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ISU - AN S 113 - Study Guide

Created by: Megan Spiegel Elite Notetaker

Schools > Iowa State University > Science > AN S 113 > ISU - AN S 113 - Study Guide

ISU - AN S 113 - Study Guide

School: Iowa State University
Department: Science
Course: Domestic Animal Anatomy and Physiology Lecture
Professor: Malavika Adur
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: midterm, Study Guide, AnS214, Exam 2, Structure and Function of the Nervous System, muscle, cardiovascular system, anatomy, Physiology, and Animal Science
Name: AnS 214 Exam II Study Guide
Description: I met with Dr. Adur for over 2 hours to discuss the important information of this exam. All this information was given by Dr. Adur herself and holds all the necessary tips and tricks on how to study successfully for this exam. The information is not directly given to you- this is simply to help you understand what to study and how to study it. Have this out when you are reading through your note
Uploaded: 10/13/2016
0 5 3 36 Reviews
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background image Exam II AnS 214: CNS - Muscles - Cardiovascular 
System  
  PLEASE READ THROUGH EVERYTHING.   All this information was given by Dr. Adur herself and holds all the necessary information on  how to study successfully for this exam.   The information is not directly given to you- this is simply to help you understand what to study 
and how to study it. Have this out when you are reading through your notes and everything will 
flow that much smoother.     Thank you.     75% Multiple Choice  
25% T/F, fill in, short answers  
  This study guide is the result of studying one on one with Dr. Adur and deducing which is more  important to study for exam two and which is not.   First let’s go over the main things that will be on this exam and then we will get into detail  regarding each point…     Before we get started know that  Dr. Adur does not expect you to know all the different  proteins or enzymes or hormones involved unless we specifically went over them. ​ So  troponin and tropomyosin would be good to know but the synaptotagmin involved in information  across a synapse is not necessary to know, just understand that there is a protein that binds  with Ca and so on…     At the end of each point I will leave some open space for those of you that need to write things  out in order to understand it.  PLEASE this technique is super effective when studying  physiology.     ● “Focus on the Physiology”   now what that means is rather than just simply knowing  what something is, understand the why, how and when questions.   ○ For example: ​ an action potential, obviously understand ​WHAT​ an action  potential is but also…   ■ WHEN ​ does one occur: when a threshold is reached   ■ WHY ​ does one occur: in response to some sort of stimulus   ■ HOW ​ does one occur: through an influx of sodium and an efflux of  potassium until the cell becomes depolarized and crosses the threshold    
background image  
 
 
 
 
 
  I would first like to apologize to anyone because the information we covered is a little jumbled,  but please understand regardless of its order  it will ALL (or most of it)​ be on the exam.     ●  Understand the filaments; proteins involved and what their purpose is”   ​- so this is  exactly how it sounds, but it all goes back to the physiology aspect of it.   ○ Know the thin and thick filaments and why they are needed for a contraction and  why and when the contraction happens. So let’s go through it together:   ■ WHAT ​ are filaments: myosin is thick, actin is thin- these are fibers that  compose a sarcomere- a sarcomere is the functional unit of a muscle  ■   HOW ​do these filaments form a contraction: there is an influx of calcium  ions through the sarcoplasmic reticulum that allow the myosin heads to 
bind to the active sites- tropomyosin is moved out of the way to allow this- 
the filaments overlap and form a contraction 
■ WHY ​ does a contraction occur in the first place: a contraction occurs in  response to a stimulus- the threshold was crossed causing an action 
potential in the muscle- isotonic and isometric contractions- slow twitch 
and fast twitch muscle fibers  
   
 
 
 
 
 
  Hopefully by going through this each of you are starting to understand the thought process that  Dr. Adur is looking for. It took me a few attempts but eventually she was able to explain it to me  in a way I understood.  Here is the main thing I took away from our meeting: “What is  {example}, how does this {example} occur, why does this {example} occur and when  does this {example} occur - in response to…?     ●  The pathways that {example} takes…”  - ​ this is very generic and we will go into detail  in a moment but understand every step that something takes (mostly an action potential) 
and understand the steps in enough detail that you can relate it to other functions going 
on.  
background image ○ For example: ​ an action potential…   ■ Polarization ​ = resting potential; a balance of Na and K   ■ Depolarization ​ = an influx of sodium ions into the cell making it more and  more positive causing it to cross that threshold   ■ Repolarization ​ = an efflux of potassium out of the cell making it more  and more negative  causing the action potential to come back down below 
the threshold until it becomes polarized once again 
■ Hyperpolarization  ​= a totally separate event from the above events;  occurs when there is an inhibitory effect on an action potential and there 
is an efflux of sodium and potassium causing the cell to become so 
negative it actually falls below resting potential  
○ Also understand how the cardiac muscles and skeletal muscles react differently  to a stimulus and AP     
 
 
 
 
  ● “Cardiac cells are unique..”  -  WHAT​ is so unique about them;​ HOW​ does that help in  other functions   ○ Think how some clusters of cells in the heart are autorhythmic and do not require  an action potential to conduct a response to a stimulus; the long refractory period 
and vagal tone is also very unique (hint) 
○ For example: ​ the pacemaker cells are unique to the heart- they regulate the  heartbeat without a constant need for a stimulus.      
 
 
 
 
  ● “What is the difference between the CNS and PNS” -  this one is self explanatory.   ○ The CNS is the brain and spinal cord and the PNS is all the nerves and ganglia  surrounding the brain and spinal cord   ○ Understand how each of these different structures eventually will work together to  form a function   ■ For example: ​ moving your arm- your CNS will tell the specific part of your  brain to send a message to the PNS to tell the rest of your body to move 

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School: Iowa State University
Department: Science
Course: Domestic Animal Anatomy and Physiology Lecture
Professor: Malavika Adur
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: midterm, Study Guide, AnS214, Exam 2, Structure and Function of the Nervous System, muscle, cardiovascular system, anatomy, Physiology, and Animal Science
Name: AnS 214 Exam II Study Guide
Description: I met with Dr. Adur for over 2 hours to discuss the important information of this exam. All this information was given by Dr. Adur herself and holds all the necessary tips and tricks on how to study successfully for this exam. The information is not directly given to you- this is simply to help you understand what to study and how to study it. Have this out when you are reading through your note
Uploaded: 10/13/2016
8 Pages 73 Views 58 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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