Psychology exam 3 study guide
Psychology exam 3 study guide Psychology 1000
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 9 What’s developmental psychology? o The study of continuity and change throughout life. What are physical development, cognitive development, and psychosocial development? o Physical Development (Childhood) Germinal (幼幼), embryotic, Fetal幼幼幼幼. o Cognitive Development – domain in lifespan development that examines learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity. Children develop concepts that help them categorize and interpret information, called schemata. o Psychosocial Development – domain of lifespan development that examines emotions, personality, and social relationships. A process proposed by Erikson in which social tasks are mastered as humans move through eight stages of life from infancy to adulthood. What are continuous development and discontinuous development? o Continuous Development – cumulative&results in gradual changeIncrease height o Discontinuous Development – takes place in stages cognitive increase Is there one development or many? o There are many. What are nature and nurture, and how do they influence development? o Nature – Genes and biology o Nurture – environment and culture It seeks to understand how our personalities and traits are the product of our genetic makeup and biological factors, and how our environment, including our parents, peers, and culture, shapes them. What’s the normative approach? o The study of development using norms, or average ages, when most children reach specific developmental milestones What are developmental milestones? o Approximate ages at which children reach specific normative events. What are the germinal stage, the embryonic stage, and the fetal stage of prenatal development? o Germinal conception to a week o Embryonic – week 3 to 8 o Fetal – 9 to 40 What’s a teratogen, and what are some examples of teratogens? o Any environmental agent – biological, chemical, or physical causes damage to the developing embryo or fetus. Alcohol, smoking, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and prescription medicines. What are newborn reflexes? o Inborn automatic response to a particular form of stimulation that all healthy babies are born with. What are motor skills, and what’s the distinction between fine and gross motor skills? o Motor skills – the ability to move our bodies and manipulate(幼幼) object o Fine motor skills – use of muscles in fingers, toes, and eyes to coordinate small actions o Gross motor skills – use of large muscle groups to control arms and legs for large body movement What are the cephalocaudal rule and the proximodistal rule? o Cephalocaudal – tendency(幼幼) for motors skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet o Proximodistal – tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center of periphery (幼幼) What are schemata （（（（? o Concepts (mental models) that are used to help us categorize and interpret information. What are assimilation(（（) and accommodation? o Assimilation – children take in information comparable to what they already know o Accommodation – children change schemata based on new information What’s the sensorimotor（（（（（（ stage of cognitive development? o 02. Infants understand the world by physically interacting with objects What’s object permanence （（（（, and what’s the research (discussed in the book and in class) that challenges Piaget’s ideas about object permanence? o They develop the belief that something still exists if it can’t be seen. Child look at more impossible things than possible. What’s the preoperational stage of cognitive development? o 26. Children start using language and other symbolic thought. They are very egocentrism What’s egocentrism (（（（（（)? o Unable to take other people’s perspectives. Cover there eyes, they can’t see, and other people can’t either. What’s the concrete operational stage of cognitive development? o 711. Children’s thinking becomes more logical and less egocentric. They 幼 conservation What’s conservation? o Knowledge that quantity isn’t related to appearance. What’s reversibility (（（（)? o Principle that objects can be changed, but then returned back to their original form or condition. What’s the formal operational stage of cognitive development? o 11. Individual can use abstract, hypothetic (幼幼) reasoning What’s the postformal stage of cognitive development? o Decisions are made based on situations and circumstances, and logic is integrated with emotion as adults develop principles that depend on contexts. What’s attachment? o A longstanding connection or bond with others. What are the four attachment styles, and how do they develop? o Secure – characterized by distress upon separation and happiness upon reunification o Avoidant 幼幼幼幼幼幼 characterized by indifference upon separation and upon