psychology 1000 exam2 study guide
psychology 1000 exam2 study guide Psychology 1000
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Holland on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 1000 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see General Psychology 1000 in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 5 What’s sensation? o When sensory informational is detected by a sensory. Ex: light that enters the eye causes chemical changes in the cells that line the back of the eye. What’s perception? o The way sensory information is organization, interpretation, and consciously experience of stimuli What’s transduction? o Conversation from sensory stimulus energy to action potential What’s an absolute threshold? o The boundary at which a (Minimum amount of stimulus energy that must be present) stimulus is detectable 50% of the time Ex: ask how dim a light can be/how soft can a sound be and still be detected half of the time What are subliminal messages? o Presented below the threshold of conscious awareness We receive it, but we are not consciously ware of it. What’s a just noticeable difference (JND)? o The smallest just noticeable difference between stimuli. What are bottomup and topdown processing? o Bottom – up – refers to the fact that perceptions are built from sensory input. o Bottom – down – how we interpret those sensations is influenced by our available knowledge, our experiences and our thoughts. What’s sensory adaptation? o Causes us to stop perceiving unchanging stimuli after extended exposure to it. o Not perceiving stimuli that remain relatively constant over prolonged periods of time. We no long paying attention to the clock sounds once we engaged in a conversation. What’s inattentional blindness? o Occurs when we don’t notice something totally visible o Failure of notice something that is completely visible because of lack attention What’s change blindness? o Occurs when we fail to detect changes to the visual details of a scene What’s signal detection theory? o The ability to identity when it is embedded in a distracting background. Mother awakened by quit murmur from the baby but the other sounds that occur while asleep Know what the amplitude and frequency of light waves are associated with. o Amplitude – height wavelength refers to distance from one peak to the next Associated with our experience of brightness or intensity of color. o Frequency – the number of wave cycle per second (pass a given point in a given time period and often expressed in terms of hertz(Hz) Know the anatomy of the eye (i.e., be able to describe each part and what it does). o Cornea (眼眼眼) – a transparent covering that focuses light entering the eye Serves as a barrier between the inner eye and the outside world, it is involved in focusing light waves that enter the eye. Pupil (眼眼) – the small opening in the eye through which light passes, and the size of the pupil can change as a function of light levels as well as emotional arousal. Iris – dilates or contract the pupil based on the light level Muscles that are connected to the iris, which is the colored portion of the eye, control the pupil’s size. Retina (眼眼眼眼– light leaving the pupil is focuses on the retina by the curved, transparent lean ( light sensitive lining of the eye) Fovea – in a normal sighted individual, the lens will focus images perfectly on a small indentation in the back of the eye. What are the optic nerve and the optic chiasm? o Optic nerve Rods and cones are connected to retinal ganglion cells. Axons from the retinal ganglion cells coverage and exit through the back of the eye. o Optic chiasm – (X shaped structure that sits just below the brain’s ventral surface) optic nerve from each eye merges just below the brain at a point. Information from the right visual field (comes from both eyes) is sent to the left side of the brain, and information from the left visual field is sent to the right side of the brain. What are rods and cones? o Rods – (specialized photoreceptor that works well) function in low light Involved in our vision of dimly lit environments as well as in or perception of movement on the periphery of our visual field. o Cones – (specialized photoreceptor that works well) function in bright light and handle acute detect l and color What’s a color deficiency? o Individual missing one or more type of cone have a color deficiency What’s trichromatic theory, and what phenomenon is it unable to explain? o Trichromatic Theory (color perception) – there are cons that detect blue – vides, green, and yellow – red (color vision is mediated by the activity across the three groups of cones) What’s the opponent process theory? o (Color is coded in opponent pairs) There are linked pairs of opposed receptor skills (green – red, black – white, yellow – blue) What’s Gestalt (form, pattern) psychology? o Filed of psychology based on the idea that the whole is different from the sum of its parts o Principles dictate how we visually organize disparate pieces of informational intro meaning full wholes in predictable ways. What’s figureground relationship, and what are the laws of