Study Guide for first exam
Study Guide for first exam Psyc 332
Popular in Psychology of Adolescence
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
PSYC 100 - 001
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Luppino70 on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 332 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Dr. Jennifer Parker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Adolescence in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
Psych 332 Exam 1 Study Guide Ch. 1 Adolescence: The second decade of life with transitions of physical, mental, economic, and social. Going from immaturity to maturity. Early (10-13), Middle (14-17), and Late (18-21). Adolescence is the stage in life when an individual gains experience in understanding of how one must operate in life and understanding who they are Changes in context, fundamental changes, psychosocial. History Once you were able to you were put into the workforce to work. Sent off to an apprenticeship to learn a skill. The time frame started around the 15th Century for just the word, the 16th century the idea comes of a training is this time. Between the 17th and 19th there became a distinction from the upper class and working class. In 1904, G. Stanley Hall puts forward a storm and stress theory for adolescence. The kids are wild and need to be shaped into responsible adults. He was the first to write down and focus on this subject. In the 30s adolescence becomes its own development period and prior to this time there was child labor laws put in and education laws to have kids be in school. In 1962 Peter Blos publishes "On Adolescence” Two time periods when we express our independence, when one is a toddler when we discover emotions, and when we are teens the independence from parental control but still within it. In 1973 John Hill's research Problems Defining Adolescence Adolescence is a social construct Is adolescence truly a stage in life? What is the start and stop time? Some of the definition is arbitrary but useful Pubertas is the Latin word for adult. The goal of puberty is the body getting us ready for sexual reproduction Endocrine System: Produces, regulates, and circulates hormones. Everything comes from within the body. Hormones: Specialized substances that are responsible for metabolism, growth, tissue function, sexual function, sleep, and mood. Organizational Roles: process of early exposure to hormones organize the brain and other organs in preparation of later changes. Prenatal hormones, patterns of behavior Activation Role: Hormone levels change and create changes in behavior, growth, and appearance Glands: Organs that stimulate particular parts of the body that respond specific ways through certain hormones Adrenarche: Maturation of the Adrenal Glands leading to physical changes. Kidneys, Liver, etc. HPG Axis Hypothalamus: Responsible for controlling the pituitary gland, a part of the brain. The Master regulator. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) goes to the pituitary gland. Monitoring the hormones at a set point, when there is enough it will reduce production, or increase production when enough is needed, like a thermostat. Pituitary gland: most responsible for regulating hormones in the body. Lutenizing Hormone and Follicle Stimulation go to the gonads to begin maturation Gonads: Testes in men and ovaries in women, they release Estrogens and Androgens (testosterone). Everybody has both of these, more testosterone for men, more estrogen for women. What starts puberty? What starts the HPG axis? It is suspected that Leptin is important. When leptin levels rise is because the HPG kick in. Other things correlate along with puberty, having mature sexual partners (being around people who are sexually mature (like older siblings or with friends who hit their puberty), nutrition, involvement in sports, and stress. These things tend to effect females more than males. Environmental factors are stress in healthcare, nutrition. Puberty in context Timing varies by region of the world Western, developed, tribal society SES Status Access to better quality resources and living conditions Ethnic Group Historical Era Physical Changes Growth Spurt Height and Weight Increase, Growth and thyroid hormones release and androgens Epiphysis: the connecting of two bones and ends growth spurts Sexual Characteristics Boys get more muscle, broader shoulders, legs get longer Girls get more body fat, shapelier figures, hips widen. Sexual Maturation Boys: Orderly usually, can father a child while appearing physically immature Girls: Less orderly sequence, Menarche: The first time menstruation occurs. Look more mature before able to fully be able to reproduce No average age is universal, the changes from people within the same environment comes from genetic differences. Group differences differ over time and countries, The relationship between parent and child is the best indicator of mental health. Adolescence do not want distance from their parents but look for help more from peers than parents. The Difference in this stage is one of personal taste and not of beliefs or morals. Adolescence start to get involved in romantic activities, with changes in their peer groups and spend more time with fewer people. How one perceives themselves as mature or older is what influences their feelings and behavior more than actual physical changes. Gender differences in changes Male Boys tend to react more