reunification o Resistant (幼幼幼) characterized by anger upon separation and upon reunification o Disorganized – characterized by inconsistent(幼幼幼) responses How do we develop an attachment style? o Caregivers who are Secure sensitive and responsive create secure children Avoidant insensitive and inattentive create avoidant children Resistant inconsistently responsive create ambivalent (幼幼) children Disorganized abusive create disorganized children. Which attachment style is best, and what’s the evidence to support that idea? o Secure attachment. 幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼 More socially and emotionally competent later Experience fewer difficulties in life Have more success with romance as adults What are the four parenting styles, and what kind of children do they produce? o Authoritative (幼幼幼) – parents are warm, set firm limits, and listen to their children o Authoritarian – parents are cold, strict, and demand obedience (幼幼幼幼幼) o Permissive (幼幼) – parents are very warm, makes few demands, and rarely use punishment o Uninvolved – parents show little interest and may even neglect children Know the eight stages of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. 1. Trust vs. Mistrust (01) – if an infant’s physical and attachment needs are met trust is learned 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (13) – if exploration and freedom are encouraged independence is learned 3. Initiative (幼幼幼) vs. Guilt (36) – if guilt accompanying independent behavior is managed 4. Industry vs. Inferiority (幼幼) (612)– if socially and academically successful, pride is learned 5. Identity vs. Role confusion – if the adolescent determines what her unique characteristics are she develops a stable adult identity 6. Intimacy(幼幼,幼幼) vs. Isolation – if the young adult forms close relationships she develops a healthy sense of intimacy 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (幼幼幼) – if the middle adult contributes to the coming generation she feels a sense of continuity of life 8. Egointegrity(幼幼) vs. Despair (幼幼) – if the elderly adult feels accomplished she’ll accept her life Know Kohlberg’s levels and stages of moral development. 1. Preconventional: morality(幼幼) is considered in relation to consequence for the individual i. Obedience and punishment – behavior is driven by avoiding punishment ii. Individual interest – behavior is driven by selfinterest and rewards 2. Conventional(幼幼幼幼) – morality is considered in relation to social rules i. Interpersonal(幼幼幼幼幼) – behavior is driven by social approval ii. Authority – behavior is driven by obedience to authority and conformity to social order. (9幼幼幼) 3. Postconventional – morality is considered in relation to universal moral principles i. Social contract – behavior is driven by balance of social order and individual right ii. Universal ethics – behavior is driven by internal moral principles What’s puberty? o Bodily(幼幼) change associated with sex maturity What are primary sex characteristics and secondary sex characteristics? o Primary – organs specifically needed for reproduction, like the uterus(幼幼) and ovaries(幼幼) in females and testes in males. o Secondary – physical signs of sexual maturation(幼幼) that do not directly involves sex organs, such as development of breasts and hips in girls, and development of facial hairs and a deepened voice in boys. Why do girls experience distress if they reach puberty early? o Early maturing girls may be teased or overtly admired, which can cause them to feel self conscious about their developing bodies. What’s cognitive empathy, and what enhances its development? o The ability to take the perspective of others and feel concern for others. Increase in adolescence and is an important component of social problem solving and conflict avoidance. What’s emerging adulthood? o Newly defined period of lifespan development from 18 years old to the mid20s; young people are taking longer to complete college, get a job, get married, and start a family What cognitive declines occur during adulthood? o Performance on tasks that require effort, initiative, or strategy Working memory, episodic(幼幼幼) memory, retrieval accuracy What’s the relationship between marriage and wellbeing? o Married people live longer, have sex more, earn more money and happier What’s the relationship between being a parent and wellbeing? o Parents report lower martial satisfaction and were relatively unhappy during child care What’s socioemotional selectivity theory? o Social support/friendships dwindle(幼幼幼幼) in number, but remain as close, if not more close than in earlier years. What are KüblerRoss’ five stages of grief? o People who know they’re dying and have time to evaluate their death go through five stages. Denial, anger, bargaining(幼幼), depression, acceptance Chapter 10 What is motivation? o Wants and needs that