simplicity, closure, similarity, proximity, and continuity? o Figure ground relationship (segmenting) we organize the visual world into figure and (back) ground o Laws of simplicity – things that are alike are grouped together o Laws of closure – perceptions are organized into complete objects rather than a series of parts o Laws of similarity – things that are alike are grouped together When watching football, we group them together based on their uniforms o Laws of proximity – thing that are close to each other are tend to be grouped together. o Lows of continuity – we are more likely to perceive flowing (smooth) lines than jagged (broken) lines. What’s depth perception? o Our ability to perceive spatial relationships in three dimensional (3D) pace We can describe things as being in 眼眼眼眼眼 or to the side of other things. What is meant by monocular depth cue? o Cue that requires only one eye Ex: binocular disparity What is meant by binocular depth cue? o They rely on the use of both eyes. What’s binocular (retinal) disparity? o Slightly different view of the world that each eye receives Know what the frequency, amplitude, and complexity of sound waves are associated with. o Frequency is its pitch o Amplitude is its volume o Complexity is its ?? Know temporal theory and place theory, and know what frequency sound each is better at explaining our perception of. o Temporal theory – frequency is coded by the activity level of a sensory neuron Only explains perception of low frequencies o Place theory – each frequency stimulates a different part of the basilar membrane which generate a unique single. Problem: low frequency sounds activate wide areas of the ear though What are the sensory stimuli involved in the body senses? o Body stimuli – pressure, stretch, texture, pattern, vibration, temperature Touch sensitivity – varies hands What are inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain? o Inflammatory pain – signals tissue damage (signal that some type of tissue damage has occurred) o Neuropathic pain – signals results form damage to neurons of the CNS or (Peripheral Nervous) PNS Know the gatecontrol theory of pain. o Pain says signals arriving from pain receptors can be stopped in 2 ways Pleasurable activation of skin receptions’ Modulating activity of pain transmission neurons What are the sensory stimuli involved in olfaction? o Olfaction (smell) – are airborne chemicals Olfactory receptor – cells are located in a mucous membrane at the top of the nose. How do olfactory stimuli interact with our noses? o Chemicals meet olfactory receptor cells in the nose Know the findings from the study discussed in class regarding the relation between odors and attraction. o PET scans showed activation of the hypothalamus after Heterosexual women and homosexual men smelled men’s sweat Heterosexual men and homosexual women smelled women’s urine What are the sensory stimuli involved in gustation? o Gustatory stimuli are chemicals How do gustatory stimuli interact with our tongues? Chemicals activate taste receptor cells called taste buds. Short life, 1014 days What are the six taste sensations? o Salty, sour, bitter, sweet, Umami, fatty Chapter 6 What’s learning? o A relatively permanent change in behavior. Change in behavior or knowledge that results form experience What’s associative learning (basic learning process)? o Occurs when an organism makes connections between stimuli that occurs together in the environment What are habituation and sensitization? o Habituation – occurs when repeated or prolonged exposure to stimuli results in reduced responding When we learn not to respond to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly without change 眼眼眼眼眼眼眼眼眼眼眼眼眼眼眼眼眼眼眼眼眼 o Sanitization – occurs when repeated or prolonged exposure to stimuli results in increased What’s classical conditioning? o Learning in which the stimulus or experience occurs before the behavior nd then gets paired or associated with the behavior. o Occurs when the response elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by another stimulus after two stimuli are repeatedly presented together What are the five terms involved with classical conditioning? o Un conditioned stimulus (UCS) – elicits a reflexive/unlearned response Stimulus that elicits reflexive response in an organism o Un – conditioned response (UCR) – the response caused by UCS A natural (unlearned reaction to a given stimulus. o Neutral Stimulus (NS) – does not naturally elicit the response elicited by UCS. o Conditioned stimulus (CS) – The NS become condition stimulus (CS) that elicits the same response as the UCS after its paired with UCS o Conditioned response (CR) – the response caused by UCS What’s acquisition? o Period of initial learning in classical conditioning in which a human or an animal begins to connect a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus will begin to elicited the conditioned response What’s second (higher) order conditioning? o Using a conditioned stimulus to condition a neutral stimulus When someone is being classically conditioned, when should the CS and the US be presented? o It is important