IAFF 1005, 10.10 Study Guide
IAFF 1005, 10.10 Study Guide IAFF 1005
Popular in Introduction to International Affairs: A Washington Perspective
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Notetaker on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to IAFF 1005 at George Washington University taught by Sell, S in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Affairs: A Washington Perspective in International Affairs at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
1.1 Identify the distinctive features of a sovereign state system and their implications for cooperation and conflict. - Imperial system: one government controls most of the world with which it has contact. Ex) Roman Empire Feudal system: human loyalties and political obligations are not fixed primarily by territorial boundaries Anarchic System of States: composed of states that are relatively cohesive but with no higher government above them. Also called the Westphalian System.;1.2 Explain how history can help us explain international politics today - ~Continuities + Changes: some structural features of international politics predispose events in one direction rather than another (security & prisoner's dilemma). On the other hand, such situations do not prove that war is inevitable. ~Be wary of shallow historical analogies ~Be aware of the selectivity of the Historian: no one can tell the whole story of everything ~Cure is to read more ~History can help us examine and explain continuities. It can also help us examine the effect of changes we must be careful to not make decisions based on historical analogies and try to get the full picture;1.3 Compare & Contrast: a) motives, means and consequences; and b) skepticism, state moralism, and cosmopolitanism - A) Motives: why war? Means: how war? Consequences: what next? B) On other cards Be careful when moral judgements determine everything because morality can lead to a sense of outrage and heightened risk;2.4 Explain the role of counterfactual reasoning in historical inference - Counterfactuals: contrary-to-fact conditions; thought experiments to explore casual claims Criteria: 1) Plausibility: it must be plausible to imagine two conditions existing at the same time 2) Proximity in time: the two events being examined should be relatively close in time 3) Relation to theory: is a counterfactual plausible considering what we know about all the cases that have given rise to these theories 4) Facts: hypothesis must be carefully examined in relation to known facts;4.1 Contrast collective security with balance of power and assess the relative role of each in Great power relations between the two World Wars - Balance of Power: does not give priority to democracy or peace, a way to preserve the sovereign state system, allows for wars or violations of self-determination. Collective Security: Balance of power on a larger scale; multi-state, all agreeing to deter aggression together; ex) League of Nations, UN, NATO; Requires states to give up some sovereignty for security WWI saw Balancing of Power fail WWII saw collective security fail after the League of Nations fell apart due to the Manchuria failure and the Ethiopian debacle.;4.2 Identify deep, intermediate and proximate causes of WWII at various levels of analysis and assess whether the war was inevitable - System: WWI did not solve German problem; Versailles treaty failed; absence of US and SU; growth of fascism and communism increased hatred and hindered communications Domestic: Class conflict; Great depression; Ideological politics, appeasement Individual: Hitler's power, schemes, and greed;Actors and Interests - States and nations Can be ethnic (NK) or civic-based (US) nations Sub-state groups Non-state groups International Organizations;Actors and Interests: Actor - Any person or body whose reasons or actions have international reprecussions.;Actors and Interests: International Organizations - "Inter-governmental" would be more correct There are international and regional organizations Ex) International: United Nations and the UN system Regional: European Union;Actors and Interests: Nation - A group of people who have some combination of common language, culture, religion, history or identity. Has a political agenda and aspirations--> some form of self-governance Synonym- ethnic group;Actors and Interests: Nation-State - A state whose citizens are overwhelmingly members of a single nation Problems: hard/impossible to do; promoting "national self-determination" can lead to violence (genocide, irredentism, etc.) Good example- Japan or one of the Koreas;Actors and Interests: Non-state, International - The good: NGOs Interests- humanitarian, peacekeeping, etc. The