Study guide up till week 10
Study guide up till week 10 PSYC 2500-001
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hinds Notetaker on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2500-001 at East Tennessee State University taught by Robin Leonard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Behavior Analysis in Psychology at East Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Shaping Ch 9 1 discussion post due this Friday! What do we do when the behavior we want to occur isn’t occurring at all? -you must teach a new behavior Defining Shaping Shaping: the differential reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior o First you reinforce for just trying, even if the attempt is nowhere near target; after a while you reinforce only if it gets better- you do this as it gets closer to what you’re looking for o -differential reinforcement: a procedure in which a specific desirable behavior is followed by a reinforce but other behaviors are not; you reinforce one behavior but not another; instead of constantly punishing for what you don’t want, you should reinforce what you want/ or the opposite behavior o Successive Approximations: in the process of shaping, each successive approximation is a behavior that more closely resembles the target behavior; closer and closer to the target behavior every time o Incorporates the principles of reinforcement and extinction Should be a constant 3:1 ratio of comments; you talk about what you appreciate 3x more than the negative things you comment on; this is for every scenario- every type of person Therapeutic Uses of Shaping Generate a novel behavior: brand new to the person Reinstate a previously exhibited behavior- rehabilitation Change some dimension of an existing behavior- could increase amount of time spent doing something (frequency of eye contact), how they do something (volume of voice) Beware: some problem behaviors are developed through shaping! EX: Temper tantrums; behavior getting worse leads to mother giving into tantrum; yelling at children Examples of Shaping Teaching a child to talk; babies get reinforced for cooing and coo more because of the reinforcement and cry less; we differentially reinforce successive language Teaching a rat to press a lever: Skinner used shaping by reinforcing certain steps of the process by starting with something they already do and successively reinforcing from there Training animals to perform complex behaviors: teaching in steps with reinforcing- dolphin training Applications of Shaping Rehabilitation (O’Neill & Gardner, 1983)- Used shaping to teach a lady to walk again- occupational and physical therapy- reinforced with massages; using these steps you will REINSTATE this behavior that the lady once knew how to do Voice Volume (Jackson & Wallace, 1974; Fleece et al., 1981)- mentally handy-capped child who was socially withdrawn- reinforced successively louder and louder speech Increase behavioral repertoire of intellectually disabled individuals (Wolfe et al., 1964; Horner, 1971)- took a lot of sessions but mostly fixed the stuttered syllable by syllable How to Use 1. Define the target behavior- stated in terms of actions that need to occur 2. Determine is shaping is the most appropriate procedure- some part of the behavior has to be happening to begin with to reinforce initially – shaping is for when behaviors don’t occur at all or if something about it needs to change 3. Identify the starting behavior- the behavior the subject already engages in 4. Choose the shaping steps- you must master one step before you move to the next- they must be big enough to make a difference but small enough not to frustrate someone- or else you are setting them up for failure- must also be reinforced immediately and consistently 5. Choose the reinforcer- use conditioned reinforcers that can be traded in for other things 6. Differentially reinforce successive approximations 7. Move through the shaping steps at a proper pace Shaping Problem Behaviors Child tantrums or other problem behavior Parents yelling/nagging Showing off Self-injurious behavior Chapter 10 Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control Used to develop appropriate stimulus control over a particular behavior (to get the right behavior to occur at the right time) Used to develop new behaviors What is a Prompt? Prompt: a stimulus that is used to increase the likelihood that a person will engage in the correct behavior at the correct time What is Fading? Fading: the gradual removal of prompts as the behavior continues to occur in the presence of the discriminative stimulus Types of Prompts Response Prompt: a type of prompt in which the trainer engages in a behavior to induce the client to engage in the target behavior in the presence of the discriminative stimulus Stimulus Prompt: some change in an antecedent stimulus, or the addition or removal of an antecedent stimulus, with the goal of making a correct response more likely Response Prompts Verbal Prompt Gestural Prompt Modeling Prompt Physical Prompt Stimulus Prompts WithinStimulus Prompts: a type of stimulus prompt in which some aspect of the discriminative stimulus or Sdelta is changed to help a person make a correct discrimination Extrastimulus Prompts: a type of stimulus prompt in which a stimulus is added to help a person make a correct discrimination The sequence of presenting the SD, prompting the correct response, and providing a reinforcer In a learning