positively to changes as becoming a man and growing up. Late maturation tends to have more distress, more likely to act delinquently, seek attention, more mental health problems like anger. Female Girls tend to be scared of their changes in the body. Early maturation leads to more distress, mental health problems like anxiety and eating disorders, lower self-esteem and self-image, externalize their problems Eating Disorders The fear of weight gain that usually comes before puberty. Only a quarter of adolescence are highly satisfied with their bodies and half think they are overweight and tried to diet. 14% of girls have eating disorders and 6.5% of boys. 20 million women and 10 million had a eating disorder sometime in their life and half of those with an eating disorder are also depressed. Anorexia Nervosa Fear of being overweight. Those who have this are very thin, very restricted diet, think they are always overweight. Begins in adolescence, refuses to eat and does not care of the consequences to the body. Only half recovery and this disorder has the highest mortality rate. Bulimia Nervosa Binges out of control amount of food in a short time and purges) forced vomiting) and exercises excessively. Feel shame and disgusted at themselves Gender differences Men are between 5% to 10% of cases, 33% of adolescence males unhealthily perform weight control habits. As many as 43% of men are uncomfortable with their bodies. Men are less likely to eat help, sexuality and muscularity in the media influence thoughts as well. Racial and ethnic differences 1995 study showed black women historically show more satisfaction with their looks. No difference in white and Hispanic women but an increase in eating disorders among Asian women. While 90% of whites are not happy with how they look, around 70% for blacks and this comes from cultural ideals of beauty and lack of identity with white girls. Despite the previous news, adolescence is a healthy time of life, the threats comes from psychosocial causes and not natural causes. 1 in 15 adolescents experiences one chronic illness. Adolescent mortality is 48%. 13% homicide, 11% Suicide, 6% Cancer, 3% heart disease. Motor vehicle accidents are 73%. Those who are poor and are ethnic minorities will have less access and money for health care. And more likely to have mental illnesses, be victims of homicide, and have obesity issues. Pheromones: chemicals excreted by animals that create a response in other animals of the same species. Secular Trend: Over the last the last 200 years the trend of people hitting puberty earlier in life due to better nutrition and health. The evidence that hormone change is responsible for moodiness in adolescence is weak. Ch. 2 During adolescence changes in cognition to being able to think more abstract, become multidimensional in thinking, and seeing more relative than absolute. Possibilities Teens become better at arguing and showing their point, the world is getting bigger and now will begin to question what they are told and know, they begin to see abstractly and can accept that. Abstract Separating context from content. Inductive reasoning. Comparing situations and recognize common elements. See patterns and correlation. Understanding Meanings not previously known and an increase in social cognition Multidimensionality More than one view of things. Better understanding of probability. Beginning to know sarcasm Relativism More skeptic thinking, uncertainty in what is known. Metacognition: thinking about thinking. Made by John Flavell. There is a sense of awareness in understanding how we know what we know, our own cognitive process. How we control our thoughts and manipulating. Increasing self-consciousness Metacognitive knowledge 1. Person, knowing our strengths and weaknesses 2. Task, the nature of what is ahead of us 3. Strategy, how to apply the knowledge in flexible ways. Focusing on strengths or the easier part or however one decides to tackle a task. Adolescent Egocentrism by David Elkind Moving to formal operation of thought that allows adolescent to see below the surface. Learning that what adults say is not always what an adult does. Discovering that certain rules that applied to you were arbitrary. Realizing these things can lead to anger and anxiety, rebellion to arbitrary rules. These thoughts starting to lead to these immature thoughts: Imaginary Audience: one is always being watched and judged. Very high perception of self-consciousness. Personal Fable: I am unique and so the rules do not apply to me as they do to everyone else. Jean Piaget, Born in Switzerland, Doctorates at 22. And Most influential from 1919 to 1922 by attending pathological psychology and joined Alfred Binet and started to look at cognitive development Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor period, 0-2. Coordinating sensory input and motor responses. Gaining senses. Preoperational Period, 2-5. Symbolic thought shown through irreversibility, egocentricism. Concrete Operations, 6-early adolescence. More logical abilities, concrete facts ability. Hierarchical classification Formal Operations, Early adolescence to adult. First step is minimal use, next step is better at gaining information and categories the possibilities. Understanding competence vs. performance. A direct relationship between secure attachment and complex formal thinking Deductive Reasoning: making conclusions by thinking of general state of rules to specific examples. Theory