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assignment 2

by: Hayoung Lee

assignment 2 BIO 2430

Hayoung Lee
Texas State
GPA 3.9

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Human Anatomy and Physiology
T. Prabhakaran
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hayoung Lee on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 2430 at Texas State University taught by T. Prabhakaran in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biomedical Sciences at Texas State University.


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Date Created: 10/12/16
Anatomy and Physiology 1. Which of the following best describes why increasing intracellular calcium levels increase force of contraction? a. More cross bridges are formed 2. Which of the following statements best describes why increasing stimulation frequency increases force of contraction until a plateau is reached? a. Intracellular calcium levels do not return to baseline between contractions resulting in increasing intracellular calcium levels until a plateau is reached 3. Which of the following would increase contractile force? a. All of the choices are correct b. Increasing number of motor units stimulated, increasing frequency of stimulation, recruitment of all three muscle fiber types 4. What happens to the neurotransmitter once an action potential is propagated on the muscle sarcolemma? a. It is immediately broken down by an enzyme 5. Muscle tone results from a. Activation of a small number of motor units within a skeletal muscle 6. Which of the following represents the events that occur in contraction of a skeletal muscle after the release of acetylcholine (ACh)? a. Activation of ACh receptors  generation of muscle action potential  release of Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic reticulum  exposure of myosin binding sites  splitting of ATP  cross bridge formation  power stroke  shortening of sarcomere 7. This muscle flexes the forearm a. The biceps brachii 8. The two muscles that make up the Achilles tendon are a. The soleus and the gastrocnemius 9. Which of the following muscles is not a hamstring muscle? a. Rectus femoris 10. This muscle extends the forearm and arm a. Triceps brachii 11. This is a muscle of mastication a. Masseter 12. All of the following are characteristics of fast glycolytic (FG) skeletal muscle fibers EXCEPT a. Contain high concentration of myoglobin b. (others: fatigue rapidly, produce most powerful and rapid contractions, have low number of mitochondria, contain large amounts of stored glycogen) 13. Which of the following is responsible for myosin heads detaching from actin? Anatomy and Physiology a. ATP 14. Glycogen reserves can release glucose for cellular respiration. Glycogen reserves are typically found in a. Skeletal muscle and the liver 15. Creatine phosphate provide enough additional energy to sustain muscle activity for a. 15 seconds 16. Through aerobic respiration in the mitochondria, one glucose molecule can create a. 36 ATP 17. Muscle fatigue is caused by all of the following EXCEPT a. Aerobic respiration b. (others: inadequate release of calcium ions, depleted energy reserves, lack of oxygen) 18. During anaerobic cellular respiration in skeletal muscles, pyruvic acid produced by _____ is converted to _____. a. Glycolysis; lactic acid 19. A group of muscle cells stimulated by a single motor neuron is known as a a. Motor unit 20. The impulses that initiate muscle contraction originates in the a. Brain or spinal cord 21. When the electrical impulse of the motor neuron reaches the synapse, the release of neurotransmitter is caused by a. An increase in intra-cellular calcium when voltage gated calcium channels open 22. The neurotransmitter released by the motor neuron to cause muscle contraction is a. Acetylcholine 23. By what process does the motor neuron stimulate the muscle cell? a. Neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft to cause an action potential in the muscle cell 24. Which of the following statements best describes overlap of thick and thin filament at optimal muscle length? a. Thin filaments partially overlap thick filaments 25. The digestive tract is primarily controlled by a. Enteric nervous system 26. Which type of neurons are found in the brain and spinal cord? a. Association 27. Which of the following is NOT a type of neuron? a. Spinal b. (others: association, motor, sensory) Anatomy and Physiology 28. The cardiac muscle primarily controlled by a. Autonomic nervous system 29. The somatic nervous system a. Provides motor signals and conscious control to skeletal muscles 30. The peripheral nervous system a. May be divided into somatic, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems 31. The central nervous system a. Excludes the cranial and spinal nerves, ganglia and sensory receptors and is the source of thoughts and emotions 32. A disorder of the central nervous system would involve a. Brain and/or spinal cord 33. The neuroglia that produce the myelin sheath around axons in the peripheral nervous system are called a. Schwann cells 34. Gray matter of the nervous system a. Contains little or no myelin 35. The process in which a region of the hypothalamus of the brain receives sensory information from thermoreceptors and decides to stimulate sweating is an example of the ______ function of the nervous system a. Integrative 36. All of the following