphs” various colors ■ Solitary phase usually in this phase ■ Gregarious phase sometimes when they band together ■ Migrations on the ground, cause slick roads ○ Omnivores grass, dead arthropods, cannibalism Know about Mormon Crickets and the settlement of Utah ● July 1847 Early Settlement at Salt Lake City threatened by Mormon cricket ○ Crops threatened by these crickets, seagulls came from salt lake and helped lessen the damage FIELD CRICKETS ( Gryllidae family ) Know how their songs are produced / perceived ● Only males sing produced by: ○ File rubbed by the scraper (wings) ○ Scraper what rubs the file (wings) ○ Tympanum located at joint of front legs Know the types of songs produced ● Calling song available to ladies ● Courtship song mating ● Staying Together Song partners ● Rivalry Songs to deter another male ○ Songs may be synchronized Lead cricket regulates song JERUSALEM CRICKET Are these insects predators, herbivores, or omnivores? ● Omnivores can bite, feed on plant, tubers, and insects they encounter What other names are these crickets known by? ● “Child of the Earth”, “Potato Bug”, “skull head” and “old baldheaded man” III. Order: MANTODEA (Mantids) Know the physical features of the order ● Physical features of the Order ○ Simple metamorphosis ○ Antennae filament types ○ Wings (if present) forewing thickened (tegminatype) ○ Legs Forelegs modified for grasping (raptorial legs) ○ Prothorax elongated ○ Head can pivot to allow vision in all directions, with wide spread eyes ○ Chewing mouthparts Understand the term “sexual dimorphism” ● Sexual Dimorphism female much larger Know the life history/habits ● Predatory in all stages may be cannibalistic ● Mating female sometimes eats the male (Nourishing his own eggs) ○ Eggs produced within ootheca ● 1 year life cycle Know what an ootheca is (what other insects produce an ootheca?) ● Ootheca cases of eggs, attached to solid surface Which species is the most common in Colorado? ● European Mantid (The praying mantid/ Mantis religiosa) Bullseye pattern on upper arm Which species is the most commonly sold? ● Chinese Mantid “mantid of commerce” ootheca is sold for gardens IV. Order: PHASMATODEA (Walking sticks/Leaf Insects) Know the physical features of the order ● Body elongate/stick or leaf like ● Wings usually much reduced or absent ● Chewing mouthparts herbivores ● Simple Metamorphosis ● Longest Insect Record Borneo Species (Phobaeticus chani) 56.7 cm Know the life history/habits ● Eats plants and leafs Understand the term “sexual dimorphism” ● Sexual Dimorphism male smaller, sometimes very extreme Eggs – how many are laid at a time? ● 100 to 1,200 at a time Defense –tactics used? ● Crypsis Camouflage, body form and behaviors of swaying stick ● Droplet of fluid distasteful/smelly from gland on thorax ○ Shoot a jet of smelling/irritating fluid over a foot ● Sharply Spined Legs V. Order: BLATTODEA (Cockroaches) Know the physical features of the order ● Simple metamorphosis molt up to 7 times (no pupil stage) ● Dorsoventrally flattened flat like a pancake, allows to get into small places ● Filament antennae Very Long, ● Pair of taillike cerci at hind end sensor, very sensitive, like a second pair of antennae allows them to make decisions fast large, very fast nervous system ● Most cockroaches have a greasy (vs. waxy) epicuticle ○ Allows them to slip into tight spaces, very quickly Know the life history/habits ● Reproduction eggs produced a “purse shaped” Ootheca egg case ● Life Span 6 to 18 months (typically a year) ● Mobility fast, some can fly ○ Very Fast clocked at 59 inches/second (50 body lengths a second) ● Nervous System ○ Nervous system includes many giant nerve fibers allowing very rapid responses ○ 10x faster than most insects ● Feeding Habits ○ “Wild” species feed on: decaying plant matter (leaves, wood chips, fruit) ■ Also dead insects, animals, animal waste, Fungi, Algae ○ Importance of nutrient cycling Macro Decomposers ■ Up to 6% of decomposition