cjs exam # 2 study guide
cjs exam # 2 study guide CJS 102
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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tony Notetaker on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJS 102 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Cara Rabe-Hemp in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Individuals, Society, and Justice in Criminal Justice at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
Chapter 1: "Religion and Justice" What was justice like under the Hammurabi Code? “An eye for an eye” EX: architect put to death if his building collapses. physician would face death if person under medical care dies. Proportionality: daughter of an ordinary man dies, fine 5 shekels, daughter of a gentleman dies fine is 10 shekels. Ancient people struggled to find justice. What was justice like under the early stages of the Old Testament? Very religiously structured, eye for an eye that was sensible and not harsh. What is lex talioinis? Eye for an eye What are the three main groups of Judaism today? orthodox, reform, conservative What do followers of liberation theology believe and in what part of the world is liberation theology most prevalent? They believe justice is not being addressed strongly enough. Bible should be read from a Marxist Perspective with the goal of liberating the oppressed. Capitalism is evil: tramples on the poor for a few rich people. To them Jesus chose to be born poor and to live with and teach the poor. Justice – is recognizing the realities of poverty and oppression and the importance of struggling to liberate the oppressed. Liberation Theology is prevalent in third world: Latin America, Spanish Speaking Countries. For Reinhold Neibur, what principles must be addressed to achieve justice? Freedom & Equality Serenity Prayer: “Father gives us courage to change what must be altered, serenity to accept what cannot be helped, and insight to know the one from the other.” How did the Islamic religion come into existence? Muhammad who had one wife ventured out to the desert one day to meditate, he sat down and heard the word “recite”. He heard a flood of words from God & became his messenger. His message was not written during his lifetime, it was written by his group of followers. (Quarra). When finished and written down the books was called the Qur’an(literally recitation). Born in the middle East(like Judaism & Christianity) What is the goal of the Quran? Preventing people from corrupting the earth by falling in to decadent ways. Establish an ethical and egalitarian Society. What was Muhammad's thinking about the idea of forgiveness? “The retribution for an injury is an equal injury, but those who forgive the injury and make reconciliation will be rewarded by God.” (Qur ‘ an 42:40). What are the five pillars of faith under Islam? Prayer 5x a day (sunrise, noon, afternoon, sunset, evening) Zakat or the giving of alms. It was not a voluntary tithe but a religious obligation Sawm or month long fasting during the month of Ramadan Haji or pilgrimage to Mecca Shahada most importantly the profession of faith: “There no god but God, and Muhammad is God’s Messenger. What are some of the main differences between Sunni and Shiite Muslims? Shiites(1015% Muslim population today) Muhammads successor was his son in law Ali. Ruling of the nation is theocratic matter, not a public one. Religious leaders Called “Imams” have tremendous power more than political leaders. Small number of Imams called Ayatollahs emerged to guide the faithful as they awaited a messianic restorer of the purest Islamist state called the Maldi. The religious rulers are infallible and never make mistakes. They reflect the will of Allah. People have no right to select or challenge them. Sunnis (8590 percent of Muslim world today.) Believe successors of Muhammad were the caliphs or religious leaders that assumed power after his death. Government is a secular matter without religious authority. Rulers come and go from power based on the will of the people. What are the basic beliefs about Hinduism? Belief in divine unity of the universe and all life in it. (Braham) Braham is visualized as a Triad – Vishnu, dharma, shiva Vishnu the preserver, preserves the creations. Whenever dharma (eternal order, righteousness, religion, law and duty) is threatened Vishnu travels from heaven to earth in 1 to 10 incarnations to save the world. Shiva the destroyer rounds out the threesome. It recognizes that the opposite of creation is destruction. In addition, there are hundreds of Gods and Goddesses worshiped as various aspects of the unity of the Divine. Five Classes: 1. Brahim (priest and academics) 2. Kshatriyas (military) 3. Vaishyas (farmers and merchants) 4. Sudras ( peasants and servants) 5. Untouchables Who founded Buddhism? Gautama Siddhartha(Royal prince) – He lived a lavish protected life in a palace until his 29 year, on an outing he was stunned by the suffering of the world. He left his palace and meditated for 6 years when he attained enlightenment under the Bohdi tree Bodh Gaya, India. Then he became Buddha. What do Buddhists believe about human suffering? Human suffering is natural. For Buddhists, what is involved in leading a just life? Views Thoughts Speech Conduct Livelihood Effort Mindfulness Concentration Chapter 2: Philosophy and Justice What did Plato believe about why people engage in just behaviors? He believed justice becomes a quest for harmony in the soul and in the state. The good life is trying to discover, to teach, and to