to questions to hypothesis to test that hypothesis and leads back to confirming or revising or rejecting the theory Inductive Reasoning: Looking at a specific example and generalizing it to everyone within the group. Thinking hypothetically is what lets people argue in the abstract. In a certain situation, what would you do or think? Propositional Thought: Making an evaluation without concrete facts or examples Critiques Research shows the skill talked about show up earlier than Piaget said. Formal Operation Stage, Piaget said that this may not be fully developed, but what is fully developed? No room for individual differences He developed this theory based on his three kids. Information-processing perspective: trying to explain cognitive building in ways of growth of particular elements of the thinking process Selective Attention, focusing on one thing while ignoring the outside distractions Divided Attention is trying to focus on multiple things Working Memory is retaining thoughts for a short time to solve a problem Long term Memory is the storage for memories to be recalled. Processing Speed, increases and then backs off around 15. Organization such as mnemonic devices. Metacognition is the sense of planning ahead. Strategy and Problem Solving. Now thinking abstractly Gray Matter is nerves and fibers that make up the majority of the computing power. As we get older gray matter gets less dense through pruning and removing unnecessary connections and making the brain more efficient. Prefrontal Cortex: most responsible for quality thinking abilities like planning and control and future assessment Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is the upper and outer at the front of the brain and control impulses and planning Ventromedial prefrontal cortex is the center and lower area of the front and for gut instinct decisions Orbitofrontal cortex is right behind the eyes and evaluates risks to rewards No big differences between males and females, only minor ones. Measuring IQ, being able to gain and use knowledge. IQ equals Mental Age divided by chronological age and modern tests look at verbal, process speed, memory, and perceptual skills. The average is 100 and focused on school smarts Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Analytical, how well can one see patterns, takes parts and create parts and vice versa. Creative, becoming adaptable and flexible in thinking, thinking outside the box Practical, street smarts, common sense, competence in the world such as how to haggle. Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Logical/Math, engineers, Naturalist, knowing nature well, biologists Visual/Spatial, ship navigators, interior designers Linguistic, interpreter, editor, Kinesthetic, personal trainers, how the body works and moves, athletes Musical, Interpersonal, therapist Intrapersonal, someone who can be well connected to themselves Existential, philosopher, priests There is no neurological evidence for his theory, no empirical evidence Ch. 3 Social Redefinition: the way someone's position or status is changed and defined differently by society. This usually starts around age 15-16 when one begins to gain more independence and responsibility. Symbolic separation from parents/care givers Separating from males and females Accentuation of physical and social differences from males and females. Generational Movement Learning cultural values Historical, family history stories Practical, skills learned. Inventionists: Those who theorize that adolescence, except for the biological and cognitive changes, is a socially constructed idea. Since kids were now not in the labor force they depend more on adults and now everyone gets free schooling. New terms now as well. Changes have also happened in the broader environment Teenager: The term came about in the last half century as a softer term of adolescent. - Youth: referring to those aged 18-22, used to be 12-24. Age of Majority: The age when one is considered an adult. This can be different in societies and within societies, like the penal code can recognize someone as an adult at age 16. Child Protectionists: Also known as the Child Savers, believed that adolescents and kids should be out of the workforce and in schools Initiation Ceremony: some formal acceptance of going into adulthood Status Offense: A violation of the penal code simply because of the status as a minor, such as drinking, smoking, gambling, truancy, etc. Juvenile Justice System: A separate system meant to deal with delinquent behavior. The system has its own courts and officers. Cohort: those born in the same historical era and go through the same social transitions Extrusion: many societies do this. It is having kids sleep in other houses other that their parents, a social redefinition to have them used to being on their own. Scarification: The intentional marking of someone's body as an initiation ceremony Circumcision: Permanent alteration to genitals. Continuous Transitions: Moving into adulthood gradually and slowly taking on adult roles and statuses. Discontinuous Transitions: The sudden move into adulthood. Apprenticeship: An adolescent is under the care of a skilled worker to learn said skill. Collective Efficacy: Communities ability to control the behavior in their area through community institutions like school. Good informal social control through trust in neighbors whom there are relations with.
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