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Study Guide for Midterm

by: Samantha Jander

Study Guide for Midterm WGSS 1000

Samantha Jander

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About this Document

This study guide mostly consists of definitions but offers a lot of detail and examples. It also walks the reader through the three main waves of feminism.
Introduction to Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies
Kelly Choyke
Study Guide
Women's Gender Studies
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Jander on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to WGSS 1000 at Ohio University taught by Kelly Choyke in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies in Women and Gender studies at Ohio University.

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Date Created: 10/12/16
Gender - is the masculine and feminine roles assigned to each sex that are socially constructed and must be constantly reinforced; gender is NOT individual preference but socially mediated. This can be manipulated/changed. Ideology - beliefs, dominant ideas, ethics, ideals, etc. A system of ideas, especially ones that form the basis of economic or political theory and policy. Cultural Hegemony - describes the domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class and they manipulate the lower classes- the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and more- so that their ruling-class worldview becomes the worldview that is accepted as the cultural norm. As the universally valid dominant ideology that justifies the social, political, and economic status quo as natural and beneficial for everyone, rather than as artificial social constructs that benefit only the ruling class. Example: The American Dream. Supports ruling class politics only. Imperialism - rule by an emperor/authoritarian - a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy, cultural reach, or military force Know the difference between imperialism and colonialism. Colonialism is bringing culture to another country and overthrowing it. Imperialism is more of an inner over through of a country. Both extend one’s power. Colonialism- Colonial rule. Dominate culture builds colonies/ colonizes another culture. Globalization (also accounts for Westernization)- a concept that doesn’t have to be negative or positive. Positive example: watching Poland TV shows in America or eating at McDonalds in China. Negative example: America’s mortgage system went down and affected other countries. The process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture. Types of globalization: o Economic (international trade) o Political o Cultural (exchange of ideas/languages/world views) o Environmental/ecological Epistemology - The theory of knowledge, especially with regard to its methods, validity, and scope. Epistemology is the investigation of what determines justified beliefs from one’s opinions. Essentialism –forms of thinking that assume that all forms of human behavior can be explained by reference to an assumed human essence, an inner being that exists prior to the social, and is constitutive of human experience– for any specific entity, there is a set of attributes necessary to its identity and function. Example: “If we don’t build that wall then we’re going to have taco trucks all over.” essentialism– the belief that each gender has their own entity. Women are to cook and clean while men go out and work to provide for the family. You were born to be this way, splits the genders into different categories, gender is socially constructed can be changed). To do anything else is going against your biological essence. Social Constructionism – Stresses that sexuality is subject to socio-cultural molding to an extraordinary degree – far from being the most natural element in social life, it is perhaps one of the most susceptible to cultural organization. Intersectionality – concerned with the overlapping forms of power that make individual and collective lives and experiences of domination and resistance. Individual identities and social positions are shaped by the intersection of a host. You might be a white male, but you were born poor so you don’t feel privileged. However, you can still turn on the TV and see mostly white men. It’s how a value is assigned to you and what is accessed to you.  I am white, female, and 19 years old. I am part of the “majority” because of my race. I am female which can include sexist remarks. I am young so people could potentially take me less seriously-ageism. Multiculturalism – to defend and promote the idea of a society where individuals and social identities enjoy appropriate recognition, which creates equality, difference, and mutual space. Neoliberalism - A theory of political economic practices that proposes that human well- being can best be advanced by liberating individual entrepreneurial freedoms and skills within an institutional framework characterized by strong private property rights, free markets, and free trade o A set of policies that emphasize market-led development, including economic liberalization, privatization, state retrenchment, deregulation, and the general insertion of national economies into the global “free market,” has contributed to heightened forms of gender, sexual, cultural, and economic normativity within and among cultures and nations undergoing neoliberal reforms and related initiatives. o A form of governmentality that produces and validates subjects with marketed understandings of the relations between public and private. Political Economy - Interdisciplinary studies drawing upon economics, law, and political science in explaining how political institutions, the political environment, and the economic system influence each other - The study of how economic theory and methods influences political ideology, and therefore cultural ideology Postmodernism - discredits the idea of discursive homogeneity and a unified subjectivity -Postmodern thinking problematizes the concept of the constituting subject, along with notions of agency, creativity, and resistance, instead it stresses the discursive construction and the constituted nature of the individual (2009, Genz and Brabon, pg. 107) Heteronormativity - The cultural bias in favor of opposite-sex relationships of a sexual nature, and against same-sex relationships of a sexual nature - It presumes that heterosexuality is the only sexual orientation or only norm, and states that sexual and marital relations are most (or only) fitting between people of opposite sexes Homonormativity - A politics that does not contest dominant heteronormative assumptions and institutions but upholds and sustains them while promising the possibility of a demobilized gay constituency and a privatized, depoliticized gay culture anchored in domesticity and consumption - Does not push for social acceptance or liberation, but for the freedom to access and compete within the “free” market, often through the assimilation of heteronormative ideals concerning emotional stability and economic security Queer (Theory) - Whatever is not the “normal”, legitimate, or the dominant. Social and cultural norms reproductive sexuality and the family. o “queer” has become an umbrella term for sexual and gender identifications that are not heterosexual, heteronormative, or gender-binary. It is meant to move away from the distinct categories of lesbian and gay. o Queer theory is meant to transcend patriarchal privilege, in terms of distinctly gay male theories, and narrowly defined lesbian and feminist theories Androcentrism - the practice of placing males or the masculine point of view at the center of one's view of the world and its culture and history. Gynocentrism - refers to a dominant or exclusive focus on women in theory or practice. Privileging the female point of view. Feminism - the theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes o 1 Wave - about women suffrage and temperance in 1920’s nd o 2 Wave – rooted in sameness (white middle class) = collectivist - The feminist mystique. Abortion rights, equal pay, independence, reproductive rights, equal access to public places (jobs, health care). “The Personal is Political” 1950-1980’s o Row vs Wade. The fight to gain abortion. Have access to safe birth- control o 3 Wave - about intersectionality and diversity. Equal opportunity in the workplace and education and often focuses on the differences between women. 1990- today o 1980s – disillusionment and backlash and the rising popularity of anti- essentialism o 1990s – rise of neo-feminism / “girl power” *Society is constantly changing- each wave is faced with a new problem that needs to be conquered. The overall focus is on the differences of women and how we should accept those differences. *First and second wave lacked intersectionality (usually only included white women). Feminist Theory – the analysis of gender and power relations. Also how gender and power relations are constituted and experienced and how we think or do not think about them. Post-feminism(1990’s) - “it refers to a shift in the understanding and construction of identity and gender categories” o An ‘undoing of feminism’ which participates in feminist ideologies only to commodify and invalidate feminist critiques. o About multiple agency and subject positions of individualism in the new millennium. o Insists that feminism has to be viewed as it actually is- the idea that all races, genders, sexes, etc. can all thrive together. o A response to the theoretical and political challenges facing feminists – post second wave feminism – that hasrdo fixity or single feminist agenda. o Postmodern/anti-essentialist/3 wave –Post-Feminism is the intersection of postmodernism, multiculturalism, and feminism. Free market feminism – works through capitalism and is based on competitive choices in spite of social conditions being stacked against women as a whole and a back tracking anti-feminist backlash. Socialist Feminism- The idea that equality can be achieved by getting rid of the capitalist aspect of the government. Radical Feminism- Instead of working within the system, the plan is to start from scratch and build a new foundation. Toxic Masculinity- How you teach men from when they were children that they shouldn’t be emotional, sexually dominate, and they should be strong mentally. Socially constructed identity for men. The result of toxic masculinity is masculine mystique.  Machismo- extreme toxic masculinity. Absurdly violent. Masculine Mystique- When men cannot express emotions. They then express them through harmful ways such as verbal and physical abuse, alcoholism, drug addiction, unhealthy relationships, lack of communication, etc. If you are depressed, you aren’t going to talk to any of your friends or get help, so that also leads to suicides. Men have high incarceration rates and killing each other. Boot Strap Myth- If you work hard and you do your best, then eventual you will become victorious and achieve your goals (AKA: incorrect myth). How well you do in the system is solely based on how hard you worked. Conscious Raising- Marginalized communities use this to gather together and discuss different issues in their society. Government officials prohibited this because it could have caused a revolution. Exam set-up First part- matching Second part- 3/5 write in definitions (do all 5 to get extra credit) Third part- 4/7 short essay questions (do all 7 to get extra credit) Forth part- one long essay


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