to present the CS before US in order for learning to occur What’s extinction in classical conditioning? o A decrease in the conditioned response after CS is no longer (paired) presented with UCS What’s spontaneous recovery in classical conditioning? o The return of a previously extinguished CR following a rest period What’s stimulus generalization in classical conditioning? o Occurs when someone exhibits the CR in response to a stimulus that to the CS What’s stimulus discrimination in classical conditioning? o Occurs when one learns to response differently to similar but distinct stimuli What’s taste aversion, and what distinguishes it from typical classical conditioning? o A learned association between a food (UCS) and illness (UCR), leading us to become sick when we taste or smell the food (CR) acquired After just one or two trails. Even if you get sick eight hours after eating What’s the law of effect? o Behavior that is followed by consequences satisfying to the organism will be repeated behaviors that are followed by unpleasant consequences will be discouraged. What’s operant conditioning? o Occurs when a responses consequences change its frequency Discovered by BF. Skinner What’s reinforcement, and what’s a reinforcer? o Reinforcement – Implementation of a consequences in order to increases a behaviors frequency o Reinforcer – studying that increases a behaviors frequency What are primary and secondary reinforcers? o Primary reinforcers – have innate/biological reinforcing qualities (food, water, shelter, sex) o Second reinforce – reinforcing due to their association with a primary reinforcer Second reinforce – has no inherent value unto itself and only has reinforcing qualities when linked with something else (money, gold starts, poker chips) What are positive and negative reinforcement? o Positive – adding a desirable stimulus (good, won a game) o Negative – removing an undesirable stimulus (drug, bad, relief of pain) What’s punishment, and what’s a punisher? o Punishment – Implementation of a consequence in order to decrease a behavior frequency o Punisher – anything that decrease a behavior’s frequency What are positive and negative punishments? o Positive – involves adding an undesirable stimulus (take away something good) Reinforcement only increases a behavior’s frequency, and that negative reinforcement does not involve removing something pleasant. Reinforcement never decrease a behavior’s frequency. Negative reinforcement does not involve removing something pleasant When do the consequences of a behavior have the most influence over that behavior’s frequency? o Delayed refinforcers may be associated with another behavior that occurs after the behavior that producers the refinforcer and before the presentation of that refinforcer What are the two distinctions between classical and operant conditioning mentioned in class? o Stimulus – response order Classical – stimulus then response Operant – response then stimulus What’s the three term contingency (tip: you need to know the three terms, and the definition of discriminative stimulus)? o Discrimination – 1. When a discrimination stimulus, indicates that a response will be reinforced, it present. 2. Response. 3. Produces a reinforcer (negative actions toward individuals as a results of their membership in a particular group How does extinction work in operant conditioning? o If reinforcement stops following a behavior, the frequency of that behavior can be reduced Sometime this doesn’t happen though What are partial and continuous reinforcement? o Partial – a behavior is reinforced sometimes (extinction, resistant, slot machine) Does not get reinforced every time they perform the desired behavior o Continuous – a behavior is reinforced every time (Faster learning, 眼眼眼) When an organism receives a reinforce each time it displays a behavior Know that partial reinforcement produces extinctionresistant behavior, and know why it does that. o When reinforcement is delivered sometimes, it becomes difficult to determine weather extinction is occurring o When reinforcement is delivered every time, not being reinforced just a few times early signals extinction What’s a ratio schedule, and what are fixed ratio (FR) and variable ratio (VR) schedules? o Ratio schedule – involve reinforcing behavior based on the number of response between reinforcement o Fixed Ration (FR) – reinforced after a specific number of response o Variable ratio (VR) – reinforced after a random number of response What’s an interval schedule, and what fixed interval (FI) and variable interval (VI) schedules? o Interval schedule – involves reinforcing behavior based on the amount of time since the last reinforcement o Fixed interval (FI) – a response is reinforced if a fixed time period has elapsed since the last reinforcement o Variable interval – a response is reinforced if a rundown time period has elapsed since last reinforcement What’s shaping? o Involves reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior Rewarding successive approximations toward a target behavior What’s latent learning? o Learning that occurs, but it may not be