directs behavior toward a goal. What are intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation? o Intrinsic (幼幼) – arises from internal factors. (From within). Autonomy, mastery, purpose. o Arises from external factors (From outside). Compensation(幼幼), punishment, reward. What’s the overjustification effect (you should be able to describe an example of it), and when is it more likely to occur? o Extrinsic motivation undermines preexisting intrinsic motivation OR intrinsic motivation is diminished(幼幼幼) when extrinsic(幼幼幼) motivation is given. More likely to occur if the extrinsic motivator is tangible and expected Money, physically hold in hand. What are instincts? o Speciesspecific pattern of behavior that is not learned. What do instinct approaches to motivation say about motivation? o Instincts(幼幼) motivates behavior Cannot explain learned behavior What do drive reduction approaches to motivation say about motivation? o Departures from homeostasis(幼幼幼幼) create a drive to return it. What’s homeostasis, and what’s a drive? o Homeostasis – body’s tendency to maintain an optimal(幼幼) internal state. o Drive – tension(幼幼) that’s alleviated(幼幼) by satisfying a need What do arousal approaches to motivation say about motivation? o Desires to maintain an optimal(幼幼) level of arousal(幼幼) motivates behavior What’s the YerkesDodson law? o Simple tasks are performed better when arousal is higher and complex tasks are performed better when arousal is lower. What’s selfefficacy? o An individual’s belief in her own capability to complete a task, which may a previous successful completion, of the exact task or a similar task. What’s Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and what’s selfactualization? o Spectrum(幼幼) of motives, from biological, to individual, to social. Physiological (food, water), security, social, esteem, self actualization o Self actualization(幼幼) – realization of your highest potential What’s satiation(（（)? o Fullness, satisfaction What’s the setpoint theory? o Assertion(幼幼) that each individual has an ideal body weight, or set point, that is resistant to change. How are overweight, obesity, and morbid obesity defined? o Overweight – BMI (body max index) 2529.9 o Morbid (幼幼幼) – a BMI > 40. (Adult) o Obesity – a BMI > 30 What are the three motivational factors described in class involved in obesity? o Time of the day o Type of food commonly eaten in your society o The amount of food commonly eaten in your society. What’s anorexia(（（（) nervosa(（（（（)? o Characterized by maintenance of low weight through starvation and /or exercise What’s binge eating disorder? o Characterized by binge(幼幼) eating and associated distress(幼幼) What’s bulimia(（（（) nervosa? o Characterized by binging on food and then purging(幼幼) it. How may Western culture be involved in the development of eating disorders? o Culturallybond phenomena(幼幼) that are related to messages of a think ideal often portrayed(幼幼) in popular media and the fashion world. o Genetic factors may predispose people to these disorders. Who was the first researcher to conduct largescale surveys of sexual behavior? o Kinsey – sexuality falls along a continuum. Know the stages of the sexual response cycle and what occurs at each stage. o Excitement – arousal phase of the sexual response cycle, and it is marked by erection(幼幼) of the penis or clitoris(幼幼) and lubrication(幼幼) and expansion of the vaginal canal. o Plateau(幼幼幼幼) – phase of the sexual response cycle that falls between excitement and orgasm o Orgasm – peak phase of the sexual response cycle associated with rhythmic muscle contractions(幼 幼) (and ejaculation(幼幼幼幼幼) o Resolution – sexual responses cycle following orgasm during which the body returns to its un aroused state. What proportions of males and females have had at least one homosexual experience, respectively? o 2025% of males and 15% of females have had at least one homosexual experience What percentage of the population is exclusively homosexual? o 310% of the population is exclusively(幼幼) homosexual Know that sexuality is not categorical. What are gender identity and gender dysmorphia? o Gender identity – individual’s sense of being male of female. o Gender dysmorphia – diagnostic category in DSM5 for individuals who do not associated with their biological sex What are the biological and environmental explanations for the determination of sexuality? o Biological explanations Genes – if one identical twin is homosexual the other is more likely to be Hormones – women exposed to diethylistibestros(DES) were less likely to be heterosexual Brain structure – gay man have a larger anterior(幼幼) commissure(幼幼幼) o Environmental explanations Family dynamics – Freud said gay men had overbearing mother’s and emotionally distant fathers Learning – punishing heterosexual experiences and reinforcing homosexual experiences could