trial: Prompting gets the correct response to occur so it can be reinforced Fading or prompt delay occurs to eliminate the prompt and transfer control to the SD What is a “Learning Trial?” Transfer of Stimulus Control Transfer of Stimulus Control: a process in which prompts are removed once the target behavior is occurring in the presence of the discriminative stimulus Transferring Stimulus Control: Prompt Fading Prompt Fading: the gradual removal of prompts as the behavior continues to occur in the presence of the discriminative stimulus LeasttoMost MosttoLeast Transferring Stimulus Control: Prompt Delay Prompt Delay: the trainer presents the discriminative stimulus and then after a specified interval of time presents the prompt Transferring Stimulus Control: Stimulus Fading Stimulus Fading: the gradual elimination of a stimulus prompt as the behavior continues to occur in the presence of the discriminative stimulus Guidelines for Prompting and Transferring Stimulus Control Choose the most appropriate prompting strategy. Get the learner’s attention. Present the SD. The learning trial always begins with the presentation of the SD. Prompt the correct response. Reinforce the correct behavior. Transfer stimulus control. Continue to reinforce unprompted responses. Use intermittent reinforcement for maintenance Chaining Chapter 11 Chaining Behavioral Chain: a complex behavior consisting of two or more component behaviors that occur together in a sequence Analyzing StimulusResponse Chains StimulusResponse Chain: another term for behavioral chain SD1 R1 SD2 R2 SD3 R3 SD4 R4 SR Task Analysis Task Analysis: identification of the discriminative stimulus and response for each component of a behavior chain Ways to Conduct a Task Analysis Observe a person engage in the task and record each of the stimulus response components Ask an expert to explain all the components in the task Perform the task yourself and record the sequence of responses in the task Backward Chaining Backward Chaining: a chaining procedure in which the last component of the chain is taught first Forward Chaining Forward Chaining: a procedure for teaching a chain of behaviors in which the first component of the chain is taught first Training Sequence for Each Component Present the SD Verbal and physical prompt Praise (and possibly other reinforcers) for correct response Fade prompts When response occurs without prompts, move to the next SR component Continue steps 15 until done Total Task Presentation Total Task Presentation: a complex chain of behaviors is taught as a single unit in which the trainer prompts the learner through all steps in the chain a type of training in total task presentation that begins with physical prompts that are gradually faded, continues with shadowing of the learners behavior, and eventually results in no assistance from the trainer Other Strategies for Teaching Behavioral Chains Written Task Analysis Picture Prompts SelfInstructions Strategies for Teaching Behavioral Chains: Written Task Analysis Written Task Analysis: a written list of each discriminative stimulus and response in a behavioral chain; sometimes given to the learner to guide the learner’s behavior through the chain of behaviors higher level learners Strategies for Teaching Behavioral Chains: Picture Prompts and Video Modeling Picture Prompts: pictures of someone engaging in each behavior or of the outcome of each behavior are used to prompt the learner to engage in the correct behavior in the correct sequence Video Modeling: video of someone engaging in each behavior o Have to have an imitativerepertoire Strategies for Teaching Behavioral Chains: SelfInstructions SelfInstructions: selfstatements that make it more likely that a target behavior will occur in a specific situation o Teaching the learner to give themselves verbal prompts as they go through things “Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally” Has been used a lot therapeutically for modifying behavior to keep one’s own behavior in line How to Use Chaining Procedures should we use this or not? Determine whether a chaining procedure is appropriate. is it a lack of knowledge or lack of compliance? only appropriate for completely new skills Develop a task analysis. we can’t make the steps too complex Get a baseline assessment of the learner’s ability. Where do we need to start? (Whatever they can complete without assistance exposing them to every step in the chain to see if they know where to go from there) Choose the chaining method you will use. (Backward and forward training is most often used) Implement the chaining procedure. (Appropriate use of prompting and fading) Continue reinforcement after the task has been learned… Shift to intermittent reinforcement for maintenance. (Keeps it going for the longterm) Behavioral Skills Training Procedures Chapter 12 Behavioral Skills Training Procedures Behavioral Skills Training (BST): a procedure consisting of instructions, modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and feedback in every training session that is used to teach new behaviors or skills o every single learning trial o the last two stages might be done a few times, continuing until we see these behaviors in place Examples of BST Procedures Teaching Marcia to Say “No” to the Professors she has to go above and beyond in her job description and it was keeping her from doing what she needed to, causing stress and anxiety and keeping her at work late o