live according to those ideals. What did Aristotle mean by the idea of telos? Telos the purpose or essential nature of the social practice. EX: when flutes are distributed the best/newer flutes go to the best flute players. The better players due to their natures deserve the best flutes whose telos is to be played by masters. What is distributive justice? Giving people what they deserve What is rectificatory justice? A justice that maintains and restores equilibrium or balance In simple terms what is the idea behind Mill’s idea of utilitarianism? Please the greater number and the lesser number must accept the choice. Or go with the choice that makes the most people happy, everyone else will adapt. What did Immanual Kant believe should motivate people to do good? Good for goodness sake do it just because it’s good not because you will go to heaven. What are natural rights? Life, liberty and property What is the basic principle underlying John Rawls’s notion of justice? Fair distribution of goods and privilege’s Chapter 3: Justice and the State What was the divine right of kings? The king was thought to act under the guidance of God, and as a representative of God the monarch had considerable leeway to draw the lines of justice. To challenge the king, was to challenge god. In his book The Prince Machiavelli outlines his views of justice and the state. What are his views on rulers and the people who are ruled? A ruler must deal with the world as it truly it is, not as it should be. People are devious, gullible, corrupt, and greedy and must be treated accordingly. Being feared by the citizenry was better than being loved. Obtaining and retaining powers is the first priority. The states and its rulers are more important than people who make up the state. Hence politicians must break promises, conceal their deals, distort the facts, ignore the masses and pose as righteous even if circumstances force them to be unrighteous. Until one gets powers, be ruthless and if necessary evil. What was the Hobbes’s view of the social contract, as outlined in his book Leviathan? Before the formation of society and the state there was a brutish anarchy. The natural condition of man was animalistic and counterproductive to civilization. Humans were guided by selfinterest and in the absence of political authority selfish motivation and natural inequality would degenerate into war and chaos. According to John Locke, what is the function or purpose of government? To protects man’s property and the fruits of his labor. What is natural law? Positivism? Sociological Jurisprudence? Natural law – Laws formed from a state of nature. These laws preexisted human and were discovered by human intelligence Positivism – those who come to power do so with the agreement of the citizen. Sociologic jurisprudence changing conditions alter the law no matter who was in power. What is the difference between libertarians and egalitarians? Libertarians – Place highest values on liberty even at the expense of equality. They want unlimited liberty and freedom even if it results in the inequality of conditions. They only equality they want is equality of opportunity because it encourages freedom of enterprise and a meritocracy based upon talents and hard work. Vast inequalities are acceptable because otherwise there would be a loss of individual liberty. Egalitarians – regard equality of conditions as the supreme value and are willing to achieve this by infringing upon the liberty of others. If individual freedom is unrestrained, inequality of conditionspoverty, housing, privilege – will result and this is to be avoided. How is modern war different from wars of the distant past? Modern war: many nations did away with professional soldiers and mercenaries, ordinary citizens who had a more emotional interest entered the scuffle. Second total war in which land and lives on noncombatants were swept up in the destruction became common. Thirdly war became more mechanized and lethal with tanks, artillery and bombs. By nature, war is cruel, especially in modern times. Distant past: Wars took on religious overtones, soldiers were professional class(not emotionally attached to nation who they fight for) and ordinary citizens were left alone What does the just war doctrine say about preventative war, prisoners of war, and the treatment of the defeated after the war has ended? A nation that aggressively attacks another is an unjust thing, consequently the state that has been attacked must go to war must go to war in the name of selfdefense Preventive War going to war early as to prevent a future aggressor, is wrong according to this perspective. Even fighting a just war does not permit soldiers to do inhumane things. Treatment of the defeated after the war forgiveness is not easy to obtain. In the story the sunflower; which is about a young Jewish prisoner who was given mementoes by a german soldier who wanted them delivered to his mother. He found it hard to forgive. What is the difference between the crime control and due process models of criminal justice? Due process While efficiency is a good thing, too much efficiency might define a police state in which citizens have no rights. Crime control – believe that a major problem of modern society is crime. The criminal justice system (police, court personnel) need all the power it can get to process criminals. What are the utilitarian and retributivism justifications for punishment? Utilitarian – society should determine the amount of punishment based upon a cost/benefit analysis of suffering