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BSC114 Chapter 11 Study Guide

by: Lauren Dutch

BSC114 Chapter 11 Study Guide Biology 114

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > Biology 114 > BSC114 Chapter 11 Study Guide
Lauren Dutch
GPA 4.0

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Study guide over chapter 11 on cell communication for the exam on 10/18/16
Principles of Biology
Dr. Stevan Marcus
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Dutch on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Stevan Marcus in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 10/12/16
Chapter 11 Study Guide: 1. Evidence that cell signaling evolved early in the history of life comes from the similarity of cell signaling mechanisms in organisms that have a very distant common ancestor. 2. When a platelet contacts a damaged blood vessel, it is stimulated to release thromboxane A2. Thromboxane A2 in turn stimulates vascular spasm and attracts additional platelets to the injured site. In this example, thromboxane A2 is acting as a local regulator. 3. Early work on signal transduction and glycogen metabolism by Sutherland indicated that the signal molecule did not interact directly with the cytosolic enzyme, but required an intact plasma membrane before the enzyme could be activated. 4. Certain yeast cells secrete a molecule called the a factor. The purpose of this molecule is to stimulate cells of the opposite mating type, A yeast cells, to grow toward the a cell. 5. Cells use different signaling strategies to achieve different goals. In hormonal signaling, specialized cells release hormone molecules into the circulatory system, permitting distant cells to be affected. 6. Sutherland discovered that the hormone epinephrine binds to a specific receptor on the plasma membrane of the liver cell to metabolize glycogen in liver cells. 7. Testosterone and estrogen are lipid soluble signal molecules that cross the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. Only specific cells respond to their presence, however, because nontarget cells lack the intracellular receptors that, when activated by the signal molecule, can interact with genes in the cell’s nucleus. 8. Different types of cells can respond differently to the same signaling molecule because different types of cells possess different proteins. 9. Steroid hormones can enter a cell by simple diffusion. Therefore steroids do not initiate cell signaling by interacting with a receptor in the plasma membrane. 10.Steroid hormones can enter a cell by simple diffusion. 11.A small molecule that specifically binds to a larger molecule is called a ligand. 12.Receptors for signal molecules may be found embedded in the plasma membrane, or found within the cytoplasm or nucleus. 13.Testosterone does not affect all cells of the body because not all cells have cytoplasmic receptors for testosterone. 14.G protein coupled receptors are not enzymes whereas receptor tyrosine kinases have enzymatic function. 15.Receptor tyrosine kinases are activated when the binding of a single molecule causes it to form a dimer. 16.The binding of a signal molecule to a ligand gated ion channel affects the membrane potential. 17.Nitric acid is unusual among animal signal molecules in that it is a gas. 18.A G protein is active when a GTP is bound to it. 19.If a modified form of GTP that cannot by enzymatically converted to GDP were added to a culture of cells, the likely result would be that the activated G proteins would remain locked in the “on” position, transmitting signal even in the absence of a signaling molecule. 20.Replacement of GDP with GTP would activate a G protein. 21.Ras, a small G protein located at the plasma membrane, is often mutated in different types of cancer. Ras normally signals to a cell that it should divide. Cancer cells divide uncontrollably. This mutation of Ras is one in which it cannot hydrolyze GTP to GDP. 22.The cellular response of a signal pathway that terminates at a transcription factor would be the synthesis of mRNA. 23.Cholera develops when the bacterial toxin prevents G protein inactivation, which leads to the continuous production of cAMP. 24.The general name for an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein is protein kinase. 25.ATPgammaS is a form of ATP that cannot be hydrolyzed by enzymes. If this compound were introduced to cells so that it replaced the normal ATP, there would be a decrease in phosphorylated proteins in the cell. 26.Phosphorylation can either activate or inactivate a protein. 27.The source of phosphate for a phosphorylation cascade is ATP. 28.Second messengers tend to be water soluble and small. This accounts for their ability to rapidly move throughout the cell by diffusion. 29.The molecule cAMP usually directly activates protein kinase A. 30.A mutation in the active site of adenylyl cyclase that inactivates it would most likely lead to lower activity of protein kinase A. 31.Domoic acid is a neurotoxin produced by some species of alga. Domoic acid binds to the kainite receptor on neurons in parts of the brain. The kainite receptor facilitates the movement of calcium into the cell. Excess domoic acid induced stimulation of the neural kainite receptors causes neural damage and short term memory loss. The kainate receptor is a ligan gated ion channel and domoic acid is a ligand. 32.In a typical cell, calcium ions are often concentrated within the ER. 33.During the transduction of a signal, one molecule or ion may be closely associated with the activity of another. Some combinations include calcium and IP3, cAMP and adenylyl cyclase, cAMP and protein kinase A, and DAG and IP3. 34.A difference between the mechanisms of cAMP and Ca2+ in signal transduction is that cAMP is synthesized by an enzyme in response to a signal and Ca2+ is released from intracellular stores. 35.IP3 is produced as a result of the cleavage of a specific phospholipid in the plasma membrane. 36.IP3 acts by opening Ca2+ channels. 37.In eukaryotic cells, cyclic AMP is a second messenger that is produced as a response to an external signal such as a hormone. 38.In the inherited disorder Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, a multifunctional relay protein involved with the proliferation of immune cells is defective. 39.In liver cells, epinephrine stimulates the breakdown of glycogen. As the signal transduction pathway progresses, the signal is amplified. 40.Cells of the gastrointestinal tract and cells of the heart respond differently to epinephrine because there are different proteins found in the two types of cells. 41. Apoptosis is essential for the normal development of the nervous system. 42.Some apoptotic signals originate from outside the cell. Some apoptotic signals come from the nucleus when DNA has suffered irreparable damage. Some apoptotic signals come from the ER when a lot of protein misfolding has occurred. Some apoptotic signals come from mitochondria.


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