teach homosexuality What does the research show with regard to the effectiveness of gay conversion therapy? o Gay conversion therapy is ineffective, but also potentially harmful, legislative efforts to make such therapy illegal have either been enacted or not underway across the united states. What are emotions, and what are the dimensions on which emotions are divided? o Emotions – subjective state of being, we often describe as your feelings. Positive/negative, high and low arousal. What’s the difference between emotion and mood? o Emotion – relatively intense affective state that occurs in response to an experience. o Mood – More prolonged, less intense, and not a response to an experience. What are the seven basic emotions, and why are they considered to be ‘basic’? o Happy, surprise, sad, fright, disgust, contempt(幼幼), anger What’s the JamesLange theory of emotion? o Emotions arise from physiological(幼幼幼) arousal What’s the CannonBard theory of emotion? o Physiological activity and emotions occurs simultaneously(幼幼) What’s the twofactor theory of emotion, what was the famous study (described in class and in the book) that showed evidence for it, and what’s the criticism of the theory that was discussed in class? o Emotions are based on inferences(幼幼) about ambiguous(幼幼幼幼) arousal Threatening we’ll experience negative emotions Pleasant we’ll experience positive emotions o Pro and cons Pro: participants experiencing ambiguous arousal attributed it to stimuli in the environment Con: different emotions don’t have one single pattern of accompanying physiological activity What’s emotion regulation? o Strategy to influence one’s emotional experience What are affect labeling and reappraisal? o Affect – involves putting emotions into words o Reappraisal(幼幼幼) – changing how one thinks about emotional stimuli to change the emotions they produce What’s a cultural display rule? o One of the culturally specific standards that govern the types of frequencies of emotions that are acceptable What’s the facial feedback hypothesis, and how can you use it to feel happier? o Emotional expressions cause the emotions they signify(幼幼,幼幼幼) OR assert that facial expressions are capable of influencing our emotions. Make the facial expression produced by that emotion What’s body language? o Expression of emotion in terms of body position or movement. What are the two signs of a fake smile? o When we smile, that corners of our eyes crinkle(幼幼). This does not happen to fake smiles. o When smile, our mouth are symmetrical(幼幼). Fake smile are less symmetrical. How long are ingenuine emotions expressed? o 0.55 seconds Do ingenuine emotions appear and disappear abruptly(（（) or smoothly? o Appear and disappear smoothly. Chapter 11 What is personality? o The long standing traits and patters that propel(幼幼) individuals to consistently think, feel, behave specifically What are selfreport measures? o Consists of interviews or surveys that contain questions about mental processes and behaviors What’s the MMPI, and what kind of questions are included in it? o MMPI= Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – personality test composed of a series f true/false question in order to establish a clinical profile of an individual OR a clinical survey used to assess personality and psychological problems. I like gardening(幼幼) magazines, I am unhappy with my sex life, I feel like no one understands me, I am not easily awakened by noise, etc. What are the validity(（（) scales on the MMPI? o The “Lie” scale – consists of 15 items and is used to ascertain whether the respondent is “faking good” What are two reasons selfreports can be inaccurate? o Socially desirable responding o We’re unaware of how we really fell at something What are projective tests? o Assessments in which a person responds to ambiguous stimuli, revealing unconscious feelings, impulsive and desires. What’s the Rorschach Inkblot Test? o Reveals unconscious thoughts and feelings via(幼幼) descriptions of inkblots(幼幼幼幼) 幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼 幼 What’s the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)? o Reveals unconscious motives and concerns via stories about ambiguous picture. What are the problems with the TAT? o Modes to low on validity and reliability What’s the trait approach to personality? o Uses trait terms to characterize differences among individuals What are traits? o Stable tendencies to behave in a particular way What’s factor analysis? o Method of identifying associations among variables to reveal a small # of factors. What’s the five factor model (know the big five personality traits and be able to describe them)? o Openness – imaginative and preferring variety o Conscientiousness(幼幼幼)– careful and disciplined o Extraversion(幼幼) – Talkative and sociable o Agreeableness – sympathetic(幼幼幼幼) and kind o