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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by ljackson60 Notetaker on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Lara Dahl in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
STUDY GUIDE: CLASSICAL ERA Chapter 12 Prelude: Music and the Enlightenment The Enlightenment: Late 18 century intellectual and philosophical movement Role of music became to entertain and please all classes of people Concert hall: First one built in year: 1748 City and Country: Oxford, England Why were they popular? Many different types of music were played and were moved into the public domain. Who could attend? Anyone could attend. What genres would be heard in the concert hall? Vocal music, orchestral music, church music, and opera. How did they change the life of a composer? Musicians still depended mostly on court patronage, the opera house, and the church. Vienna: Mozart and Beethoven career launched here, ruled by Joseph II, geographically central and an important country at the time. Joseph II: known for emancipating the peasantry, furthering education, and reducing the power of the clergy, supported music and literature and encouraged free press. Rosseau: Attacked opera seria for being too complex Demanded music be filled with “natural” simplicity and “pleasing variety” Classical Style: Melodies became simpler and more like tunes. The dominant texture became homophonic. Sonata form, minuet form, rondo form, and theme and variations form were the most prevalent forms during the period. Predominant texture of Classical period: Homophony, because melody was most important! Classical Orchestra – know what instruments/how many were involved in each section Strings: Violins 1 and 2, violas, cellos, bass Woodwinds: 2 Oboes and 1 Bassoon Brass: 3 Trumpets Percussion: 1 Timpani Pianoforte: How is it different from the harpsichord? Why was it so popular? Felt- covered hammers, which operated from a keyboard strike upon metal strings creates sound. It has a great musical range and was considered the soloist’s instrument. Chapter 13: The Symphony Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791): Prague Symphony lacked a minuet. Joseph Haydn (1732-1809): Farewell Symphony has an extra slow movement, which totals five movements in all. Symphony: a multi-movement work for orchestra Symphony movement plan: 4 movements Fill out tempo/characteristics/form for each movement Tempo Characteristics Form I. Fast and in Sonata form. Sometimes preceded by solemn intro in slow tempo. II. Slow temp and quiet mood. Sonata form, rondo form, and other forms. III. Persistent dance rhythms, moderately paced in triple meter. Minuet form. IV. Very fast, which may be in sonata form. Sonata Form, always the form of the 1 movement of symphonies Slow Introduction optional for first movements of symphonies Exposition – I refers to TONIC key, V refers to DOMINANT key, it’s important that you understand what sections are in the tonic key and which modulate (I) Primary theme (I) Transition/Bridge–modulates from TONIC(I) to most often DOMINANT(V) (V) Secondary theme (V) Closing material Development: Fragments melodies and motives Modulates to many different keys, no sense of tonic Section with most modulation Polyphonic texture, often composers use fugues in this section Retransition – modulates back to I for the recapitulation Recapitulation (I) Primary theme (I) Transition/Bridge – no modulation, stays in the TONIC (I) key until the end (I) Secondary theme (I) Closing material Coda – short closing section Theme and Variations form: A form consisting of a tune (the theme) plus a number of variations on it. Minuet/Trio form: Know the outer form (ABA) and inner form (aba’, etc.), A- Minuet |: a||:b:| B-Trio |:c:||:d:| A- Minuet (ab) B is called the trio. Rondo form: Musical form consisting of one main theme or tune alternating with other themes or sections (ABACA) Chapter 14: Other Classical Genres Chamber Music (domestic genre): Definition? Music designed to be played in a room. What genres are considered chamber music? Sonata (n.): Definition? 1-2 players Piano sonatas include how many players? Instrumental sonatas include how many players? It includes two players. What instrument stays the same? The violin stays the same. Sonata mvmt plan: How is it similar to a concerto? To a symphony—which mvmt is missing? Sonata has three movements which is similar to a concerto, but unlike a symphony it excludes the minuet movement. String Quartet: Instrumentation? Two violins, a viola, and a cello. String quartet movement plan: How is it similar to the symphony? How is it different? Similar in number of movements in a symphony, just with a small number of instruments. Classical Concerto: Definition? Piece of music that features the expressiveness of a soloist with the accompaniment of an orchestra. How is the role of soloist vs orchestra different from Baroque? Instrumental virtuosity remained a central feature of Classical concerto. Orchestra became more coordinated. The soloist and orchestra are perfectly matched. Classical concerto mvmt plan: How is it similar to the sonata? How is it similar to the symphony—which mvmt is missing? Both have only three movements and no minuet. What form would be used in the first movement? Double-exposition form is used in the first movement. Double-exposition form: Always heard in the first movement of a CONCERTO How is it similar to sonata form? How is it different? It is like an extended variant of sonata form with a cadenza in the end. Know what themes would be heard in these sections, and whether in tonic or secondary key Orchestra Exposition: Quiet themes, touches on minor keys briefly, but mostly remains in a major tonic key. Cadence theme ends section in gentle mood. Soloist Exposition: Another quiet, gentle melody appears. Development: Fragments of the new theme is brought from woodwinds music modulates to minor-mode keys. New theme turns anxious and the piano pulls the music toward the recapitulation. Recapitulation: Where does the cadenza occur? What is a cadenza? It occurs near the end and it is an improvised passage for the soloist in a concerto. Opera Buffa (buffoon): It is Italian comic opera. How is it different from opera seria in terms of characters, source of plots, soloists, pacing? Characters were now contemporary peasant girls and soldiers, and basses specialized in comical rants and exasperations. Plots were now the results of tricks and schemes rather than the decrees of magnanimous princes. Pacing was now faster because characters were able to sing less and convey more. Ensembles: Definition? How did this create faster pacing in opera buffa compared opera seria? An ensemble is a number sung by two or more people. It created faster pacing because characters had to say less. Which of our listening excerpts is an example of an ensemble? Mozart’s Don Giovanni Listening: The following pieces will need to be identified on the listening portion: Mozart’s Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, 1 mvmt st Mozart’s Piano Concerto in A Major, K. 488, 1 mvmt (CD 2 Track 35/2:11 streaming) Mozart’s “La ci darem la mano” from Don Giovanni (CD 3 Track 4)
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