inflicted versus social gains achieved. Retributivism – Those guilty of crimes need to be punished because they deserve to be punished.. Chapter 4: Social Justice What is the focus of social justice? The redistribution of resources to ensure fairness in meeting the basic needs of people. Social justice has to do with distributing societies benefits and burdens. What is the difference between positive rights and negative rights? Negative Rights limits the power of the government Positive Rights – What people are entitled too. Posits that people have rights to food, clothing and medical care, education and housing. What were Adam Smith’s views on economic justice? Justice is the desire not to harm others, a desire for approval from others, and above all a useful way to make society stable. What did Karl Marx believe about capitalism and economic justice? He believed the capitalist wage system reduced humans to slaves. Economic justice can only be achieved when the means of production were turned over to the workers. What do Social Darwinists believe about economic inequality? Poverty is seen as a sign that the person was not well equipped to compete in society. Any effort to predetermine distribution of wealth required placing powers in the hands of government and taking it away from individuals. For example, it would require taking wealth from a few and depriving them of their liberty. The free market system does not always reward merit and talent. What are some of the issues related to gender and justice? Issue of sex rape, prostitution, and harassment is very large. Furthermore, issues of child bearing, domestic violence, lesbian identity, economic equality and standards of beauty, to name a few, address the issue of gender justice. Gendered Roles – women as seductresses, Men as macho. Historically, how have many societies viewed rape? The perpetrator of rape was often the significant male in women’s lives – fathers, husbands, king. In fact women had to demonstrate that they truly resisted due to some females claiming false rape. What are some of the issues associated with racial justice? All people make judgment about others, Xenophobia or the fear of the foreign and the strange has been a part of most societies. What happened in the 1890s that was relevant to environmental justice? A group of investigative journalist called “muckrakers”, were exposing the industrial and corporates worlds exploitation of the nation’s natural and human resources. What is the difference between conservationists and preservationists? Conservationist – protect natural resourcestimber, minerals, landto ensure the quality of future generations. They are human oriented, they are concerned over the needs of future generations and their right to these resources. Preservationist – Those who wanted to protected the environment for its own value. They are natureoriented and less concerned with human need and consumption. Some of their earliest preservations linked nature to god. What was the significance of Rachel Carson’s books about the environment? She raised environmental consciousness by writing about how pesticides were ruining the environment. She argued that public health and the environment were inseparable. What four themes emerge when consideri0ng social justice? Egalitarianism, membership, time, scope Chapter 5: Common Law Systems What is the origin of common law? body of law that comes from judicial decisions as opposed to legislative actions. It is a specific justice system that emanated from England after the Norman Conquest of 1066 +CE. In early England what was the difference between “the peoples’ peace” and “the king’s peace?” Peoples peace – local level, courts make decision based on local custom. Crimes against ordinary people were to be settled at the local level. King’s Peace – Royal courts, concerned with disputes between large landowners. The kings power was limited to controlling the roads, protecting forest preserves etc. Crimes against royalty or the land called the kings court in to action. On occasion, when ordinary crimes threatened the peace of the land with a feud, the king would step in to restore order. What event in 1170 marked the decline of the influence of religious courts? Thomas à Becket, was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral by Henchmen of the king. Who were the “Keepers of the Peace” in early England? Knights commissioned to keep the peach in their local areas, later were called justices of peace. What was the equity system? A set of practices known as equity procedures, were developed to help people bring their grievance before a court without using the complex common law system. And an entire set of rules and lawyers grew up that were distinct from common law. What is a writ of mandamus, an injunction, and a writ of habeas corpus? *Modern day writ system is based upon equity. Writ of mandamus – requires public servants to do their jobs. Injunction – order to prevent harm that would occur if the case went through. Writ of Habeas corpus – requires the government to present someone before the courts. What is the role of judges regarding statutes in England? They are judge made. Judicial decisions set the framework for development of most statutes. Legislators make their statues in the language of judges. What does the Bill of Rights have to do with common law? It is the starting point for so much common law development in the United States. A review of some of these basic principles in the Bill of Rights might be useful. What is the difference