Midterm Exam 1 Study Guide
Midterm Exam 1 Study Guide EN 209
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Crews on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EN 209 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Cassander Lavon Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see American Literature to 1865 in English at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
Exam 1: Class Notes: CDV: ● The Route ○ Through the Caribbean, Florida, Texas, and northern Mexico ■ Some men stay in Caribbean ■ Founded Tampa Bay with 300 men and explore Florida, men on ships leave to go back to Spain, leaving those men without supplies ● Cultural Transformation ○ Physical difference, psychological difference ● CDV an American Author ○ Initiates new genre ■ Indian Captivity Narrative ● Considered the first uniquely American genre ● Chronicles contact ● Conventions of genre ○ Protagonist ○ Antagonist ○ Setting: the American wilderness ● Full circle ○ Start and end in the same place, ex. Spain ● Told a story of Europeans and Euro Americans who were taken captive by American Indians ■ Texts show subject fundamentally changed by captivity, and the American landscape ■ American themes: cultural contact, wilderness/landscape, selfregeneration, wealth, religion Champlain ● Historical significance ○ “Father of New France” ■ Administered/expanded Cartier’s findings ■ Permanent settlement: Quebec City, 1608 ■ Mapped Northeast Coast ● Cape Cod, Great Lakes ■ Indian alliances (Wendats/Hurons, Algonquians) ● Fueling fur trade, mission work ● antiIroquois ● Literary Significance ○ Patterns of French and Indian interaction ■ Power dynamics ■ “Opportunistic coexistence” ● A pattern of interation, usually associated with French in which two sides are looking out for their owns self interest even as they are trying to create alliances to work with other people John Smith ● Jamestwon, 1607 ○ First permanent English colony ○ John Smith came in 1608 ■ Work policy: if you don’t work, you don’t eat ■ Trade with Powhatan ■ Departs 1609 ● Literary Significance ○ Advances travel writing genre ■ Conventions (travel, adventure, knowledge) ■ American Landscape ■ Firsthand authority ○ Illustrates patterns of Native Americans and English interaction ○ Promotes self: ■ Myth of the self made man ● Self made man can happen in the American landscape ● Soldier to hero ○ Myth of Pocahontas ■ Pocahontas “demystified” ● Age, in reality she was at oldest a preteen ● Historical context ○ Cultural appropriation and death ● Changed name, married to John Rolfe James Fenimore Cooper (17891851) ● Literary Significance ○ American Novelist ■ The first american novelist to achieve international, commercial success ■ Literary forefather for better or worse, future of American novelists ● Last of the Mohicans, 1826 ○ Historical Frontier Romance novel ■ Romance Novel ● A cultural movement that was happening in Europe and the American at the turn of the century where people started to value feeling over science and observation ● Intuition or intense feeling, not observable experience ● Natural setting ○ Rhetorical purpose ■ Defines American literary culture separate from English ■ Romanticizes American Indian culture ■ Theorize the problem of American Indian ○ Audience ■ Citizens in a new American republic looking for independence ● Cultural Significance ○ Novel initiates two key American Myths ■ Myth of the Vanishing Indian ● Novel romanticizes the loss of American Indian ● Constructs stock characters that survive to today ■ Myth of the Frontier ● Manifest Destiny ○ Early US foreign Policy, gives us the right to conquer ● The space where civilization meets savagism ○ Man tested and succeeds, paving way for American civilization Jefferson ● Enlightenment ○ Cultural movement that emphasizes sciences and learning rather than superstition and occult beliefs in the realms of the invisible; religion no longer ultimate authority; logic and observation and experimentation ○ Age of Reason ○ Begins in Europe ■ John Locke (16321704): mind as blank slate, tabula rasa; learn by experience ■ Sir Isaac Newton: theory of gravity, observation and logic ■ Immanuel Kant: Critique of reason, combine logic and reason with experience; move beyond speculation and faith ○ In America, movement fueled American Revolution ■ Benjamin Franklin ■ Thomas Paine: Common Sense, pamphlet about Revolutionary War ■ Thomas Jefferson Notes on the State of Virginia, great example of enlightenment text ● Bio ○ 3rd president of the US, drafted Declaration of Independence ● Literary Significance ○ Wrote numerous document advocating for the cultural prestige of a fledgling United States ○ US exceptionalism ○ Key enlightenment thinker; infuse texts with rational argument steeped in observations and logical conclusion ○ Notes central text, example of scientific treatise ● Notes of the State of Virginia ○ Genre ■ Scientific treatise ● Part of American Enlightened literature that sought to legitimize the country’s right to selfgovern through mode of logical, scientific reasoning ○ Rhetorical Purpose ■ Respond to perceived inferiority of America ■ Roots supremacy in series of observations, logical arguments, archeological data ■ Positions Virginia at center of American prominence
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