bad: Criminal organizations Interests: economic The ugly: Terrorist organizations Interests: political, ethnonational, religious The rich: MNCs Interests: economic;Actors and Interests: State - A political unit with territory and sovereignty. Has borders, territory, government, peoples, is recognized by other states/actors Synonym- country;Actors and Interests: Sub-state Groups - Family-based: clans and tribes Social-culture based: ethnic groups Politically-minded: nations Fuzzy line between 'ethnic group' and 'nation' in this context;Authority - Typically moral, normative, juridical, requires legitimacy.;Causes of the Cold War: Individual- Level Factors - Personality of Stalin: aggressive, paranoid, secretive (traditionalist) Death of FDR: was commited to integration; rise of hawkish & anti-communist advisors (revisionist);Causes of the Cold War: Schools of Thought - Traditionalist: Blames USSR and Stalin Revisionist: Blames the US Post-revisionist: Blames the structure of the system (bipolar & security dilemmas);Causes of the Cold War: State-Level Factors - USSR & US had different ideologies; US & USSR had mutually antagonistic histories; USSR determined to have sphere of control in Eastern/Central Europe because of Soviet ideology and wartime experiences (traditionalist).;Causes of the Cold War: System-Level Factors - 2 large powers left standing- bipolar confrontation; enormous power vacuums in Europe, Asia and Middle East; Security concerns; strong security dilemmas The structure of the system made conflict highly likely (post-revisionist).;Causes of the Nuclear Arms Race: Individual-Level Factors - Stalin and his successors: secretive and paranoid Eisenhower: Emphasis on nukes to control spending, "More bang for the buck" LeMay`;Causes of the Nuclear Arms Race: State-Level Factors - USSR was closed and secretive--> added to US uncertainty/fear/paranoia;Causes of the Nuclear Arms Race: Sub-State Level Factors - Eisenhower 1960- "Beware of the military-industrial complex" Competition within the US military fro nuclear missions/forces/budgets/status; Civil- military complications;Causes of the Nuclear Arms Race: System-Level Factors - A bipolar, superpower confrontation; arms race was likely (action-overreaction process); uncertainty (anticipation-overreaction), fear;Collective Security - Coalitions of states would work together to stop aggressors, preserve order, and provide security. Alternative to Balance of Powers. Practiced by League of Nations. Problems: Europe was so afraid of another war, the wouldn't act; national interests varied; lack of political will; limited power projection capabilities; no US commitment;Consequences of WWI - Human: 8 mil. soldiers, 6-7 mil. civilians Economic: staggering; protests and turmoil in many countries Political: End of Russian monarchy, end of German monarchy, end of Austro- Hungarian empire, end of Ottoman empire;Consequences of WWII - Human: 15 mil. soldiers, 26-34 mil. civilians Economic: devistation for all except US; colonial/imperial collapse Political: Eurocentric system gone; collapse of empires; new powers (US & USSR); new polarity--> new, bipolar system;Constructivism - Social structure is most important 1) Agents and structures interact in a cyclical and reciprocal way 2) Identities and interests of agents are not givens 3) Overtime, intersubjective meanings change Key actors: transnational activist and NGOs;Cosmopolitans - See international politics not just as a society of states, but as a society of individuals with a set of universal human rights. Justice for individuals, distributive justice. National borders should be abolished. More tame version relies on people having multiple loyalties. Evaluation: Has profound insight but runs the risk of causing great disorder by redistribution;Crisis Stability - If two countries are in an international crisis, they have great incentive to find a peaceful solution (Cold War and MAD).;Dependency Theory - The notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.;Deterrence - Offense dominated, therefore deterrence substituted for defense Required: Credible threat, survivable retaliatory force--> MAD;Fascism - Goals: order, national unity, national rejuvenation Leadership: strong, authoritarian, totalitarian, all-powerful Politics: one-party rule, repression, martial law Society: intense emphasis on ethnic and racially-based nationalism, national purity, national unity Economics: state-controlled mixed economy to advance national goals; self- sufficiency; protectionism Against: multi-party democracy; communism Violence often glorified;Feminism - Focuses on gender. Focuses on the patriarchy- the systematic privileging of stereotypically "masculine" traits and virtues, such as strength, autonomy, competitiveness, and martial skill. Wants gender equality, empowerment, balancing, and mainstreaming;Genocide - The deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation.;Global Trends: Economics - Development- necessary and probable Progress- global economy has tripled since 1990. Growth is key in poverty reduction. Prospects- global economy should double by '37. Key issues: China, Brexit, Middle East, oil/commodity prices, prospects for deglobalization.;Global Trends: Energy - No replenishing efforts Water, energy, CO2 emissions and industrial output have all increased exponentially No more resource buffers that were previously relied on;Global Trends: Governance - Decolonization--> disorderly at best. Many states born weak and are still weak Corruption--> global problem. Growing due to globalization and the rise of drug use and human trafficking. Transnational problem due to criminal organizations involved Democracy--> promotes stability and transparency, allows for feedback. Democratization takes a long time.;Global Trends: Population Distribution - Gender imbalance--> stability implications;Global Trends: Population Growth - In 21st century, will occur primarily in the developing world. Will be mostly young. Developed world is not growing. Labor force is not increasing. Older population. Creates immigration pressures.;Global Trends: Population Movement - Urbanization-- > challenges with food, water, sanitation, shelter, etc. Migration--> economic/social motivations. Implications: challenges of sudden, massive population movements; brain drains;Global Trends: Security - Trends--> good news: conflict has declined since 1945. Bad news: the post-CW era had been violent and deadly. Today, most conflicts happen within states (more difficult to resolve) Prospects--> the worlds has 193 recognized states. Ongoing, structural, conflict management problems (nuclear weapons);Great Power Transitions - Very dangerous. Can lead to all-out system-wide hegemonic war. Crossover period is especially dangerous.;Hegemony - Power over others (states or peoples) necessary for sovereignty.;Human Rights - The rights believed to be justifiable to every human being.;Humanitarian Intervention - A state's use of military force against another state when the chief publicly declared aim of that military action is ending human- rights violations being perpetrated by the state against which it is directed.;Instruments - Realist: military force is the only instrument that matters;International Politics - Politics in the absence of a common sovereign or politics among entities with no rulers above them. It is a self-help system.;International Society - The rules of the international system.;International System - The organization of international actors and factors.;Jus Ad Bellum - Only with: Just Cause (defense or protection) Right Intention (reestablish peace) Legitimate Authority Reasonable Hope (expect success) Last Resort;Jus In Bello - Only with: Proportionality in the use of force Noncombatant immunity (no civilians) Respect for the laws of war (wounded, POWs);Just War Formulations - War can be justified if the reasons for going to war are legitimate and if military force is used with restraint Jus ad bellum- Justice of War Jus in bello- Justice in War;Levels of Analysis - Individual, Intra-state, State, Supra- state, System;Levels of Analysis: Individual - Human nature, decision-making dynamics, risk-taking tendencies (prospect theory), leaders (idiosyncratic proclivities and problems) Solutions? Checks/Balances; Devil's Advocates; Multiple Advocacy;Levels of Analysis: Intra-state - Governmental and policy making arrangments, organizational processes (policies are shaped and implemented by large agencies with their own idiosyncracies and procedures), Bureaucratic politics (Bureaucratic interests are not necessarily national interests). Solution? Governmental Reform; Leadership at the Top;Levels of Analysis: State - Some types of states are more peaceful/belligerent; Recent social science found that democracies are less likely to go to war with each other and democratizing systems are volatile. Solutions? Democracy Promotion; Regime Change/Reform;Levels of Analysis: Supra- state - European Union, United Nations i.e. states coming together to promote economic development, political cooperation, democracy, human rights, and social mobility.;Levels of Analysis: System - The international system is anarchic; It is a self-help system. A state must provide for its own security. Security Dilemma- defensive actions can provoke responses; can lead to arms race, crisis escalation, war; defensive actions can lead