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Exam 2 ASCI

by: Hannah Malcomson

Exam 2 ASCI ASCI 097

Hannah Malcomson

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Exam 2 study guide
Intro to the Horse
Dr. Jennifer Wilkinson
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Intro to the Horse

Popular in Animal Science

This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Malcomson on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ASCI 097 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Jennifer Wilkinson in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to the Horse in Animal Science at University of Vermont.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Colors and Markings Paint Breed vs. Pinto Color  Paint- Breed similar to quarter horses, can be solid colored  Pinto- color pattern, can be any breed Tobiano vs Overo  Tobiano o White spots cross over the spine o Colored spots- yellow to black with smooth borders o White legs, mane, and tail o Solid colored face  Brown eyes  Overo o White does not cross over the spine between the withers and tail o Colored patches- yellow to black with jagged edges o Dark legs, mane, and tail o Bald face, blue eyes o Sabino Overo- speckled patches (Roany)  Spotted facial markings  3-4 white legs o Frame overo- white on barrel, frame of darker color around the white o Splash(ed) White Overo- dipped in white paint feet first  Smooth color line  White on legs, barrel, neck, and head  Pink skin, blue eyes Facial Markings  White hair sin specific locations  Lack knowledge on the inheritance of facial markings  Types o Snip o Star o Stripe o Blaze o Bald face Legs markings  Coronet  Pastern  Ankle  Sock  Stocking Genetics of color  Equus caballus o 31 pairs of autosome chromosomes (62) o 2 sex chromosomes (XX, XY) o total of 64 Genotypes and Phenotypes  Allele= alternative form of a gene  Genotype: o Refers to the genes an organism possesses  Genotype of Gg= one copy of dominant gene for gray color in horses (silvering of hair)  Phenotype o Refers to the observable traits or attributes of an organism  Genotype of Gg or GG produces a phenotype of a gray horse (hair turns white/ gray over time) Dominant and Recessive traits  Dominant trait (G) o Protein encoded by G allele determines phenotype even when heterozygous o Gg or GG= horse will go gray  Recessive trait (g) o Trait only express when homozygous recessive (gg) o gg= horse will not go gray Coat Color Genetics:  E/e locus- black or chestnut o EE or Ee is black o ee is chestnut  A/a locus- determines distribution of black pigment o A restricts black areas to legs, mane and tail (bay color) o aa does not affect black pigment distribution (black horse  aa is rare) o “Brown” color is difficult to define  Example: o EeAa- bay horse o EEaa- black horse o eeAA- chestnut  A/a involves black, ee ensures there is no black on the horse so A phenotype is not expressed Dilution Genes  C or Cream locus C/ C cr o C is semi- dominant o CC  Fully pigmented cr o CC somewhat dilutes red, brown, and black hair  Gives palomino (chestnut), buckskin (brown/bay), and smoky black (black) o C C strongly dilutes  Gives cremello (chestnut), perlino (brown/bay) and smoky cream (black)  Example: cr o eeCC cracrmino o eeC C - cremello o E_A_CC - buckskin o E_A_C C - Perlino cr o E_aaCC -crcrky black o E_aaC C - Smoky cream Breeding for Coat Color  Punnett Square Dilution Genes (cont.)  Dun (D/d) o Dominant trait o Lightens base color  Chestnut becomes Red dun  Bay becomes bay dun  Black becomes Grulla o Allows dorsal strupes, legs bars, etc.  