Exam 2 ASCI
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Malcomson on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ASCI 097 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Jennifer Wilkinson in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to the Horse in Animal Science at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Colors and Markings Paint Breed vs. Pinto Color Paint- Breed similar to quarter horses, can be solid colored Pinto- color pattern, can be any breed Tobiano vs Overo Tobiano o White spots cross over the spine o Colored spots- yellow to black with smooth borders o White legs, mane, and tail o Solid colored face Brown eyes Overo o White does not cross over the spine between the withers and tail o Colored patches- yellow to black with jagged edges o Dark legs, mane, and tail o Bald face, blue eyes o Sabino Overo- speckled patches (Roany) Spotted facial markings 3-4 white legs o Frame overo- white on barrel, frame of darker color around the white o Splash(ed) White Overo- dipped in white paint feet first Smooth color line White on legs, barrel, neck, and head Pink skin, blue eyes Facial Markings White hair sin specific locations Lack knowledge on the inheritance of facial markings Types o Snip o Star o Stripe o Blaze o Bald face Legs markings Coronet Pastern Ankle Sock Stocking Genetics of color Equus caballus o 31 pairs of autosome chromosomes (62) o 2 sex chromosomes (XX, XY) o total of 64 Genotypes and Phenotypes Allele= alternative form of a gene Genotype: o Refers to the genes an organism possesses Genotype of Gg= one copy of dominant gene for gray color in horses (silvering of hair) Phenotype o Refers to the observable traits or attributes of an organism Genotype of Gg or GG produces a phenotype of a gray horse (hair turns white/ gray over time) Dominant and Recessive traits Dominant trait (G) o Protein encoded by G allele determines phenotype even when heterozygous o Gg or GG= horse will go gray Recessive trait (g) o Trait only express when homozygous recessive (gg) o gg= horse will not go gray Coat Color Genetics: E/e locus- black or chestnut o EE or Ee is black o ee is chestnut A/a locus- determines distribution of black pigment o A restricts black areas to legs, mane and tail (bay color) o aa does not affect black pigment distribution (black horse aa is rare) o “Brown” color is difficult to define Example: o EeAa- bay horse o EEaa- black horse o eeAA- chestnut A/a involves black, ee ensures there is no black on the horse so A phenotype is not expressed Dilution Genes C or Cream locus C/ C cr o C is semi- dominant o CC Fully pigmented cr o CC somewhat dilutes red, brown, and black hair Gives palomino (chestnut), buckskin (brown/bay), and smoky black (black) o C C strongly dilutes Gives cremello (chestnut), perlino (brown/bay) and smoky cream (black) Example: cr o eeCC cracrmino o eeC C - cremello o E_A_CC - buckskin o E_A_C C - Perlino cr o E_aaCC -crcrky black o E_aaC C - Smoky cream Breeding for Coat Color Punnett Square Dilution Genes (cont.) Dun (D/d) o Dominant trait o Lightens base color Chestnut becomes Red dun Bay becomes bay dun Black becomes Grulla o Allows dorsal strupes, legs bars, etc. Examples: o eeD_ - Red dun o E_A_D_ - bay dun o E_aaD_ - grulla Modifying Loci Pangare (Papa) o Dominant trait o “Mealy” golden colored areas o Most notable one: Face and muzzle Girth Flank Dock Underside Sooty o Unknown mode of action o Dark sooty areas on coat Flaxen o Thought to be recessive o Chestnut with flaxen mane and tail Masking Loci o Mask or cover up basic color of horse o Cannot determine which alleles of other genes are present o Gray (G/g) Dominant trait Horse goes gray with age o White (W/w) Dominant trait White from birth o ww- all colored horses o Ww- white horse o WW- lethal white Very rare Fetus dies early, resorbed Examples: Gray Arabian- G_ Red tobiano going gray- eeTO_G_ Dominant