between “factual guilt” and “legal guilt?” Which is emphasized in common law systems? Factual guilt evidence has been gathered, witnesses assembled and cogent arguments made. Legal guilt – “If the justice system has acted inappropriately, legal guilt might not be established and the defendant could be released. What did American law training emphasize? Procedure What was the difference between elite law schools and “sundown schools” (also known as proprietary law schools)? They weren’t connected to a university Minimal entrance requirements Classes were conducted in the evening so students can hold a day job. Taught students to pass local bar They emphasized courtroom techniques and tactics. What is stare decisis? Decisions in courts are influenced by past court decisions (precedent) What is jury nullification? When a jury, in spite of overwhelming evidence of guilt refuses to convict. Which level of English court acts as the Supreme Court of the land? House of the lords Which level of English court handles nearly all of the criminal cases in England? Magistrates courts What are the duties of the Lord chancellor in England? Heads the entire judiciary and is responsible for the 5 duties below Participates in judicial appeals that reach the House of Lords. Recommends all appointments to the courts Performs day to day administration of the courts. oversees the legal aid system Takes an active role in law reform In England, what is the difference between solicitors and barristers? Solicitors – They are legal advisors to the public. They help write wills and contracts, set up land commercial sales, and deal with divorce issues. Barristers – present cases before the court. Oral advocacy is the greatest quality of the barrister. Chapter 6: Civil Law Systems What parts of the world operate under a civil law system? Europe, all of central and south America, many parts of Asia, and a few places in North America (Louisiana, Puerto Rico, and Quebec) have civil law systems. What was Corpus Juris Civilis and who created it? Emperor Justinian of Constantinople placed the law in written and codified form and became the sole authority on the law for hundreds of years. What is canon law? Church law based on Roman models, it is the universal law of the spiritual realm. It places religion and religious institutions in the forefront of the system. Why was the French Revolution important for civil law? It made profound changes in the law with the creation of the Napoleonic code. This codification movement was fundamental to the civil law tradition. It removed many religious that were carried from the dominant catholic church. There was a separation of powers in France, leading to a system of specialized courts and restrictions on judicial review. Codification/written laws became important. In civil law countries what is the purpose of a written legal code? To protect the law: only statutes enacted by legislative power could be the law. Neither judicial decisions nor discussions by legal scholars had the force of law. The law was in the code. What is the role of judge in a civil law system? A civil servant, a functionary of the government. How does one become a judge in a civil law system? After graduation from a university, a student who has decided to become a judge must take a state test, if they pass they attend a special school for prospective judges. After completing the academic training, the individual will be appointed a junior judge without ever having practiced law in court. What is the role of the legal scholar in a civil law system? Study the code, its history, and it philosophical foundations. Who are “advocates” in civil law systems? Defense lawyers What are the three stages in the preliminary procedures followed in civil law systems? Preliminary stage Pleadings are submitted, and a hearing judge, usually called an instructing judge, is appointed. Second – evidence taking stage. At this point the instructing judge takes all the evidence and prepares a summary written report. Decision making stage – New judge considers the report from the instructing judge. They then hear arguments and render a decision. What are the three phases or stages in the criminal law procedures in civil law systems? Investigative Phase – Large files or dossiers of evidence are compiled by the prosecutor at this stage. Examination Phase – weight of the proceedings is shifted to the judge. This phase can be described as “trail by file” not very public. The main purpose is to see if there is sufficient cause and evidence to move to the next phase. No system of plea bargaining. Official Trial – Evidence has been collected, at this stage a presumption of guilt, the burden of proof shifts to the defendant. There is no right to remain silent and refusals to testify will be used against you. If someone is guilty are they better off being tried in a common law or a civil law system? Common law system How are the French police different from those in the U.S. and England? The French police grew out of the military. What is the difference between the National Police and the National Gendarmerie in France? National police – largest (133,500), responsible for policing the cities and towns with populations of more than 10,000 people. It is under the ministry of interior. National Gendarmerie – Under the ministry of defense Acts as the military police for the French army, navy, air force. It provided law enforcement services for the French overseas territories. Provides policing in France for all those communities with populations of fewer than 10,000 people. What are the two main responsibilities of the “Constitutional Council?” Address to complaints about elections. The second is to determine the constitutionality of legislation passed by the parliament. In France what does the Court of Cassation do? The court listens to appeal on the interpretation of the law by the lowers courts. 