are part of the peripheral nervous system EXCEPT a. Spinal cord b. (others: ganglia, spinal nerves, cranial nerves, enteric plexuses) 37. Which of the following is an autoimmune disease that results in the destruction of myelin sheaths of neurons in the central nervous system? a. Multiple sclerosis 38. Neurons that conduct nerve impulses from the receptors to the central nervous system are a. Sensory neurons 39. The _____ nervous system consists of sensory neurons and motor neurons that stimulate skeletal muscle contractions a. Somatic 40. Which of the following neuroglia forms the myelin sheath around axons in the central nervous system? a. Oligodendrocytes 41. The nervous system and the ____ system share the greatest responsibility for maintaining homeostasis a. Endocrine Anatomy and Physiology 42. Which of the following parts of the spinal cord commonly serves as an integrating center of spinal reflexes? a. Gray matter 43. Which of the following parts of the spinal cord serves as a highway for nerve impulse conduction with sensory information flowing up to the brain and motor information flowing down to the effectors? a. White matter 44. Which of the labeled structures in the diagram is the 4 th ventricle? a. H 45. Which of the labeled structures in the diagram is the site of reabsorption of the cerebrospinal fluid back into the bloodstream? a. D 46. Which of the following labeled structures in the diagram are normal sites of production of cerebrospinal fluid? a. A, B, C 47. In a somatic motor reflex, the region of the spinal cord labeled ____ in the diagram is the location of the integrating center for the reflex a. F 48. Which labeled structure in the diagram is the anterior median fissure? a. H 49. Common effectors in autonomic reflexes include a. Both smooth muscle and cardiac muscle 50. Which labeled structure in the diagram contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons? a. A 51. In the knee jerk reflex shown in the figure, which of the following components of the reflex arc serves as the sensory receptor? a. Muscle spindle 52. In the knee jerk reflex shown in the figure, which of the following components of the reflex arc serves as the effector? a. Quadriceps femoris muscle 53. The brain grows slowly during the first few years of life a. False 54. The supply of glucose to the brain must be continuous to maintain normal function a. True 55. The resting potential has the following characteristics a. Negative inside and positive outside 56. Myelinated axons are capable of salutatory conduction. This allows for more rapid action potential conduction because Anatomy and Physiology a. Depolarization occurs only at the nodes of Ranvier 57. The autonomic nervous system operates under subconscious control a. True 58. The part of the nervous system that regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and certain glands is called the somatic nervous system a. False 59. The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system prepares the body for the “flight or fight” response a. False 60. The effects of the adrenal medulla are linked to the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system a. False 61. The white portion of the eyes is called the sclera a. True 62. The function of the indicated cranial nerve is a. Sensory only b. (optic nerve) 63. Which of the following is NOT part of the internal ear? a. Eustachian tube b. (others: vestibule, semicircular canal, spiral ganglion, scala tympani) 64. Which part of the outer ear collects sound waves? a. Auricle 65. The ossicles of the middle ear are responsible for a. Conducting sound waves from the tympanic membrane to the oval window 66. Which of the following is found in the middle ear? a. Auditory ossicles 67. All of the following are components of the external ear EXCEPT a. Eustachian tube b. (others: auricle, external auditory canal, tympanic membrane, ceruminous glands) 68. The inner ear a. Is divided into the outer bony labyrinth and inner membranous labyrinth 69. There are four lateral ventricles in the brain a. False b. (there are 2 bih) 70. The brain and spinal cord are nourished and protected form injury by cerebral spinal fluid a. True 71. The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and Anatomy and Physiology a. Spinal cord 72. When the ciliary muscle contracts, the lens flattens for far vision a. False 73. Cones are specialized for color vision a. True 74. Accommodation for near vision involves changing the shape of the a. Lens 75. The muscle responsible for changing the shape of the lens to improve near vision is the a. Ciliary muscle 76. The middle tunic of the eye consists of the choroid, cornea, lens, and ciliary body a. False 77. This structure is also referred to as the organ of hearing a. Spinal organ (organ of Corti) 78. Which of the following statements describes a task that is accomplished using the extrinsic eye muscles? a. Rolling your eyes after taking a ridiculously easy test 79. The clear jellylike substance found in the large cavity of the eye behind the lens is the a. Vitreous body 80. Which of the following structures is part of the vascular tunic of the eye? a. Iris 81. The “white” of the eye is called the a. Sclera 82. The muscles of the iris and ciliary muscle are considered to be extrinsic eye muscles because they are voluntary a. False


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