evident until there is a reason demonstrate it What’s observational learning, and what are the steps in observational learning? o Leaning by watching other people then imitating their behavior (Albert B) Attention – being focused on the model Retention – remembering what you observed Reproduction – being able to perform the observed behavior Motivation – wanting to perform the behavior What are vicarious reinforcement and vicarious punishment? o Vicarious reinforcement – process where the observer sees the model punished, making the observer less likely to imitate the model’s behavior If you saw that the model was reinforced for her behavior, you will be more motivated to copy her. o Vicarious punishment – process where the observer sees the model rewarded, making the observer more likely to imitate the model’s behavior If you observed the model being punished, you would be less motivated to copy her Chapter 7 What’s cognitive psychology? o The study of thoughts and their relation to behavior and experience o Filed psychology dedicate to studying every aspect of how people think What’s a concept? o Category or grouping of linguistic information, objects, ideas or life experience What’s a prototype? o Best representation of a concept What’s a schema? o (Plural = Schemata) – mental construct consisting of a cluster or collection of related concepts What’s language? o A system for communicating with others using words that are combined according the rules (grammar) What are the six components of language (four were mentioned in class, two were not)? o Phonemes – the smallest unit of sound recognizable as speech o Morphemes – are the smallest meaningful language units (time) o Syntax – indicates how words are combined to form sentence (A noun, a verb) o Semantics – refers to the process by which we derive meaning from morphemes and words o Lexicon – refers to the words of a given language (vocabulary) o Grammar – the set of rules that are used to convey meaning through the use of the lexicon. (Past tense) How do the behaviorist explanation and nativist theory explain language acquisition? o Behaviorist explanation – language acquisition follows operant conditioning principles (B.F Skinner) o Nativist theory – language capabilities are innate o Interactionst explanation We have language predisposition that are then nurtured What are the definitions of algorithm and heuristic? o Algorithm – formulas that when applied correctly guarantee accurate solutions (motivation) A problem solving formula that provides you with step by step instructions used to achieve a desired outcome. o Heuristic – mental shortcuts that (save time) can lead to correct solutions m What’s the availability heuristic? o Faulty heuristic in which you make a decision based on information readily available to you. o Involves deciding something is more probable if other instances of it can be recalled easily (眼 眼眼眼眼眼眼眼眼) What’s the conjunction fallacy? o Occurs when we decide the probability of two events occur together than the probability occurs individually What’s the representativeness heuristic眼眼眼眼眼? o Involves deciding an event or outcome is more probable if its more similar to a prototypical example of that event or outcome What’s the framing effect? o Occurs when we respond to the same problem differently depending on its wording What’s analogical problem solving? o Finding similar problems and applying their solution to the current problem What’s a mental set? o When you persist (眼眼眼眼眼) in approaching a problem in a way that has worked in the past but isn’t working now o Continually suing an old solution to a problem without results What’s functional fixedness? o Where you cannot perceive an object being used for something other than what it was designed for o Inability to see an object as useful for any other use other than the one for which it was intended What’s intelligence? o Ability to direct one thinking, adapt to circumstances What’s g? o General intelligence What’s the twofactor theory of intelligence? o Every tasks requires general ability and tasks specific skills What are crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence? o Crystallized intelligence – acquire knowledge and the ability to retrieve it o Fluid intelligence – the ability to see abstract 眼complex relationships) relations and solve problems What’s the triarchic theory of intelligence? o Intelligence is comprised of 3 parts o Stemberg’s theory of intelligence, three facets of intelligence; practical, creative and analytical What are practical, analytical, and creative intelligence, and what was the example discussed in class used to show practical intelligence? o Practical – the ability to find solutions by applying knowledge based on experiences (street smarts) o Analytical – the ability to engage in academic problem solving and computations (眼眼眼眼眼) o Creative – the ability to generate discover, new ideas and novel solutions, possibilities What’s emotional intelligence? o The ability to understand emotions and motivations in yourself and others. (Show empathy and regulate emotions) Better social skills, friends, relationships