3 chambers handle civil cases, 3 other chambers listen to issues concerning social, commercial and criminal matter. In France what are prosecutors called and what is their primary purpose? Procurators – They seek to achieve justice and serve the interest of society. Chapter 7: Islamic Law Systems When and where was Islam formed? Mecca, Arabia 622 AD What is the Qur'an? The holy book known as the Koran or “Qur’ran What are the Shari’a and what does the term mean? “The path to follow God’s law” What are the two primary and two secondary sources of Islamic law? Primary: Quaran, Sunnah – word and actions of Muhammad written down Secondary: Consensus requires unanimous agreement among Muslim Scholars who represent varied opinions. Religious leader may issue an edict (order that does not have the weight of the law. Analogical Reasoning – allows the law to adapt to new situations while remaining true to the spirit of the Quran and the Sunna. Ex: Some scholars have argued that by analogy sodomy is comparable to fornication and should result in the same legal punishment. Under Islamic law who can be considered a victim? Technically only God and the individual can be seen as victims – no crimes against the state. Charges may be brought against individuals who control the corporation, not against the corporation itself. What are the three categories of crime under Islamic law? Hudud Theft, Extramaritial Sex, Defamation, Highway Robbery, use of alcohol, apostasy Quesas Murder, unintentional bodily harm, voluntary manslaughter Ta’zir – Crimes whose penalties are not fixed by the koran or sunna but are the discretion of a judge. These are considered private wrongs and rights. What offenses are considered Hudud offenses? Theft, Extramaritial Sex, Defamation, Highway Robbery, use of alcohol, apostasy How does the Islamic law approach to murder differ from that in common law or civil law traditions? Not looked as crimes against the state or against society. Instead they are seen as personal matters between individuals in which the state acts only as a neutral mediator. Victims family may choose death to the offender, financial compensation or a complete pardon. What is honor killing and how does Islamic law respond to honor killing? Killing a family member in the course of correction for harming the family name. It is controversial, and it is usually a reflection of tribal custom than of a religion. It against the law in every nation. What is the purpose of punishment for ta’zir offenses? Reforming and rehabilitating the offender. What are some key elements of criminal procedure under Islamic law? Authorities must obtain a search warrant based on probable cause They must obtain the consent of the owner before they search a home, person or letters Accused is innocent until proven guilty. In some Islamic societies people accused of crimes are not held in confinement while waiting for trial. The accused has to right to withdraw his confession at any time before the sentence The accused has the right to remain silent, his silence may not be used against him in court. What are some of the affirmative defenses allowed under Islamic law? 1) Insanity: The mentally retarded offender is treated according to her mental age, not physical age. So a retarded adult with the mind of a 6year old will be treated as if 6 years old. 2) Intoxication: Group1 believes the individual is fully responsible for any acts committed while intoxicated, G2: believes the individual is only responsible if the intoxication is voluntary G3: the intoxicated person cannot be held criminally responsible because he or she lacks the necessary criminal intent. 3) Infancy: Under the age of 7 cannot have criminal intent and cannot be held criminally responsible for his or her acts. 7puberty: The child has the same status as someone who is mentally retarded. Children at this age can be expected to make monetary compensation for damage they cause, but they will not receive the full legal punishment of an adult. In many cases the families are held accountable for their crimes. Puberty & Above are fully responsible for criminal acts 4) Coercion: Someone who is threatened or coerced into committing a crime will not be held legally responsible if the threat is real and the person making it can carry it out. 5) Necessity: if the violation was necessary to prevent greater harm. 6) Mistake: If someone injures of kills another person, the person is generally not held criminally responsible for the injury or death. If a person mistakenly damages property the may be requires to pay for damages 7) Self defense – Self defense can be used to prevent a crime when it is not possible that public authorities will be able to respond and when the person claiming self defense uses only the force necessary to stop the crime. What are Islamic law judges called? Quadis male, intelligent, highs personal integrity, knowledgeable about the Sharia. What are some of the basic principles that guide Islamic law? The judge is assisted by several individuals, including a secretary who makes a record of the case and others who assist in such things as the division of property. Historically the Islamic court has been held