of Amazonian leaflitter Know what an ootheca is (what other insect produces an ootheca?). ● Ootheca cases of eggs, attached to solid surface (Mantids are the other insect) Know about thigmotactic behavior (what other insects display thigmotactic behavior?) ● Thigmotactic behavior A predilection for pressure ○ Like to be touched always and be in tight places, part of aggregation What are aggregation pheromones? ● Aggregation Pheromone gets cockroaches to aggregate, semi social ○ Grow faster in groups, than alone Know about the semisocial behavior of the wood cockroach ● Wood Roach (Cryptocercus: found in SE US) lives in family groups ○ The wood roach utilizes symbiotic cellulosedigesting protozoans: found in hindgut by malpighian tubules, help them break down cellulose ○ Gets shed during molting, lose protozoans, they reacquire them by feeding on fecal matter of family, old molted skins, anal prophylaxis Know the “big 5” domestic roaches and which is the most common in houses ● The Big 5 “Domestic” cockroaches in the US, all occur in Colorado ○ American (Palmetto Bug) up to 2 inch, 15 month life span, largest ○ Oriental (Water Bug) 8 month life cycle, 200 eggs in ootheca, seen after rain ○ German (#1 household pest species in U.S.) 8 month life cycle, 500 offspring during life, populations grow fast, eat anything ○ Smokey brown ○ Brownbanded Know the damage done by cockroaches and how they affect humans ● Feed on all foods seedlings, soft fruits, pantry items ● Odor they stink ● Medical Importance ● Transmission of human pathogens not a direct vector of human pathogens ○ May be secondary transmitters moving salmonella to counters ● Allergen potential (eczema) Odors, secretions, cast skins and fecal matter Why is radiation better tolerated by cockroaches than humans? ● Most insects can withstand a lot of rads ● German cockroach can withstand 6400 rads, up to 9600 rads ● Radiation is better tolerates since cell development is intermittent (during molting events) ○ Humans constantly create new cells, these are where mutations occur VI. Order: ISOPTERA (Termites) (pg 6770) Know the physical features of the order ● Termites equal size front and back wings “equal wing” Isoptera ● Termites have broad wastes, ● Color very pale due to minimal exposure with light ● Antennae termites have beaded antennae Know the physical differences with ants ● Ants, bees, wasp have a larger front wing ● Presences of “waspwaist” (pinch between thorax and abdomen) ● Ants are dark ● Bees/wasps have elbowed antennae Know the life history/habits ● About 2,200 species worldwide 45 in U.S. 30 damaging to structures worldwide ● A.k.a “white ants” and are the diet of anteaters ○ Now being reconsidered as a subgroup to cockroaches Understand the roles/habits of each caste discussed ● Queen (Odontotermes) can lay 86,000 eggs on a good day (average of 25 40,000/day) ○ Life Span a decade up to thirty years ● King ○ Mating habits mates for life ○ Helps with nest construction, rearing young, tending the queen ○ Life Span can live as long as queen ● Secondary reproductives ○ Develop from worker caste, supplement egg production of the queen ○ Functions can produce eggs if needed ● Workers ○ Physical characteristics blind, pale, nymphs (perpetual juveniles), 95% of pop. ○ Gender males and female ○ Lifespan 34 years ○ Involved in all feeding of king, queen, soldiers and young nymphs ● Soldiers ○ Physical characteristics wingless, blind, unables to feed themselves ○ Gender males and females ○ Usually about 25% of colony ○ Special structures for defense ■ Most have two large mandibles to slash, puncture and crush ■ Formosan termite large, forward oriented pore emits defensive secretion ■ Nasutitermes long tubular snout (“oil can”) shoot entangling fluid Understand how termites are able to digest cellulose ● Some species are capable of directly digesting cellulose (makes up cell walls of plants) ● Most species require assistance of symbionts (symbiotic microorganisms) ○ Hindgut is shed at molting must reacquire the “symbionts” through ingestion of anal fluids anal trophallaxis ● Fungus growing termites (Macrotermes spp.) Mound Species ○ Acquire critical enzymes from nodules of fungus grown within nest ■ Fungus grows on the excreta of the termites ■ Fungus is fed to young and “royal castes”, not workers ● Digestive enzymes don’t need microbes (rare) Know how to diagnose damage done by termites ● Characteristics of injury ○ Termites DON’T produce sawdust (they digest wood) they’re inside the wood ○ Soil and excrement material (dark colored) used to cover entry hole ○ Termite Shelter Tubes tubes to wood source as they cannot tolerate light ● Possible reasons for damage increases in recent decades ○ Irrigate landscape lawns and plants next to the buildings, extensive colonization ○ Cellulose material fence posts, tree stumps, construction debris ○ Inattention to termiteproof construction people don’t believe CO has them What types of termite control are currently available? ● Termite proof construction techniques ○ Treated wood borates (boron) instead of kerosene ○ Don’t put wood directly on the soil, especially moist foundations ● Insecticide barriers inject insecticides to make a complete barrier around the building ● Baiting put cellulose material in yard, termites go to the bait station, then switch it for a slow acting intoxicant, usually an IGR, take it back to the mound and devastate colony ● Tent Fumigation (drywood termites only) their nest is inside the house, tent the house and pump in fumigant, very toxic, not in CO. Be able to compare and contrast the two major types of termites (subterranean and drywood) ● Subterranean termites (Reticulitermes spp.) primary damaging species in CO ○ Nest in soil can forage an area over a ⅓ an acre ○ Colony size 50,000 or less ■ Mating swarms in late winter (February, March) few predators ● Drywood Termites (Incisitermes) can be found in CO ○ Nest in wood can live entirely above ground ■ Produce pelleted excrement not soil excrement ○ Colony Size usually less than 1,000 VII. Order: Dermaptera (Earwigs) (pg 71) Know the physical features of the order ● Simple metamorphosis ● Filament antennae ● Chewing mouthparts ● Short Wing Covers (elytra) short forewing covers the hindwing, some species fly ● Cerci “pincers” on hind end (forceps) weakly muscled, used during mating (by males) and can help to manipulate prey ○ Males have bowed cerci & Females have short, straight cerci Know the life history/habits ● Most are omnivores feed on a broader diversity of food than most insects ○ Small soft insects (aphids), insect eggs, and flower petals, usually eat at night ● Thigmotaxis: “a predilection for pressure” like to hide in tight, dark, humid places ● Life Cycle Young slowly look more and more like adults ● Maternal Care Show maternal care of eggs and young ○ Lays eggs in late winter, or early spring and mother remains until the second molt What is thigmotaxis (thigmotactic behavior)? ● Thigmotaxis: “a predilection for pressure” like to hide in tight, dark, humid places VIII. Order: Phthiraptera (Lice) (pg 7275) Know the physical features of the order Physical Features of the Order ● Simple metamorphosis - egg → young stage → grow to sexual maturity ● Wingless no winged lice, direct transfer ● Dorsoventrally flattened ● Heavily sclerotized body hard to crush, can’t kill with scratching ● Legs modified for grasping host legs are modified for specific host ● Tend to be highly host specific animal parasites Know the life history/habits of both suborders (sucking and chewing lice) ● Suborder: Mallophaga (chewing lice) ○ All are parasites of birds can often identify the bird by the lice ● Suborder: Anoplura (sucking lice) ○ All are bloodsuckig parasites of mammals, piercing sucking mouthparts Understand the historical association with humans ● Found entombed with Egyptian mummies ● Lice combs recovered from Israel 