white horse- Ww Roan Loci o True Roan (RN/rn) o Dominant trait o Causes roan coloring over body o Solid colored hear, lower legs, mane and tail White Patterns o Appaloosa spotting Probably multiple genes White patterns may not be stable from birth o Tobiano- TO/to Dominant trait Single gene Stable from birth o Overo Multiple genes o Frame Overo (O/o) Dominant trait Lethal when dominant homozygous o Sabino Overo (SB/sb) Dominant trait Multiple genes SB1/SB1= white or nearly white o Splash(ed) White Overo- Spl/spl Dominant trait Single gene What is thiscrenotype going to give you for color? wweeAACC ddRNrnTOtoGg palomino roan tobiano going gray Breeds to know: ~300 recognized breeds Breed- Group of horses having a common origin and possessing well- fixed, distinctive, uniformly transmitted characteristics Classifications: o Light horse- >14.2, 900-1400 lbs o Warmblood- >15 hands, 1000-1400 lbs o Draft Horse- >16 hands, >1400 lbs o Pony- <14.2, <900 lbs Light horses Miniature Horses o 8.2-9.2 hands, 150-350 lbs o Uses: Show, Driving, companions American Quarter Horse o Compact and muscular, racing/hunter type o 16 recognized colors o “Cow sense” o Uses: English and Western Short distance sprinting (up to 55 mph) Ranch and Farm work Arabian o High-spirited, dished face, arched/high neck, short back, 5 lumbar vertebrae (not 6), 17 ribs (not 18) o 14.1-15.1 hands, 900-1000 lbs. o Colors: Chestnut, Gray, Bay, Black, Roan o Uses Endurance riding, English, Western, Ranch work Thoroughbred o Long bones, smooth mucles, 15.1- 17 hands, 900-1200 lbs, all solid colors o Speed and stamina Galloping stride- 20 ft long Galloping speed- 30 mph o Uses: Racing, hunting, jumping, dressage, eventing American Standardbred o Trotters: Trot in diagonal pairs o Pacer Trot in lateral pairs o Original “standard” for speed Trot 1 mile in 2 minutes 30 seconds Pace 1 mile in two minutes 25 seconds o 15.3 hands, solid colors and roan o Uses: Harness racing, English and western disciplines, pull Amish buggies Morgan o 14.1- 15.2, 900-1100 lbs, bay/black/chestnut, arched neck, high- stepping movement o Uses: English and western (saddle seat and driving), competitive trail riding, pleasure, therapeutic riding, ranch work Drafts Horses: Clydesdale o 16-18 hands, 1500-2000 lbs o bay, roan, black, gray o White feathers o Extensive white markings o Characteristic gait Flexion of knees and hocks o Uses: Hobby and historical farming Pleasure driving Budweiser Clydesdales Percheron o More refined than other drafts o 15-18 hands, 1600-2300 lbs o Black or gray (American or British) o French born black and turn gray by 3 y.o. o No feathers o Uses: Work Popular police horses Driving Riding Dressage Shire o 16.2-19 hands o ~2000 lbs o Black, bay, gray, chestnut o Feathers o Uses: Pulling carts from brewery to pubs Traditional in UK Forestry work Leisure riding Parades Suffolk o Chestnut 7 recognized shades of chestnut Called “chesnut” (no t) o 16-17 hands, 1500-2000 lbs o Uses: Farming Pleasure driving Pulling contests Pony Breeds Welsh Pony and Cob o A- Welsh Mountain Pony (<12.1 hands) Used for kids riding o B- Welsh Pony (<13 hands) Kids riding o C- Welsh Pont of Cob Type (<14.2 hands) Sturdier and stockier o D- Welsh Cob (over 13.2, up to as tall as anything) o All colors except pinto o Lightly feathered legs o Fine features o Uses: Hunting Under saddle Driving Educational programs: 4-H Vo- Ag Future Farmer Connemara o Gentle and good disposition o Sturdy o Long, arched neck o 13-15 hands o Gray, black, bay, dun, palomino, chestnut, roan o Uses: Sport pony Jumping Crossed with TB eventing horse Pony of the Americas (POA) Colorful, spotted ponies Appaloosa coloring Blanket Leopard Mottled skin White sclera o Uses: Children’s riding Shetland Pony o All colors except spotted o Shaggy winter coat o Abundant mane and tail o Draft like Sturdy legs and hooves Wide back Broad hindquarters