in mosque with the judges back or front facing Mecca. Chapter 8: Justice American Style What was the “republican code movement”? New constitution places greater emphasis on law making in popularly elected institutions called legislatures. This movement led the Us do drift away from a pure common law system and to draw in the elements of a civil justice system. What is “bureaucratic justice”? Orderly, predictable, fair processing will guarantee justice. What are some of the ways in which our system of government was designed to keep the criminal justice system from being too speedy or too efficient? The founding fathers did not want an efficient system. Many procedural obstacles were set up, largely in the Bill of rights and in case law. America as a Federal Republic: National government, state governments, thousands of town and city governments Check and balances: to limit the power of the government Citizens elect mayors, governors, presidents and most prosecutors and judges. What is meant by the “fruit of the poisonous tree”? The idea that evidence obtained in wrongful ways taints that evidence, might lead to it be executed at trial. What happens at the arraignment? The defendant stands before a judge, told of the judges and asked to plead innocence or guilt What is jury nullification? In spite of overwhelming evidence to the contrary, the jury finds the defendant not guilty. Done out of collective ignorance or because they believe the person should not have been charged. What is “civil death”? the loss of a citizen's privileges through life imprisonment, banishment, etc When did formal profiling begin in the U.S. and for what kind of crime was it used? It began in the 1960s with the problem of commercial airline piracy and and hijackers taking planes to cuba. How well has formal profiling worked to locate serial killers? Little evidence to prove its effectiveness How successful has drug courier profiling on the highways been, and how have different racial groups been affected when these profiles are used? Not successful, the hit rates were not significant. The hit rate for both blacks/whites was 10%. The hit rate for Hispanics was 6.5%. Troopers found evidence on white drivers 28.8% of the time. Black drivers 28.4% of the time. Police stopped minorities more for no reason. How do minority groups differ in the extent to which they are stopped on the street and are then found to have weapons? Blacks: 1 arrest for every 17.4 stopped. Latinos: 1arrest for every 18 stopped. Whites: 1 for every 15 whites stopped. According to the best available evidence, about how many wrongful convictions happen each year? 10,000 (%0.5) Why did Illinois Governor George Ryan declare a halt to the death penalty in Illinois? Because 13 people on death row were released because of new evidence of their innocence. What are some of the ways in which innocent individuals are wrongfully convicted? Witnesses are mistaken, witnesses lie, police coerce suspects to falsely confess, laboratory technicians falsify reports, and prosecutors conceal evidence of innocence from the defense. According to the National Registry of Exonerations, what is the most common reason why an innocent person is wrongfully convicted? Human Factors: perjury or false accusations (52%); official misconduct(43%); and mistaken eyewitness identification (41%) What is the most common reason why an innocent person is wrongfully convicted? False accusations To maximize justice should the criminal justice system emphasize due process or expediency? Justices comes from the careful balancing of two Chapter 9: War and Justice Historically, how have people who oppose war been treated? What are some of the benefits of war? What is propoganda and what is its role in war? What was the Sedition Act of 1918? According to the Just War Doctrine, what are some of the reasons why going to war might be justified? Why might a soldier die from "friendly fire"? What are some of the ways noncombatants suffer from war? What is the 80% rule? What are some of the conditions that lead ordinary people to engage in violence? Why is it important how the defeated are treated after the war is over? Chapter 10: Domestic Terrorism What is hybrid terrorism? Worldwide, how often does domestic terrorism happen when compared with international terrorism? What percent of terrorist acts in the U.S. are committed by domestic (U.S.) terrorists? At what point in U.S. history has antigovernment violence been a problem? How were Catholics treated in early America? Who were the “KnowNothings?” What was the idea promoted in “The Protocols of the Elders of Zion?” What was the significance of the film “Birth of a Nation?” How did the KKK change over time? What are some of the beliefs of Christian Identity? What is “leaderless resistance?” What are some of the problems with banning hate speech in the U.S.? What are some of the problems with responding to hate groups by creating hate crimes? Chapter 11: Contemporary Slavery What are some modern forms of slavery in the U.S.? The Justice Department estimates there are how many victims of slavery in the U.S. each year? What are some of the reasons that “new slavery” has grown in recent years? What are some of the ways that old and new slavery differ? What are some of the forms that new slavery takes? What does slavery look like in Mauritania? What kinds of work are done by slaves in Pakistan and India? How has the government of India responded to the problem of slavery? What form of slavery is most common in Brazil or Thailand? What are