What’s mental age? o The age for which a given level of performance is typical What’s an intelligence quotient (IQ)? o Score on a test designed to measure intelligence What’s ratio IQ, and what’s the problem with ratio IQ? o Ratio IQ = (mental age divide physical age) times 100 What’s deviation IQ, and what’s the problem with deviation IQ? o Obtained by dividing an IQ test score by average score test takers of the same age and times 100 Performing at the same level as your age groups gives you IQ 100 What are the two popular IQ tests discussed in class? o Stafford binet – intelligence scales use different items for different age group o Wechsler adult – intelligence scales WAIS requires respondents How do we define the heritability coefficient? o Describes the proportion of different between people’s score that can be explained by differences in their gene What’s the heritability coefficient for all people, and what does that mean? o The proportion of different between people’s score that can be explained by differences in their gene Why is the heritability coefficient so much higher for high SES children than for low SES children? o SES low IQ – poor 眼眼眼medical care, more stress, greater exposure to environment toxins 10 M at 3 o SES high IQ – read by parents more. Hear 30 millions words at 3, ask stimulating questions. What’s the Flynn effect? o The observation that each generation has a significantly higher IQ than the last How much higher are high SES children’s IQ’s, and why is this? o 1218. What’s the average IQ score, and what’s the standard deviation for IQ? o Measure of variability that describes the difference between a set of scores and their mean o Mean = 100. IQ standard deviation = 15. Average of IQ – 85115 How do we define intellectual giftedness and intellectual disability? o > 130 are intellectually gifted o < 70 are intellectually disability How much higher do Whites tend to score on IQ tests than Blacks? o 1015 What’s stereotype threat, and how can it help explain racebased IQ differences? o When fear of confirming a stereotype impairs performance in an area related to the stereotype Chapter 8 What’s memory? o Set of process used to encode, store, and retrieve information over time o System or process that stores what we learn for future use What are automatic processing and effortful processing? o Automatic processing – encoding of informational details like time, space, frequency, and the meaning of words. – Recalling the last time you studied for a exam If someone asks you what you ate for lunch today, more than likely you could recall this information quite easily. o Effortful processing – encoding of informational that takes effort and attention Be able to define each of the three memory systems. o Encoding – the input of information into memory system o Storage – the creation of a permanent record of message o Retrieval – the act of getting info out of memory and back into conscious awareness What’s semantic encoding, and why is it a superior encoding technique? o Semantic encoding – the meaning of info is semantic encoding o Process by which we derive meaning from morphemes and words What’s elaborative rehearsal? o A technique in which you think about the meaning of the new information and its relation to knowledge already stored in your memory. 520 is an area code for Arizona and the person you met is from Arizona. This would help you better remember the 520 prefix. What’s visual imagery (眼眼眼眼眼眼) encoding? o Involves associating info with a metal image What’s organizational encoding? o Categorizing info by how it’s related What are visual encoding and acoustic encoding? o Visual encoding – the encoding of images (input images) o Acoustic – the encoding of sounds, words, music What’s the AtkinsonShiffrin (AS) model? o Info passed through sensory memory, short term memory, the long term memory o Memory model that states we process information through three systems What’s sensory memory? o Stores a lot of sensory info very briefly (sights, sounds, tastes) What are iconic memory and echoic memory, and what are their durations (眼眼)? o Ionic – store visual info for 1 second o Echoic – auditory info for 5 second What’s shortterm memory (STM), and what is its capacity and duration? o Temporary storage system for incoming sensory memories. Holds 7+_ 2 pieces of info, 1520 seconds o (Working memory) holds about 7 bits of information before it is forgotten or sotored as well as information that has been retrieved and is being used What’s working memory? o Refers to the active maintenance of info in STM storage How do we increase STM’s capacity and duration? o Maintenance rehearsal – involves repeating info over and over 眼Duraton) o Chunking is the process of organizing info into groups or chunks (capacity) What’s longterm memory (LTM), and what is its capacity and duration? o The continuous storage of info. Can hold an infinite amount of info for an indefinite period What are explicit and implicit memories? o Explicit 眼眼眼眼 – we consciously try to remember and recall o Implicit (眼眼)– we aren’t consciously aware of but which influence behavior