to reduced security Solutions? Try to Reduce Uncertainty, Promote Trust, and Credibility; Dampen Security Dilemmas;Liberalism - Anarchy's effect can be overcome by relationships: Political- international institutions can promote peace. Democracies less likely to fight each other. Economic- trade relations may lead states to give up war Social- personal relations increase understanding and decrease war Neoliberalism- emphasizes role of institutions 1) Provides continuity 2) Provides opportunity for reciprocity 3) Provides communication 4) Provides ways of peacekeeping (UN, EU, NATO, etc.);Marxism - Predicted death of capitalism, socialist revolution (due to capitalist exploitation), rise communism, economic classes are key and economic interests are more important Failed: said economics was more powerful than politics; said state was a tool of a particular class; rigid understanding of historical progress Got Right: potential of capitalism to concentrate wealth;Paradigm - Foundation on which we build theories; begins with axioms.;Peace of Westphalia - 1648 Ended Europe's "Thirty Years' War" Established the current system of sovereign states.;Power - The ability to achieve one's purpose or goals (hard and soft). Power is relative and difficult to observe;Power Polarity - Unipolar: 1 hegemon (US early post-CW) Bipolar: 2 superpowers (Cold War 45-91) Multipolar: 3 or more (Europe 1815-1914) Nonpolar: fragmented system (Medieval Eur);Power Polarity: Stability - Uni- stable is hegemon is seen as benign and legitimate with no rising challenger Bi- zero-sum competition can be dangerous. Stable is war is seen as catastrophic Multi- Stable is powers are all about equal and static with fluid alliances;Power: Demographic - Based on population parameters, human capital, economic potential (labor force) and military potential (nationalism and skill);Power: Economic - Inputs: natural resources, human capital, public spending, private investments Outputs: GDP, innovativeness, innovations, potential to convert to military capcities Leverage: aid/finance, trade; tariffs, quotas, anctions; collaboration with Cartels to enhance influence Sustainability--> resource needs; environmental damage/constraints;Power: Geographic - Based on country's location, size, natural resources, climate and vulnerability climate change;Power: Military - Inputs: Human (people, training, organization) and Financial (budget allocations/expenditures) Outputs: Forces (armies, weapons, space systems) and Capabilities (defensive and offensive);Power: Political - Political and diplomatic influence (with allies and IGOs), global perceptions, connections/alliances/partners;Power: Soft Power vs. Hard Power - Soft--> often thought of as anything but military and inherently benign (WRONG). Consists of attraction, persuasion, co-optation (pull). Resources: values, ideas, legitimacy, policies, culture. Hard--> coercion, blackmail, sanction, force (push). Resources: lawyers, guns, and money.;Power: Technological - Inputs: Spending, higher education, size of science/industrial base, culture of innovativeness, intellectual property protections Outputs: science, engineering applications, innovations Priorities: IT, data analysis, AI, robotics, energy, bio-medical;Realism - States are the most important actor; Anarchy has a powerful effect on states behavior; At the end of the day, all politics are power politics; competition is inevitable; cooperation is difficult.;Realism: Defensive Realism - States seek security. They can cooperate, it depends on the intensity of the security dilemma.;Realism: Motivational Realism - Motives/goals for states vary (greedy vs. needy states);Realism: Neorealism - The international system generates a general tendency towards competition;Realism: Offensive Realism - Everyone wants to maximize power and pursue hegemony. Conflict is inevitable.;Realism: Structural Realism - Structure predetermines results;Skeptics - Since it is impossible to enforce international morality, we have no obligation to act morally internationally. "The strong do what they can and the weak suffer what they must." Motives: national interests--> comes out of "kill or be killed" mentality. Evaluation: Understands that order is necessary for justice but misses the trade off;Sovereignty - The state having the supreme power to rule.;Stability - Systems are stable if they can absorb shocks without breaking down. Systems breakdown when they can no longer serve their intended purpose (the safety of the populace).;State Moralists - International politics rests on a society of states with certain rules, although those rules are not always followed. Most important rule is state sovereignty which prohibits