Neuroticism(幼幼幼幼幼) – tense and anxious Why are the big five so widely accepted? o The big five explain a lot of behavior without any traits being redundant(幼幼幼) o Different analyses of the same people revealed the same five traits o The big five emerge across age, culture, and language. In what ways do the female and male personalities differ? o Females Verbally expressive, sensitive to nonverbal cues, nurturing, relational aggression higher on conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism o Males Physically aggressive, assertive(幼幼,幼幼), higher selfesteem, casual(幼幼) about sex, sensation(幼幼,幼幼) seeking What are the two proposed explanations for male and female personality differences? o Evolutionary perspective Male physical aggression intimidates(幼幼) sexual rivals Female agreeableness and nurturance improves parenting and increases receptiveness to mates. o Social Role Theory Male autonomy(幼幼) and size facilitated historically powerful roles o Socialization(幼幼幼幼)allowed this to carry over to modern times What are the three personality clusters seen in the US, and where does each cluster predominate? o 1. Friendly, conventional(幼幼幼幼) – Center o 2. Relaxed, creative – west o 3. Temperamental (幼幼), uninhibited (幼幼幼) – Taxes, OH, WY, PA What’s the psychodynamic approach? o Personality is shaped by needs, strivings, and desires operating outside awareness What’s the distinction between the conscious and the unconscious? o Conscious – mental activity (thoughts, feelings, and memories) that we can access o Unconscious – mental activity which we are unaware and unable to access How much of our mental activity did Freud think was unconscious? th o Only 1/10 of our mind is conscious and the rest of it is unconscious What are the id, the ego, and the superego? o ID – the impulsive, pleasuredriven component o Ego(幼幼) – rational, realitydriven component o Superego(幼幼幼幼) – moral component What happens when the ego can’t mediate the conflict between the id and superego? o We experience anxiety Anxiety alerts the ego to use a defense mechanisms, an unconscious coping mechanism that reduces anxiety What’s the definition of a defense mechanism? o An unconscious coping mechanism that reduces anxiety Know denial, displacement, projection, rationalization, and repression. They are unconscious, and part of defense mechanism o Denial – refusing to accept real events because they’re unpleasant o Displacement(幼幼) – transferring inappropriate urges or behaviors onto nonthreatening targets o Projection – ego defense mechanism in which a person confronted with anxiety disguise are unacceptable urges or behaviors by attributing them to other people o Rationalization – making excuses or justifications for failures and shortcomings. o Repression(幼幼) – ego defense mechanism in which anxietyrelated thoughts and memories are kept in the unconscious What are psychosexual(（（（（) stages? o Life stages in which children experience pleasure from specific body areas and caregivers interfere with those pleasures What happens if the conflict at a psychosexual stage isn’t resolved? o If we do not have the roper nurturing and parenting during a stage, we will be stuck, or fixated(幼幼 幼幼), in that stage, even as adults Know the four psychosexual stages and the conflict at each stage. o 1. Oral: child seeks oral pleasure and deals with weaning o 2. Anal(幼幼): child derives pleasure from defecating and deals with toilet training o 3. Phallic(幼幼): child derives pleasure from the genitals(幼幼幼) and deals with incestuous(幼幼幼)幼 feelings and rivalry(幼幼) Latent period: sexual urges are dormant o Genital(幼幼): a mature personality emerges What are the criticisms of the psychodynamic approach? o The theory lacks empirical(幼幼幼) evidence and focuses on after the fact interpretations(幼幼) o Personality development doesn’t end at the age of 13 o Freud was rather sexist o Freud developed his theory using middle class, Viennese females. What’s individual psychology, and what’s an inferiority complex? o School of psychology proposed by Adler that focuses on our drive to compensate(幼幼) for feelings of inferiority幼幼幼幼 o Inferiority complex – a person’s feelings that they lack worth and don’t measure up to others’ or to society’s standards. What’s the collective unconscious, and what are archetypes? o Collective(幼幼) – common psychological tendencies that have been passed down from generation to the next o Archetypes(幼幼) – pattern that exists in our collective unconscious across culture and societies What’s locus of control? o Beliefs about the power we have over our lives, an external locus of control is the belief that our outcomes are outside of our control, and an internal locus of control is the belief that we control our own outcomes. What’s selfregulation, and what was Mischel’s marshmallow test? o The process of identifying a goal or set of goals, in pursuing these goals, using both internal and external. “well power” 幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼 Researcher 幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼 succeed. What’s temperament, and what’s the relationship between body type and temperament? o How a person reacts to the world, including their activity level, starting when they are very young. 