some of the reasons why slavery persists? Chapter 12: Genocide Who was Raphael Lemkin and what did he do regarding genocide? What are some of the key element of the U.N. definition of genocide? What are some of the problems with the U.N. definition of genocide? What are some of the conditions that lead to genocide? What are the connections between acts of genocide and acts of war? When did the Armenian genocide happen? Who were the main groups involved? What happened during the genocide? When did the genocide in Rwanda happen? Who were the main groups involved? What happened during the genocide? When the genocides in Armenia and Rwanda were over what happened? What can be done to prevent genocide? Chapter 13: The Environment What is meant by the term environmental justice? When did environmental justice first become a public issue in the U.S.? How much of the world’s natural resources are consumed by people in the U.S.? What does the case of the Congo illustrate about the environment and justice? How much of the water covering the earth is fresh water available for use by humans? What is desalination? How is water related to the production of food? How much of the disease in the world is related to contaminated water? How is water important for manufacturing? What have been some of the consequences of privatizing water? What are riparian rights? What factors are associated with water and war? What does water have to do with conflicts between Israel and Jordan? What appears to be the longterm trend regarding water and war? Aside from water, what are some of the natural resources that are associated with justice? What are some of the ways the environment is related to justice? Chapter 14: Individual Strategies for Achieving Justice What are the four general approaches that individuals can take to achieve justice? What conditions must exist for education to be an effective strategy for achieving justice? What problems were addressed in the books, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, The Jungle, and Unsafe at Any Speed? What was the purpose of Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring, and what did the book accomplish? When and who first articulated the strategy of civil disobedience? What did Gandhi call his version of civil disobedience? What did Gandhi believe about using violence to achieve justice? For Gandhi what was the point of fasting and how did he feel about being put in jail? What are some contemporary examples of using civil disobedience to achieve justice? What are some of the differences between civil and criminal law? What are some of the key elements of the guerilla tactics used by Saul Alinsky? What did Alinsky do to bring about change in Rochester, New York? Chapter 15: Organizations Seeking Justice What are the four strategies described in this chapter which can be used by organizations seeking justice? What is the strategy for achieving justice used by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch? For the founder of Amnesty International who were considered to be “prisoners of conscience?” For the founder of Amnesty International what was significant about the year 1961? Which types of groups does Human Rights Watch monitor for human rights abuses? Who was Roger Baldwin? What organization did he found? What was going on in the U.S. that made Baldwin think such an organization was necessary? Why is it inaccurate to describe the ACLU as a liberal organization? What is the primary strategy used by the ACLU to achieve justice and how do they decide which issues to take on? What are some of the organizations that have used civil disobedience as a tool for achieving justice? How does the idea of “bearing witness” guide the work of Greenpeace? What strategy is advocated by the Jewish Defense League and the Irish Republican Army? How can violence be useful for hatebased groups? Chapter 16: Global Justice What was the first modern notion of human rights enforceable by the courts and when did this happen? What was the Lieber Code? When was it created and who ordered its creation? What things did the Lieber Code include? What did the four Geneva Conventions cover? What is a major weakness of the Geneva Conventions? SWho was tried at the Nuremberg Trials and how were those trials stacked in favor of the prosecution? Why were the Nuremberg Trials important for responding to war crimes in the years that followed? In what ways has the Universal Declaration of Human Rights been an important document? What have been the benefits of the European Court of Human Rights? How many nations are now under the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights? What group was the Hague Tribunal set up to put on trial? What group was the Arusha Tribunal set up to put on trial? What are some of the weaknesses of the Hague and Arusha tribunals? In what ways have the Hague and Arusha Tribunals been successful? What types of crimes is the permanent International Criminal Court authorized to try? What general type of legal system is used by the International Criminal Court? For the sake of compromise what are some of the ways the International Criminal Court was weakened? What has been the role of the United States in the formation of the International Criminal Court? How do Truth and Reconciliation Commissions work and what is their purpose? In the future will international systems of justice be more likely to expand the crimes they consider or will they be more likely to become less important?
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