o Uses Children’s riding ponies Driving Novelty acts Circus Mules, Donkeys, and Jackasses Jackass- Equus assinus o Female ass- Jack o Female Ass- Jennet Mare x Jack- Mule Stallion x Jennet- Hinny Donkey- domesticated ass Burro- small donkey Misc. Breeds Lippizan Spanish Riding School of Vienna Airs above the ground American Bashkir Curly Akhal-Teke Looks like a gazelle Metallic sheen Marwari Ears curve up and in to touch at the tips Icelandic Small, sturdy Iceland has a very strict importation rule to maintain good biosecurity Riding and Disciplines: What do we need to ride? A horse o Lease, buy, or just take lessons Tack o Saddle Pad o Bridle Bit o English Saddle Pad Girth Stirrup Stirrup iron Breastplate Crupper o English Bridle Reins Bit Cavesson (noseband) Headstall (cheekpieces and crownpiece) Browband Throatlatch o Western Saddle Pad Cinch (girth) Front Flank Breastplate Saddle bags o Western Bridle Reins Bit Headstall Bits Hackamore o No mouthpiece Curb o Adding leverage with a piece of metal coming down below the jawbone of the horse’s head. When pulled the bit pulls back and puts pressure on the lower part of the mouth o Types of Leverage bits Western curb- typical curb Pelham 2 reins- snaffle rein on top ring, curb rein on bottom Curb chain goes under horse’s chin Kimberwick Straight mouthpiece with a raised middle D-rings with 2 attachments, one gives a snaffle effect, one gives more leverage Curb chain Snaffle o Jointed or straight o Rings for rein attachment o Types of snaffles Full cheek Egg butt D- ring (racing dee) Martingales Standing o Noseband to girth with a neck strap Keeps horse’s head from going up too far Running o Works with mouth to keep head low o Training and head tossing Cleaning, Care, and Storage of Tack Cleaning o Saddle soap o Conditioner Care o Check for damage o Repair as needed Storage o Dry and covered o Rodent free Boots and Wraps Boots: o Sport o Splint o Bell Wraps o Polo English Riding Attire Helmet Chaps o Half and full Breeches Boots o Tall and paddock Jacket and shirt Gloves Western Riding Attire Cowboy hat Cowboy boots Jeans Chaps or chinks Plaid or denim shirt Plain or denim shirt Belt buckle Other Riding Equipment Crop Whip Spurs English Riding Disciplines Dressage o “To train” o Set patterns of movements o Judged on Accuracy Elegance Obedience Hunters o Flat- Enter and judged as part of a group Perform gaits and changes of direction o Over fences Judged on effortless style Steady, even gait Even head carriage Rider in half seat Show jumping o Focus on speed and accuracy Eventing o Dressage o Show pumping o Cross country Western Disciplines Western Pleasure o Horse is pleasurable to ride Gait quality Walk Trot Lope Back Manners Reining o Set pattern to test horse responsiveness and rider control/ability o Maneuvers include: Flying lead changes Slides and spinning turns Lengthening and shortening stride Team Roping o 2 riders and horses track a steer: Header ropes the head of the steer and turns it Healer ropes the hind feet Calf Roping o Horse tracks a running calf Rider lassos calf, dismounts and ties three legs together Barrel Racing o Horse races around 3 barrels in a cloverleaf pattern Pole bending o Horse weaves through 6 tightly spaced poles to demonstrate agility and speed Cutting o Horse separates cow from herd Horse is trained to anticipate and outmaneuver the cow and prevent it from returning to the herd Team Penning o Team of riders separate cattle from herd, move/hold them in a pen Bronc Riding o Saddle bronc o Bareback bronc o Rider tries to stay on an untrained horse with clamped genitals for 8 seconds Trail o Horse negotiates obstacles Opening and closing gates Walking over a bridge Opening a mailbox Backing over poles Weaving through cones Western Riding o Set pattern judged on: Flying lead changes Gaits Responsiveness Manners
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