幼幼幼幼幼幼幼 Chapter 12 What’s social psychology? o Examines how people affect one another, and looks at the power of the situation What’s the fundamental attribution error, and what are the reasons for its occurrence that were discussed in class? o FAE. – Behavior readily attributable to the situation is attributed d to a disposition Situational(幼幼幼幼) variables are less salient Situational attributions require more time and efforts What’s an attribution, and what’s the difference between a situational attribution (i.e., situationism) and a dispositional attribution (i.e., dispositionism)? o Attribution – explanation for the behavior of other people o Situationism – describes a perspective that behavior and actions are determined by the environment and surroundings, a view promoted by social psychologists o Dispositionism – describes a perspective common to personality psychologists, which asserts our behavior is determined by internal factors, such as personality traits and temperament What’s the actorobserver bias, and why do we succumb(（（（（) to it? o Attribute other’s behavior to dispositions while attributing our own to the situation. 幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼 幼幼幼 What’s the selfserving bias, and why do we succumb to it? o Tendency to make dispositions attribution for successes and situational attribution for failures. (low selfesteem. Never feel good about their accomplishments) What’s the justworld hypothesis, and what kind of attributions does it lead to? o Belief that people get the outcomes they deserve subscribes make dispositional attribution when bad thing happen to other people 幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼 What are social roles and social norms? o Social roles – behavior pattern expected of a person in a given setting or group o Social norm – a group’s expectation of what is appropriate behavior for its members What are gender roles and gender norms? o Gender roles – behavior pattern expected of a person of a certain gender o Gender norm – a gender groups expectations of what is appropriate behavior for its members Know the Stanford prison experiment, including the basic design, results, and implications. o Demonstrated the power of social roles, social norms, and scripts Participants were randomly assigned to be guards of inmates in a mock prison Guards quickly become sadistic(幼幼幼) and cruel Inmates(幼幼) quickly became anxious and hopeless What are attitudes and beliefs? o Attitudes – evaluations of a person, idea or objects o Beliefs – knowledge about an object or event What’s cognitive dissonance(（（（)? o Discomfort that arises from holding two or more incompatible(幼幼幼) attitudes, behaviors or cognitions(幼幼) What are the three ways to reduce cognitive dissonance (know examples too)? o Changing behavior, adding new cognitions, changing one of the cognitions What’s the justification of effort effect, and what was the study described in class and in the book that showed evidence of it? o When a difficult initiation leads us to make our attitudes towards the group more favorable What’s persuasion? o Process of changing an attitudes based on exposure to some kind communication What’s the Yale attitude change approach (know the three components of it too)? o Approach says 3 things influence the persuasiveness of a message 1. Messages source. 2. Messages content. 3. Message’s audience (幼幼幼) if the audience is persuaded, then most likely you will too. What’s the elaboration likelihood model, and what are the two routes to persuasion? o ELM. The route we take to persuasion influences attitude change The central route – considering facts related to an argument’s worth Personally important, relevant Peripheral route – considering cues that don’t relate the message’s worth. Not important, not relevant What’s the footinthedoor technique? o Securing compliance to small request and then making a larger request. Yes to most of the request What’s the doorintheface technique? o Making a large request and then making a smaller request Most likely to reject. Concession. 