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MKTG 364, Consumer Behavior

by: Jason Raff

MKTG 364, Consumer Behavior Mktg 364

Marketplace > SUNY Oneonta > Marketing > Mktg 364 > MKTG 364 Consumer Behavior
Jason Raff


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About this Document

An outline of chapters 2, 3, and 4 of textbook "CB Edition 7." Study guides are appropriate for any marketing consumer behavior class.
Consumer Behavior
Dr. Trang Tran
Study Guide
Marketing, Psychology
50 ?




Popular in Consumer Behavior

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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jason Raff on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Mktg 364 at SUNY Oneonta taught by Dr. Trang Tran in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Consumer Behavior in Marketing at SUNY Oneonta.


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Date Created: 10/12/16
Chapter 2, Consumer Behavior Value and the Consumer Value Framework Consumer Value Framework- theory that illustrates factors that shape consumption- related behaviors and ultimately determine the value associated with consumption Customer Relationship Management- systematic information collection that maintains detailed information about customers to enable a more customer- oriented managerial approach Relationship Quality- degree of connectedness between a consumer and a retailer or brand Service- an organization’s efforts applied toward value creation Psychology of the Consumer Internal Influences- things that go on inside the mind and heart of the consumer that are truly part of the consumer psychologically Cognition- term to describe the process in which information is stored and becomes knowledge Affect- Feelings associated with objects or activities Personality of the Consumer Individual Differences- characteristics traits of individuals, including demographics, personality, and lifestyle External Influences- social and cultural aspects of life as a consumer Social Environment- elements that specifically deal with the way other people influence consumer decision making and value Situational Influences- things unique to a time or place that can affect consumer decision making and the value received from consumption “Zero Moment of Truth”- the point which a passive shopper becomes and active shopper and actively seeks out alternatives Value Value- a personal assessment of the net worth obtained from an activity Utilitarian Value- gratification derived because something helps a consumer solve a problem or accomplish some task Hedonic Value- value derived from the immediate gratification that comes from some activity Strategy Strategy- planned way of accomplishing some goal. Marketing Strategy- way a company goes about creating value for customers Marketing Myopia- a common condition in which a shortsighted company views itself in a product business rather than in a value- or benefits- producing business Marketing Tactics- ways marketing management is implemented; involves price, promotion, product, and distribution decisions Augmented Product- actual physical product purchased plus any services such as installation and warranties necessary to use the product and obtain its benefits Total Value Concept- business practice wherein companies operate with the understanding that products provide value in multiple ways Marketing Value Co-creation- the realization that a consumer is necessary and must play a part in order to produce value Marketing Mix- combination of product, pricing, promotion, and distribution strategies used to implement a marketing strategy Target Market- identified segment or segment of a market that a company serves. Market Segmentation- separation of a market into groups based on the different demand curves associated with each group Elasticity- reflects how sensitive a consumer is to changes in some product characteristic Product Differentiation- marketplace condition in which consumers do not view all competing products as identical to one another Product Positioning- way a product is perceived by a consumer Perceptual Map- tool used to depict graphically the positioning of competing products Blue Ocean Strategy- positioning a firm far away from competitors’ positions so that it creates an industry of its own and, at least for a time, isolate itself from competitors Ideal Point- combination of product characteristics that provide the most value to an identical consumer or market segment Chapter 3, Consumer Behavior Consumer Learning Starts Here: Perception Learning- change in behavior resulting from some interaction between a person and a stimulus Perception- consumer’s awareness and interpretation of reality Exposure- process of bringing some stimulus within proximity of a consumer so that the consumer can sense it with one of the five human senses Sensation- consumer’s immediate response to a stimulus Sensory Marketing- actively seeking to engage customer’s senses as the primary aspect of the value proposition Consumer Perception Process Attention- purposeful allocation of information processing capacity toward developing an understanding of some stimulus Cognitive Organization- process by which the human brain assembles sensory evidence into something recognizable Assimilation- state that results when a stimulus has characteristics such that consumers readily recognize it as belonging to some specific category Accommodation- state that results when a stimulus shares some but not all of the characteristics that would lead it to fit neatly in an existing category, and consumers must process exceptions to rules about the category Contrast- state that results when a stimulus does not share enough in common with existing categories to allow categorization Anthropomorphism- giving humanlike characteristics to inanimate objects Selective Exposure- process of screening out certain stimuli and purposely exposing oneself to other stimuli Selective Attention- process of paying attention to only certain stimuli Selective Distortion- process by which consumers interpret information in ways that are biased by their previously held beliefs Subliminal Processing- way that the human brain deals with very low strength stimuli, so low that the person has no conscious awareness Subliminal Persuasion- behavior change induced by subliminal processing Applying the JND Concept JND- “just noticeable difference”; condition in which one stimulus is sufficiently stronger than another so that someone can actually notice that the two are not the same Weber’s Law- law that states that a consumer’s ability to detect differences between two levels of a stimulus decreases as the intensity of the initial stimulus increases JMD- “just meaningful difference”; smallest amount of change in a stimulus that would influence consumer consumption and choice Implicit and Explicit Memory Explicit Memory- memory that develops when a person is exposed to, attends, and tries to remember information Implicit Memory- memory for things that a person that did not try to remember Preattentive Effects- learning that occurs without attention More Exposure Effect- effect that leads consumers to prefer a stimulus to which they’ve previously been exposed Mere Association Effect- the transfer of meaning between objects that are similar only by accidental association Enhancing Consumer’s Attention Product Placements- products that have been conspicuously placed in movies or television shows Involuntary Attention- attention that is automatic, meaning beyond