states from intervening across borders. "Good fences makes good neighbors" -Frost Evaluation: Does not provide enough answers on when intervention is justified;The "National Interest" - The end goal: Realist- must be defined in terms of power and, therefore, states are defined by international positions. Liberalism- takes more into account than just the state's international position.;The Start of WWI: Individual Factors - Diplomatic/strategic mistakes: blank check, Ultimatum, German invasion of Belgium Leadership failures: misperceptions and wishful thinking (thought war would be short and sweet); military leaders were inflexible, wrong, and incompetent; civilian leaders were weak, inflexible, and incompetent;The Start of WWI: State Level Factors - Rise of nationalism; fearful powers; aggressive powers; Germany (ambitions and fears); Austria-Hungary (fear of imperial decline); Russia (fear of decline); France (bitter); Entente (ignored German fears);The Start of WWI: Sub- State Factors - War plans were offensive-oriented ("cult of the offensive"); War plans were rigid; The "reciprocal fear of a surprise attack" (Schelling) generated preemptive incentives;The Start of WWI: System-Level Factors - Rise of Germany & its fear of Russia; Decline of the Ottoman Empire; Intensification of colonial competition; Increased rigidity of alliances. Be wary of "no fault history";Theory - Provisional statements about how the world works; derived from paradigms.; "Domestic Politics and War" Jack S. LEVY - Political science and history do not agree on the importance of domestic policy on war and political scientists need to catch up. What we do know about the interaction of domestic politics and war: 1) Nations that have commonalities won't fight Democracies really *do not* fight each other 2) Economic interdependence and capitalism promote peace 3) Nationalism- a public opinion may force leaders hands 4) Internal instability may encourage leaders to go to war by way of the scapegoat hypothesis "One World, Rival Theories" Jack SNYDER - We have many theories to use in the study of international relations. Three overarching families exist classically: 1) Realism- focuses on the shift of power distribution at a system level amongst states 2) Liberalism- looks to states and their characteristics as well as democratic transition as causes of conflict 3) Constructivism- changing norms and ideological potency "Globalization: What's New? What's Not? (And So What)" Robert O. KEOHANE Joseph S. NYE, Jr. - Globalization is the increase of global interdependence on an intercontinental scale. It is characterized by its multiplicitious relationships, its geographical distance, and its multifaceted nature (economic, military, sociocultural, environmental, etc.). Contemporary globalism is only new in that it is more pervasive- "farther, faster, deeper, and cheaper"- or thicker "Globalization: Think Again" Moises NAIM - 1) Globalization is not simply economic nor is it a single, continuous movement- it waxes and wanes 2) Contemporary globalization is new and unprecedented in its reach 3) Globalization does not equal Americanization 4) Great power politics didn't end in the 90s 5) Globalization is not simply instrumented by nor does it simply affect the poor 6) Globalization does not guarantee security "Power Shift" Jessica T. MATTHEWS - The end of the Cold War, as well as technological advancements, have together brought a redistribution of power from states to individual businesses, NGOs, and other non-state actors. The state is still important, but other concerns, including human security and the global environment, now share the stage as well. "Global Trends 2030: Alternative Worlds" National Intelligence Council - Megatrends: 1) Individual empowerment will accelerate 2)Power will become even more diffused 3) Demographics will stabilize and urbanize 4) Further stress on resources with growing demand- commodity nexus More people will have better stuff and more access to it which will be great economically, but ecologically no so much. There will be no distinct hegemony and more great powers "A World Without Power" Niall FERGUSON - US retreat from hegemony would create a global power vacuum in which anarchy and conflict would thrive. "Power: Think Again" Niall FERGUSON - Global power is more than economic or military. Military dominance does secure the US's superpower status but it is a deeper phenomenon. Diplomacy and soft power allow weak powers to counter strong ones, though in no way does it entirely trump hard power. Economy, oil, etc. have their place, but none alone determine power status- there are many factors.;
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