Examples: o eeD_ - Red dun o E_A_D_ - bay dun o E_aaD_ - grulla Modifying Loci  Pangare (Papa) o Dominant trait o “Mealy” golden colored areas o Most notable one:  Face and muzzle  Girth  Flank  Dock  Underside  Sooty o Unknown mode of action o Dark sooty areas on coat  Flaxen o Thought to be recessive o Chestnut with flaxen mane and tail  Masking Loci o Mask or cover up basic color of horse o Cannot determine which alleles of other genes are present o Gray (G/g)  Dominant trait  Horse goes gray with age o White (W/w)  Dominant trait  White from birth o ww- all colored horses o Ww- white horse o WW- lethal white  Very rare  Fetus dies early, resorbed Examples:  Gray Arabian- G_  Red tobiano going gray- eeTO_G_  Dominant white horse- Ww  Roan Loci o True Roan (RN/rn) o Dominant trait o Causes roan coloring over body o Solid colored hear, lower legs, mane and tail  White Patterns o Appaloosa spotting  Probably multiple genes  White patterns may not be stable from birth o Tobiano- TO/to  Dominant trait  Single gene  Stable from birth o Overo  Multiple genes o Frame Overo (O/o)  Dominant trait  Lethal when dominant homozygous o Sabino Overo (SB/sb)  Dominant trait  Multiple genes  SB1/SB1= white or nearly white o Splash(ed) White Overo- Spl/spl  Dominant trait  Single gene What is thiscrenotype going to give you for color? wweeAACC ddRNrnTOtoGg palomino roan tobiano going gray Breeds to know:  ~300 recognized breeds  Breed- Group of horses having a common origin and possessing well- fixed, distinctive, uniformly transmitted characteristics  Classifications: o Light horse- >14.2, 900-1400 lbs o Warmblood- >15 hands, 1000-1400 lbs o Draft Horse- >16 hands, >1400 lbs o Pony- <14.2, <900 lbs Light horses  Miniature Horses o 8.2-9.2 hands, 150-350 lbs o Uses: Show, Driving, companions  American Quarter Horse o Compact and muscular, racing/hunter type o 16 recognized colors o “Cow sense” o Uses:  English and Western  Short distance sprinting (up to 55 mph)  Ranch and Farm work  Arabian o High-spirited, dished face, arched/high neck, short back, 5 lumbar vertebrae (not 6), 17 ribs (not 18) o 14.1-15.1 hands, 900-1000 lbs. o Colors:  Chestnut, Gray, Bay, Black, Roan o Uses  Endurance riding, English, Western, Ranch work  Thoroughbred o Long bones, smooth mucles, 15.1- 17 hands, 900-1200 lbs, all solid colors o Speed and stamina  Galloping stride- 20 ft long  Galloping speed- 30 mph o Uses:  Racing, hunting, jumping, dressage, eventing  American Standardbred o Trotters:  Trot in diagonal pairs o Pacer  Trot in lateral pairs o Original “standard” for speed  Trot 1 mile in 2 minutes 30 seconds  Pace 1 mile in two minutes 25 seconds o 15.3 hands, solid colors and roan o Uses:  Harness racing, English and western disciplines, pull Amish buggies  Morgan o 14.1- 15.2, 900-1100 lbs, bay/black/chestnut, arched neck, high- stepping movement o Uses:  English and western (saddle seat and driving), competitive trail riding, pleasure, therapeutic riding, ranch work Drafts Horses:  Clydesdale o 16-18 hands, 1500-2000 lbs o bay, roan, black, gray o White feathers o Extensive white markings o Characteristic gait  Flexion of knees and hocks o Uses:  Hobby and historical farming  Pleasure driving  Budweiser Clydesdales  Percheron o More refined than other drafts o 15-18 hands, 1600-2300 lbs o Black or gray (American or British) o French born black and turn gray by 3 y.o. o No feathers o Uses:  Work  Popular police horses  Driving  Riding  Dressage  Shire o 16.2-19 hands o ~2000 lbs o Black, bay, gray, chestnut o Feathers o Uses:  Pulling carts from brewery to pubs  Traditional in UK  Forestry work  Leisure riding  Parades  Suffolk o Chestnut  7 recognized shades of chestnut  Called “chesnut” (no t) o 16-17 hands, 1500-2000 lbs o Uses:  Farming  Pleasure driving  Pulling contests Pony Breeds  Welsh Pony and Cob o A- Welsh Mountain Pony (<12.1 hands)  Used for kids riding o B- Welsh Pony (<13 hands)  Kids riding o C- Welsh Pont of Cob Type (<14.2 hands)  Sturdier and stockier o D- Welsh Cob (over 13.2, up to as tall as anything) o All colors except pinto o Lightly feathered legs o Fine features o Uses:  Hunting  Under saddle  Driving  Educational programs:  4-H  Vo- Ag  Future Farmer  Connemara o Gentle and good disposition o Sturdy o Long, arched neck o 13-15 hands o Gray, black, bay, dun, palomino, chestnut, roan o Uses:  Sport pony  Jumping  Crossed with TB  eventing horse  Pony of the Americas (POA)  Colorful, spotted ponies  Appaloosa coloring  Blanket  Leopard  Mottled skin  White sclera o Uses: Children’s riding  Shetland Pony o All colors except spotted o Shaggy winter coat o Abundant