100 B.C. ● Found in 1000+ year old mummified remains of native North Americans Know what nits are ● Nits louse eggs, attached to hair Know which lice transmit disease and which don’t ● Body Louse Can pass on pathogen of typhus Know where head, body, and crab lice prefer to live ● Head Louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) (a.k.a. “cootie”) ○ Start as eggs glued to hair Developed on Host ○ Preferred habitat: head, scalp (especially children) ● Body Louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) (a.k.a. “Cootie”, “seam squirrel”) ○ Lay eggs on clothing, then hatch and feed on human host ○ Preferred habitat: on clothes, lay eggs on clothes ● Crab Louse (Phthirus pubis) a.k.a “crabs” ○ Movement is from close contact, don’t jump. Move a few centimeters in a lifetime ○ Preferred habitat: have to live on host, does well in thick hair Know what pediculosis means ● Pediculosis A head or body infestation by lice TYPHUS Know the symptoms ● Caused by Rickettsia, a bacteria ○ Originally somewhat flulike (high fever, headache) ○ Blotchy red spots ○ Delirium, loss of strength ○ Mortality: 10100% if untreated (treatable by antibiotics) Know how typhus is transmitted ● Louse/Typhus transmission indirect not through bites ○ Bacteria lives in the louse → Acquired from infected person (Lethal to host louse) → Defecates and infects human through scratch wounds What is meant by the statement “In war the side that got typhus 2nd won the war”? ● Typus would devastate an army fast ○ Napoleonic Wars only 3,000 of original 600,000 returned ○ World War I 3 million died of typhus primarily in Russia and Poland What is the relationship between typhus and DDT? ● DDT first very effective insecticide in history ● Turned the tide of World War II for Allies IX. Order: Hemiptera (“true” bugs) pp. 7684 Know the physical features of the order ● Simple Metamorphosis ● Mouthparts modified to pierce plant tissues and suck fluids (plant sap, blood) ○ Modified into stylic like a proboscis to get liquid from single cells ● Adults, if winged, have unique wing hemelytra (halfhalf forewings) ○ Forewing: Apical Half membranous, Basal Half leathery ○ Membranous hindwing ● Have a triangle on the wings dead giveaway ● Exam Question all bugs are insect, not all insects are bugs (only Hemiptera) Bed Bugs Know the life history and habits ● Live 9 months on average, up to 3 years if starved (up to a year without food) ● About the size of a watermelon seed ● Cements eggs around bed and frame ● Thigmotactic behavior ● Detect people with CO2 ● 5 stages to adulthood Know their habitat ● Habitat near humans (obligate parasite of human, need bloodmeal from human to produce eggs, can feed on other things just can’t produce eggs). ○ Headboard, under furniture, curtains, behind pictures Know when they feed ● Peak Feeding Period 25am, wait til REM sleep, feed for 57 minutes, insert anticoagulants and numbing agents Know how they mate ● Mating tramatic insemination, scleritized eriegos (penis, spermaloge) pokes into abdomen, no mating orifice What role do the bacteria play? ● B Vitamins in diet lacking in all blood diets ○ Packets of Bacteria (symbionts) utilize symbiotic microbes to produce B vitamins Know the “other bed bugs” ● Other “Bed Bugs” Bat bugs, Swallow bugs, others associated with birds ○ Can feed on humans, but require specific host to reproduce Assassin Bugs Know their life history and habits ● Assassin bugs as common insect predators things such as blood bugs & animals ○ Ambush bugs (Phymata spp.) commonly seen at flowers ○ Feed on Bees, flies and butterflies (often noticeable with bug hanging off a flower) Know how the nymph of the masked hunter camouflages itself ● Masked Hunter (Reduvius personatus) ○ Sticky hairs get covered in sawdust, lint, walking dustball ○ Only assassin bug likely to find in your home Know which assassin bug transmits Chagas disease and its prevalence in Colorado ● “Conenose bugs” (Triatoma