You can only give to people to the point that it takes from you o She had to go to a counselor and he gave her instructions to be assertive Teaching Children to Protect Themselves from Abduction it’s only okay to talk to strangers when your parents or a trusted adult is with them o Then you set up scenarios that the children can rehearse in The 4 Components of the BST Procedure Instructions Modeling Rehearsal until they have successfully completed this behavior a few times Feedback predominantly positive (3:1 positivity) Components of the BST Procedure: Instructions Instructions: verbal descriptions of the behavior to be performed o We will always explain it in words before we show it to you Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Instructions Instructions should be: o presented at a level the learner can understand disabilities, broken down into understandable parts; understand the language used by the subject o delivered by someone who has credibility with the learner teachers normally have credibility however they have found that kids pay more attention to abduction scenarios presented by kids their own age o paired with modeling o given only when the learner is paying attention The learner should: o have the opportunity to rehearse the behavior o repeat the instructions so that we know for certain that they understood what we said Components of the BST Procedure: Modeling Modeling: a type of prompt in which the trainer demonstrates the target behavior for the learner o We are born with an imitative repertoire – we learn everything through modeling; especially when out of our element children learn this way almost exclusively all children want a baby doll because momma takes care of the baby Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Modeling The model: o Should be reinforced for correct behavior Bandura showed that we can learn vicariously through others we don’t have to receive the punishment ourselves People will model behaviors if they see it positively reinforced even if it’s a negative behavior o Should resemble the people observing the model or should have high status (Someone that is respected for a specific or variety of things relating to the scenario) like a firefighter showing “stop, drop, and roll” procedure The modeled behavior: they must be able to physically model the behavior o complexity should be appropriate to the developmental level of the learner o must occur in the proper context best abduction preventions will happen at the park and the mall or places abductions can occur or at least simulating these places ; training will be better o should be repeated as often as necessary If the first time they practice the behavior they make 6 or 7 mistakes, you would go all the way back to modeling the behavior instead of just giving feedback, etc. o should be modeled in a variety of ways and in a variety of situations model every possible acceptable response The learner: o must pay attention to the model if you don’t pay attention, you can’t rehearse a behavior correctly o should have an opportunity to rehearse the behavior Components of the BST Procedure: Rehearsal Rehearsal: o practice of the behavior in a roleplay situation after instructions and modeling you always want to give people the opportunity to rehearse the behavior Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Rehearsal Rehearsals should be programmed for success o We don’t want them to do it all wrong because then we won’t have anything to reinforce rehearsals and behaviors must be simple enough that people can be successful. Rehearsal of the correct behavior should be followed immediately by reinforcement o don’t wait until everything is done Rehearsals that are partly correct or are incorrect should be followed by corrective feedback The behavior should be rehearsed in the proper context o Work problems should be rehearsed in a work environment; as much as possible The behavior should be rehearsed until it is demonstrated correctly a few times o 100% correct several times that way we know they really understand this behavior Components of the BST Procedure: Feedback Feedback: o delivering praise for a successful performance in a behavioral rehearsal and instruction on ways to improve the performance in the future constructive feedback isn’t criticism, it is showing someone how to be/get better you never want to be critical; teachers who are critical create students with a negative attitude toward school and their academic progress Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Feedback Feedback should be given immediately after the behavior o It’ll be more effective b/c a week from now they won’t remember anything about it they will only be able to attach the feedback to the behavior when done in that moment. Feedback should always include praise (or other reinforcers) for some aspect of the behavior o Tell them what they did right if all you hear out of someone’s mouth is negative, they can’t ever hear what you’re saying Praise should be descriptive When providing corrective feedback, don’t be negative o You want to build them up, not discourage them; correct the behavior without attaching it to the person Always praise some aspect of the performance before providing corrective feedback o You divorce yourself from saying “you’re wrong” and you show that you understand the situation Provide corrective feedback on one aspect of the performance at a time o It’s frustrating when