the conscious control of the consumer Orientation Reflex- natural reflex that occurs as a response to something threatening Involvement- the personal relevance toward, or interest in, a particular product Intentional and Unintentional Learning Intentional Learning- process by which consumers set out to specifically learn information devoted to a certain subject Unintentional Learning- learning that occurs when behavior is modified through a consumer- stimulus interaction without effortful allocation of cognitive processing capacity toward that stimulus Behaviorist Approach to Learning- theory of learning that focuses on changes in behavior due to association without great concern for the cognitive mechanics of the learning process Conditioning Information Processing (or cognitive) Perspective- learning perspective that focuses on the cognitive processes associated with comprehension and how these cause behavioral changes Classical Conditioning- change in behavior that occurs simply through associating some stimulus with another stimulus that naturally causes a reaction; a type of unintentional learning Unconditioned Stimulus- stimulus with which a behavioral response is already associated Unconditioned Stimulus- object or event that does not cause the desired response naturally but can be conditioned to do so by pairing with an unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned Response- response that occurs naturally as a result of exposure to an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Response- response that results from exposure to a conditioned stimulus that was originally associated with the unconditioned stimulus Instrumental Conditioning- type of learning in which behavioral response can be conditioned through reinforcement. Either through punishable behavior or rewards associated with undesirable behavior Discriminative Stimuli- stimuli that occur solely in the presence of a reinforcer Shaping- process through which a desired behavior is altered over time, in small increments Extinction- process through which behaviors cease due to lack of reinforcement Chapter 4, Consumer Behavior What Influences Comprehension, Memory, and Cognitive Learning? Comprehension- the way people cognitively assign meaning to things they encounter Signal Theory- explains ways in which communications convey meaning beyond explicit or obvious interpretation PMG- price matching guarantee Physical Characteristics- tangible elements or the parts of a message that can be sensed Golden Section- a preferred ratio of objects, equal to 1.62 to 1.00in Message Congruity- extent to which a message is internally consistent and fits surrounding information Figure- object that is intended to capture a person’s attention, the focal part of the message Figurative Language- use of expressions that send a nonliteral meaning Expertise- amount of knowledge that a source is perceived to have about a subject Trustworthiness- how honest and unbiased the source is perceived to be Credibility- extent to which a source is considered to be both an expert in a given area and trustworthy Counterarguments- thoughts that contradict a message Supportive Arguments- thoughts that further support a message Habituation- process by which continuous exposure to a stimulus affects the comprehension of, and response to, the stimulus Adaptation Level- level of a stimulus to which a consumer has become accustomed Dostats- acquiring things with great difficulty Expectations- beliefs about what will happen in the future Brain Dominance- Some people tend to either be left brain or right brain dominant Metaphor- in a consumer context, an ad claim that is not literally true but figuratively communicates a message Information Intensity- Amount of information available for a consumer to process within a given environment Framing- a phenomenon in which the meaning of something is perceived differently by the current information environment Priming- cognitive process in which context or environment activates concepts and frames thoughts and therefore affects both value and meaning Construal Level- whether or not we are thinking about something using a concrete or an abstract mindset Multiple Store Theory of Acquiring, Storing, and Using Knowledge Memory- psychological process by which knowledge is recorded Multiple Store Theory of Memory- theory that explains memory as utilizing three different storage areas within the human brain: sensory, workbench, and long-term Sensory Memory- area in memory where a consumer stores things exposed to one of the five senses Iconic Storage- storage of visual information in sensory memory and the idea that things are stored with a one-to-one representation with reality Echoic Storage- storage of auditory information on sensory memory Haptic Perception- interpretations created by the way some object feels Workbench Memory- storage area in the memory system where information is stored while it is being processed and encoded for later recall Encoding- process by which information is transferred from workbench memory to long term memory Retrieval- process by which information is transferred back into workbench memory for additional processing when needed Repetition- simple mechanism in which thought is kept alive in short-term memory by mentally repeating the thought Dual Coding- coding that occurs when two different sensory traces are available to remember something Chunking- process of grouping stimuli by meaning so that multiple stimuli can become one memory unit Cognitive Interference- notion that other stimuli are competing for recognition and may interfere with memory and comprehension Chunk- single memory unit Response Generation- reconstruction of memory traces into formed recollection of information Long-Term Memory- repository for all information that a person has encountered Semantic Coding- type of coding wherein stimuli are converted to meaning that can be expressed verbally Memory Trace- mental path by which tome thought becomes active Spreading Activation- way cognitive activation spreads from one concept to another Tag- small piece of coded information that helps with the retrieval of knowledge Rumination- unintentional but recurrent memory of long ago events that are spontaneously triggered Nostalgia- a yearning to relive the past that can produce lingering emotions Elaboration- Extent to which a consumer continues processing a message even after an initial understanding is achieved Personal Elaboration- process by which people imagine themselves somehow associating with a stimulus that is being processed Associative Network- network of mental that linking knowledge within memory; sometimes referred to as a semantic network Declarative Knowledge- cognitive components that represent facts Nodes- concepts found in an associative network Paths- representations of the association between nodes in an associate network Product and Brand Schemas Schema- a portion of an associate network that represents a specific entity and thereby provides it with meaning Exemplar- concept within a schema that is single best representative of some category; schema for something that really exists Script- schema representing an event Episodic Memory- memory for past vents in one’s life Social Schema- cognitive representation that gives a specific type of person meaning Social Stereotype- another word for social schema Social Identity- the idea that one’s identity is defined in part by the social groups to which one belongs


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