幼幼幼幼幼幼幼 OK What’s conformity? o Change in a person’s behavior to go along with a group, even if she doesn’t agree with the group. Know Asch’s conformity experiments, including the basic design and results. o Asch found participants would make erroneous choices to conform to a group. On average participants conformed on 1/3 of the trials 76% of participants conformed at least once 幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼幼 What’s groupthink? o Groups members modify their opinions to match what they believe is the group consensus What are social facilitation and social loafing? o Social facilitation – improved performance when an audience is watching vs. when the individual performs the behavior alone o Social loafing – exertion of less effort by a person working in a group because individual performance cannot be evaluated separately fro a group, thus causing performance a=decline on easy tasks What’s obedience? o Change in an individuals behavior to comply with a demand from an authority figure Fear the consequences, we obey the police. Know Milgram’s obedience experiments, including the basic design and results. o Milgram asked a teacher to shock a learner when he made mistakes on a memory task o Despite protestations, most participants delivered a 450v shock o Participants justified their behavior by concluding the experimenter was responsible. What are stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination? o Stereotypes – sets of beliefs and expectations about a person based on group membership o Prejudice – evaluation of a person based on group membership o Discrimination – behavior toward a person based on group membership Know the definitions of racism, sexism, ageism, and homophobia. o Sexism – prejudice and discrimination toward individuals based on their sex o Racism – prejudice and discrimination toward individuals based on their race o Homophobia – prejudice and discrimination against individuals based on sexual o Ageism – prejudice and discrimination towards individuals based solely on age What’s a selffulfilling prophecy, and how can one strengthen stereotypical beliefs? o Process in which one’s expectations about a another person eventually lead that person to have in ways that confirm those expectations OR an expectation held by a person that alters his or her behavior in a way that tends to make it true What are ingroups and outgroups, and what does ingroup bias lead to? o In group – group that we identify with or see ourselves as belonging to o Out group – group that we don’t belong to – one that we view as fundamentally different from us o In group bias – preference for our own group over other groups. What are the explanations for the existence of prejudice that were discussed in class? o Social learning approaches say we’re socialized to learn prejudice o Social identity theory says we use group membership as a source of self worth o Competition for scarce resources may produce prejudice Know the three predictors of attraction mentioned in the lecture (including the reasons they predict attraction). o Proximity – the mere exposure effect is the tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure o Similarity – homophily is the tendency to form relationships with other who are similar o Physical attractiveness What are the three components of love in Sternberg’s triangular theory of love, and what are consummate love, romantic love, and companionate love? o Commitment – the realization one feels love and maintenance of love o Intimacy – involves closeness and connection o Passion – involves sex and romance Romantic love – consisting of intimacy and passion, but no commitment Consummate love – types of love occurring when intimacy, passion and commitment are all present Companionate love – consisting of intimacy and commitment, but not passion, associated with close friendships and family relationship What’s social exchange theory? o We keep a tally of the ratio of costs to benefits in forming and maintaining relationship What’s aggression? o Behavior with the intention of injury or harming another Know the causes of aggression mentioned in the lecture. o Frustration, aversive stimulation (pain, hot, cold), provocation (insults) What’s prosocial behavior? o Voluntary behavior with the intent to help others What are the bystander effect and diffusion of responsibility? o As the number of bystanders increases so does the diffusion of responsibility, which is the tendency for no one in a group to help because responsibility is spread through out the group Bystander effect – situation in which a witness or bystander does not volunteer to help a victim or person in distress What’s altruism? o Helping behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself Altruism may be contingent on felling empathy, which is the capacity to understand another’s perspective What’s cooperation, and when can it be a bad idea? o Behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit And cooperation can be very beneficial in that it allows people to procure more resources and has led to some of the greatest achievements in human history. Now this definition implies that cooperation is always beneficial
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