Memories that are not part of our consciousness What’s declarative 眼眼眼眼眼眼眼 memory? o Memory for facts and events we’ve experiences What are semantic memory and episodic memory? o Semantic (眼眼)memory – memory for words, concepts, and language based knowledge and facts Type of declarative memory about words, concepts, and language based knowledge and facts o Episodic 眼眼眼眼眼memory – memory for events we’ve personally experienced What’s procedural 眼眼眼眼眼l memory? o Skills and habits (driving a car, tie shoes) What are recall, recognition, and relearning? o Recall – accessing info without cues (short answer) o Recognition – identifying info previously learned (眼眼眼) o Relearning – learning info previously learned What’s an engram 眼眼眼眼? o The group of neurons that serve s the “physical representation of memory” Physical trace of memory What’s the equipotentiality hypothesis? o Some parts of the brain can take over for damaged parts in forming and storing memories What are retrieval cues? o Information associated with a memory that makes it easier to remember (smell) memory trigger Know encoding specificity and the study described in class that showed evidence of it. o Encoding specificity – refers to the fact that it’s easier to retrieve info in the same environment in which it was encoded Know state dependent retrieval and the study described in class that showed evidence of it. o The fact that it’s easier to retrieve info in the same psychological state in which it was encoded What’s a flashbulb memory, and when are they less accurate? o Detalied recollections of important event Less accurate for highly emotional events What’s amnesia? o LTM loss due to disease, physical trauma, or psychological trauma What are anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia? o Anterograde (present) – amnesia is the inability to remember info after an injury or trauma o Retrograde amnesia (past) – the inability to remember info before an injury or trauma What’s Alzheimer’s disease? o A progressive brain disorder that leads to a gradual and progressive decline in cognitive abilities In regard to memory, what is meant by reconstruction? o Memories are fragile and easily distorted The process of bringing up old memoires is sometimes called reconstruction What’s suggestibility? o The effects of misinformation from external sources that leads to the creation of false memories Know the relation between suggestion and eyewitness misidentification (i.e., know about the study that was described in class and in the book that showed this relationship). o Eyewitness – can misidentify suspects when police and prosecutors suggest their memories are high accurate o Suggestion – Know the misinformation effect paradigm and the research discussed in class and in the book that illustrated it. o Holds that after exposure to incorrect informational a person may misremember an event What’s forgetting? o The loss of information from long term memory Forgetting can be useful in that it would be unpleasant to constantly think about all the mundane info you encounter and be unable to forget that info. Forgetting is also useful in that forgetting unimportant information allows us to focus on info that is important What’s the relationship between forgetting and encoding failures? o if we don’t encode, info it probably won’t stay in LTM long it goes there at all Encoding failure explains why most of us fail the penny test: we encode the general appearance of a penny but not the details of a penny’s appearance. What’s transience? o Forgetting that occurs with the passage of time o Memory error in which unused memories fade with the passage of time Ebbinghaus memorized nonsense syllables and he produced this graph when he charted his ability to recall them. This is called the forgetting curve, which shows that we forget a lot of memorized information within 48h of learning it, but then forgetting levels off substantially What’s absentmindedness, and when is it likely to occur? o Forgetting caused by lapses in attention o Lapses in memory that are caused by breaks in attention or our focus being somewhere else Dividing attention between tasks leads to absentmindedness. Basically, the more tasks you’re trying to attend to, the less effectively you can attend to any one of those tasks. This is one of the reasons I don’t allow electronic devices in class, as they divide attention. What’s blocking? o Failure to retrieve info that’s available I memory even though you are trying to retrieve it o Memory error in which you cannot access store information Blocking is responsible for the tipofthetongue phenomenon. What are proactive interference and retroactive interference? o Proactive interference occurs when older memories interfere with recall of info learned recently 眼newly learned information) o Retroactive interference occurs when newer memories interfere with recall of info learned earlier (info learned more recently hinders the recall of older information) Proactive: older memories go forward to interfere. Retroactive: newer memories go backward to interfere.
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