there are so many parts of a behavior and they feel like they can’t do anything right o Pick the biggest problem, fix it, then the next biggest, then the next.. etc Enhancing Generalization after BST Involve a variety of roleplays that simulate actual situations the learner is likely to encounter in real life o They must be generalized for every setting something might happen Incorporate reallife situations into training o Social gettogethers for social problems Provide assignments for the learner to practice the skill being learned outside the BST session Arrange for the reinforcement of the skills in situations outside the training session o Parents, teachers, personal friends, etc. BST and the ThreeTerm Contingency Antecedents > behavior > consequences Modeling & instructions > rehearsal > feedback BST in Groups Used with groups of people who need to learn similar skills Advantages: more efficient, additional learning opportunities (b/c you get to see other people rehearse), enhanced generalization (greater variety of roleplaying situations), increased magnitude of reinforcement (more people to give feedback) Disadvantages: no individual attention, shy or dominating group members, no control over type of feedback given; you can tell people what is allowed but that doesn’t mean criticism won’t happen Applications of BST Procedures “everyone uses a bit of this in life” Teaching selfprotection skills Teaching social skills Teaching parenting skills Teaching job and interview skills Numerous other applications How to Use BST Procedures Identify and define the skills you want to teach. Identify all relevant stimulus situations in which the skills must be used. Assess the learner’s skills in the stimulus situations to establish a baseline. Begin training with the easiest skill or the easiest stimulus situation. Begin a training session by modeling the behavior and describing its important aspects. After the learner hears the instructions and sees the model, provide the opportunity for rehearsal. Immediately after the rehearsal, provide feedback. Repeat the rehearsal and feedback process until the learner has executed the behavior correctly a couple of times. After success with one training situation, move to another situation and continue the process of modeling, instructions, rehearsal, and feedback until the learner has mastered each skill in each situation. Once the learner has mastered all the skills in all simulated situations during training situations, program for generalization to the natural settings where the skills are needed. Quiz 5 Question 1 0 / 1 point Which of the following is NOT a method of transferring stimulus control? 1) prompt fading 2) prompt satiation 3) prompt delay 4) stimulus fading Question 0 / 1 2 point A prompt should be delivered ____________ the discriminative stimulus and ____________ the behavior. 1) after ; before 2) before; after 3) before; before 4) after; after Question 1 / 1 3 point The procedures of prompting and fading are used to: 1) develop stimulus control 2) get existing behavior to occur at the correct time 3) develop new behaviors 4) all of these Question 0 / 1 4 point When Tommy’s Mom asks him to stop playing video games he ignores her. When she asks him a second, third, and fourth time in a louder voice Tommy continues to ignore her. By the fifth time, Tommy’s Mom screams at him to stop playing video games, and he finally stops. Eventually, Tommy’s Mom has to yell at him ten times before he quits playing video games. In this example, whose behavior has been shaped? 1) Tommy’s 2) Mom’s 3) Tommy’s and Mom’s 4) neither Tommy’s nor Mom’s Question 1 / 1 5 point Which of the following is a guideline for using prompting and transfer of stimulus control correctly? 1) present the discriminative stimulus and the appropriate prompt 2) transfer stimulus control to the natural discriminative stimulus 3) reinforce the correct behavior 4) all of these Question 1 / 1 6 point When using prompting and transfer of stimulus control, a reinforcer should be delivered when the behavior occurs: 1) in the presence of the discriminative stimulus 2) following removal of a prompt 3) following a prompt 4) all of these Question 1 / 1 7 point A teacher uses shaping to increase the loudness of a withdrawn child’s voice. This would be an example of using shaping to: 1) reinstate a previous behavior 2) change a dimension of an existing behavior 3) generate a new topography of behavior 4) create a new behavior Question 0 / 1 8 point Brian is teaching his son to shoot a basketball. Initially, Brian lowers the backboard and uses a smaller ball in order to make it more likely that his son will correctly shoot the ball. This is an example of a(an) ____________ prompt. 1) response 2) withinstimulus 3) extrastimulus 4) B and C Question 0 / 1 9 point Which method of prompting and fading is used when it is believed the learner does not need a physical prompt to engage in the correct behavior? 1) primary 2) leasttomost 3) mosttoleast 4) secondary Question 0 / 1 10 point Shaping would NOT be an appropriate procedure to use when 1) instructions would be successful 2) the target behavior is not occurring 3) the person is nonverbal 4) A and C Which of the following factors increases the effectiveness of rehearsal? 1) the context in which the behavior is rehearsed 2) a delay between the rehearsal and reinforcement 3) immediate criticism for errors 4) all of these Question 1 / 1 2 point Which of the following strategies can be used to conduct a task analysis? 