spp.) Kissing bugs ○ Human blood feeder bite is normally painless, happens at night ○ Transmit organisms involved with Chagas disease South America ■ Causal Agent; Trypanosoma cruz ■ Vector: Assassin Bug (Triatoma spp.) ■ Feces Scratches, let microorganism into system, not from the bite ■ 20,000 annual deaths from chagas disease, usually poverty areas Bugs as Common Nuisance Invaders Boxelder bugs What habits make this bug a nuisance invader? ● Develops on seeds of boxelder maple Nymphs are bright red, darken as they develop ● Stay inside the building throughout the winter (inside cracks, or in the wall) Conifer seed bugs What habits make this bug a nuisance invader? ● Develop on Conifer trees (pines) ● Come into houses & can have an odor (sort of piney) Brown marmorated stink bug What habits make this bug a nuisance invader? ● #1 Nuisance Invader ● Plant Feeders that lay barrel like eggs ● Has winter habits of coming in doors Know what preventive steps can be taken to help keep nuisance invaders outside ● Management of Nuisance household invaders ○ Seal opening prior to winter ○ Treat/Remove host plants ○ Dispatch/kill them as they’re observed ● Why Do they come inside and what are they doing when they get there? ○ Staying warm ○ They’re in diapause they don’t eat or reproduce Cicadas Know the life history Features of the Suborders ● Simple metamorphosis ● Mouthparts modified to pierce plant tissues and suck fluids ● Mouthparts appear to arise from below and behind eyes on the bottom of the insect ● Wings some with membranous forewing, some with tegmina, some wingless ● All plant feeders many serious plant pests ● Many live largely sessile life style (particularly suborder Sternorrhyncha) Life History ● Eggs Inserted into plant tissue, twigs & stems ○ Produces oviposition wound hole where eggs were inserted ● Nymphs Fall to ground and dig into soil ○ Feed on roots of plants ○ Can take years (3 or 4 years, up to 17 years) ● Adults Exit from ground leaving holes in order to mate ○ Leave shells, nymphal castes Know the injuries (to plants) caused by cicadas ● Sap removal (minor) develop so slowly there’s no really impact to the plant ● Oviposition injury (primary) “flagging”, tips of branches break and brown ● Nuisance issues numbers and noise Understand the different periodical cicadas ● 17 year cicada, 13 year cicada occur East of the Mississippi River ○ Occur in distinct broods ○ Broods can be tracked and predicted, next emergence in NY in 2018 Understand how/why they produce sounds ● Sound production ○ Calling songs and alarm songs are produced ○ Sound mainly produced by males (females can make a clicking noise with wings) ○ Sound making organ tymbal (only on males) Click membrane back and forth ● Why So Loud? ○ Super saturate sound (overwhelm) predators can’t tell where they’re at ○ Attract mates from long distance Aphids Know what kind of damage they produce ● Contamination of produce often found on lettuce, cabbage, etc ● Removal of plant sap (reduced vigor) try not to damage the plant ○ Can lead to premature yellowing, leaves falling, wilting ■ Rare outdoors as they are common food for predators ● Honeydew ○ Sooty Mold ● Leaf Curling ○ Especially happens to new growth ○ Strange ugly curling leaves, common in the spring What is honeydew?? Sooty mold?? ● Honeydew production waste of aphids (sugar and water) ○ All suck sucking bugs produce honeydew (often found on sidewalks, cars, etc.) ○ Sooty Mold Fungi that colonizes on honey dew ○ Association between ants and aphids ■ Ants feed on honeydew and will protect aphids to keep the food sources ■ Mutualistic relationship, often ants going up a tree are tending aphids What is the relationship between ants and aphids? ● Association between ants and aphids ○ Ants feed on honeydew and will protect aphids to keep the food sources ○ Mutualistic relationship, often ants going up a tree are tending aphids
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