mane and tail o Draft like  Sturdy legs and hooves  Wide back  Broad hindquarters o Uses  Children’s riding ponies  Driving  Novelty acts  Circus Mules, Donkeys, and Jackasses  Jackass- Equus assinus o Female ass- Jack o Female Ass- Jennet  Mare x Jack- Mule  Stallion x Jennet- Hinny  Donkey- domesticated ass  Burro- small donkey Misc. Breeds Lippizan  Spanish Riding School of Vienna  Airs above the ground  American Bashkir Curly Akhal-Teke  Looks like a gazelle  Metallic sheen Marwari  Ears curve up and in to touch at the tips Icelandic  Small, sturdy  Iceland has a very strict importation rule to maintain good biosecurity Riding and Disciplines: What do we need to ride?  A horse o Lease, buy, or just take lessons  Tack o Saddle  Pad o Bridle  Bit o English Saddle  Pad  Girth  Stirrup  Stirrup iron  Breastplate  Crupper o English Bridle  Reins  Bit  Cavesson (noseband)  Headstall (cheekpieces and crownpiece)  Browband  Throatlatch o Western Saddle  Pad  Cinch (girth)  Front  Flank  Breastplate  Saddle bags o Western Bridle  Reins  Bit  Headstall Bits  Hackamore o No mouthpiece  Curb o Adding leverage with a piece of metal coming down below the jawbone of the horse’s head. When pulled the bit pulls back and puts pressure on the lower part of the mouth o Types of Leverage bits  Western curb- typical curb  Pelham  2 reins- snaffle rein on top ring, curb rein on bottom  Curb chain goes under horse’s chin  Kimberwick  Straight mouthpiece with a raised middle  D-rings with 2 attachments, one gives a snaffle effect, one gives more leverage  Curb chain  Snaffle o Jointed or straight o Rings for rein attachment o Types of snaffles  Full cheek  Egg butt  D- ring (racing dee) Martingales  Standing o Noseband to girth with a neck strap  Keeps horse’s head from going up too far  Running o Works with mouth to keep head low o Training and head tossing Cleaning, Care, and Storage of Tack  Cleaning o Saddle soap o Conditioner  Care o Check for damage o Repair as needed  Storage o Dry and covered o Rodent free Boots and Wraps  Boots: o Sport o Splint o Bell  Wraps o Polo English Riding Attire  Helmet  Chaps o Half and full  Breeches  Boots o Tall and paddock  Jacket and shirt  Gloves Western Riding Attire  Cowboy hat  Cowboy boots  Jeans  Chaps or chinks  Plaid or denim shirt  Plain or denim shirt  Belt buckle Other Riding Equipment  Crop  Whip  Spurs English Riding Disciplines  Dressage o “To train” o Set patterns of movements o Judged on  Accuracy  Elegance  Obedience  Hunters o Flat-  Enter and judged as part of a group  Perform gaits and changes of direction o Over fences  Judged on effortless style  Steady, even gait  Even head carriage  Rider in half seat  Show jumping o Focus on speed and accuracy  Eventing o Dressage o Show pumping o Cross country Western Disciplines  Western Pleasure o Horse is pleasurable to ride  Gait quality  Walk  Trot  Lope  Back  Manners  Reining o Set pattern to test horse responsiveness and rider control/ability o Maneuvers include:  Flying lead changes  Slides and spinning turns  Lengthening and shortening stride  Team Roping o 2 riders and horses track a steer:  Header ropes the head of the steer and turns it  Healer ropes the hind feet  Calf Roping o Horse tracks a running calf  Rider lassos calf, dismounts and ties three legs together  Barrel Racing o Horse races around 3 barrels in a cloverleaf pattern  Pole bending o Horse weaves through 6 tightly spaced poles to demonstrate agility and speed  Cutting o Horse separates cow from herd  Horse is trained to anticipate and outmaneuver the cow and prevent it from returning to the herd  Team Penning o Team of riders separate cattle from herd, move/hold them in a pen  Bronc Riding o Saddle bronc o Bareback bronc o Rider tries to stay on an untrained horse with clamped genitals for 8 seconds  Trail o Horse negotiates obstacles  Opening and closing gates  Walking over a bridge  Opening a mailbox  Backing over poles  Weaving through cones  Western Riding o Set pattern judged on:  Flying lead changes  Gaits  Responsiveness  Manners


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