1) observe a competent individual engage in the task and record each SR component 2) ask a person who performs the task well to explain all the SR components 3) perform the task yourself and record each SR component 4) all of these Question 1 / 1 3 point A teacher wants to teach fire safety skills. What should the teacher do immediately after telling the students what to do when there is a fire and showing them what to do in a fire situation? 1) discuss the behaviors further 2) provide the opportunity to rehearse the skills in a simulated fire situation 3) ask them what they would do in a fire situation 4) ask them what they would do in a fire situation and provide feedback for their answers Question 1 / 1 4 point A psychologist instructs parents how to deal with their disobedient son, and then the parents practice. Following the rehearsal, the psychologist praises them for what they did correctly and gives them further instruction for things they did incorrectly. Delivering praise and further instruction following rehearsal is referred to as: 1) evaluation 2) feedback 3) explanation 4) analysis Question 1 / 1 5 point A researcher is teaching an adult with developmental disabilities how to stuff brochures into envelopes. The researcher teaches the entire behavioral chain as a single unit, and the individual completes the entire task on every learning trial. Which chaining procedure is the researcher using? 1) backward chaining 2) forward chaining 3) total task presentation 4) primary chaining Question 0 / 1 6 point The components of the behavioral skills training procedure are generally used: 1) together in a training session 2) with individuals who have severely limited abilities 3) individually to teach different behaviors 4) A and B Question 1 / 1 7 point What type of prompt is most often used with total task presentation? 1) verbal 2) gestural 3) stimulus 4) physical Question 1 / 1 8 point In order to increase their effectiveness, instructions should be: 1) understandable to the learner 2) delivered by a credible person 3) repeated by the learner 4) all of these Question 1 / 1 9 point Behavioral skills training procedures will be more effective if you: use instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback together in each training 1) session 2) begin with the most difficult skill 3) provide instructions and modeling separately from rehearsal and feedback 4) start with rehearsal and feedback and use modeling and instructions only as necessary Question 0 / 1 10 point Once a learner observes a model, what factor will make it most likely that the learner will continue to engage in the observed behavior? 1) if the model’s behavior is reinforced 2) if the model has high status 3) if the model is similar to the learner if the learner’s behavior is reinforced once it occurs 4) Jennifer’s Mom is teaching her how to ride a bicycle. Her Mom gets on the bike and rides it around the yard. By demonstrating the entire behavior, Jennifer’s Mom is using a ____________ prompt. 1) modeling 2) gestural 3) physical 4) stimulus Question 1 / 1 2 point In which of the following situations would it be appropriate to use shaping? 1) the target behavior is already occurring 2) instruction or demonstration would be effective 3) acquisition of a novel behavior is the goal 4) A and B Question 0 / 1 3 point The extinction burst is valuable in shaping because 1) it leads to novel behaviors that may be an approximation to the target behavior 2) it is an indication that the shaping steps are too large 3) it is an indication that the shaping steps are too small 4) it is an indication that the person is trying to learn Question 1 / 1 4 point Which of the following behavioral principles is (are) involved in shaping? 1) extinction 2) punishment 3) reinforcement 4) A and C Question 0 / 1 5 point Extinction is used in shaping to 1) reduce interfering behavior 2) stop the occurrence of a previous approximation 3) promote the target behavior 4) stop the person from engaging in novel behavior Question 1 / 1 6 point In which of the following situations would it be appropriate to use prompting and transfer of stimulus control? 1) the person has not learned the behavior 2) the person has learned the behavior but refuses to do it 3) the person does not do the behavior in the correct situation 4) A and C Question 0 / 1 7 point Brian has been teaching his son to shoot a basketball correctly. Initially, Brian lowered the backboard and used a smaller ball to increase the chances his son would shoot the ball correctly. Once his son begins having success, Brian begins to raise the backboard and use a larger ball. This is an example of: 1) stimulus delay 2) stimulus fading 3) prompt delay 4) prompt fading Question 0 / 1 8 point Which of the following is NOT a type of response prompt? 1) verbal 2) modeling 3) withinstimulus 4) gestural Question 1 / 1 9 point Using shaping to get a person to increase the strength of her grip would be an example of shaping a(n): 1) novel behavior 2) a new dimension of an existing behavior 3) undesirable behavior 4) respondent behavior Question 1 / 1 10 point When the behavior of one individual leads to the desired behavior of another individual in the presence of the discriminative stimulus it is called a ____________ prompt. 1) antecedent 2) stimulus 3) behavioral 4) response
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