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Nutrition study guide

by: Setierah Notetaker

Nutrition study guide SCI1369

Setierah Notetaker

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These notes cover: Fats and Lipids Proteins Eating Disorders Alcohol
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Setierah Notetaker on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SCI1369 at Johnson and Wales University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Science at Johnson and Wales University.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
SCI1050 NUTRITION ​EXAM​ I​ I ​Study Guide Prof. P. Overdeep Fall 2016 Chapter 5 - Lipids Is a fatty acid with only single bonds between carbon atoms a saturated or an unsaturated fatty acid? A saturated fatty acid, because they only have single carbon bonds. Do unsaturated fatty acids have more or less hydrogen atoms than saturated fatty acids? Less Are saturated fats typically solid or liquid at room temperature? Saturated fats are typically solid at room temperature. What do we call fatty acids that the body requires but cannot synthesize? Essential fatty acids Describe omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in terms of the types of bonds between carbons, degree of saturation, and importance in the diet Omega-3 contain a carbon-carbon double bond between the third and fourth carbons from the omega end while Omega-6 contains a carbon-carbon double between the sixth and seventh carbon from the omega end. The ratio of Omega-3 to Omega-6 is important because they are important in processes such as blood pressure regulation, blood clotting, and immune function that affect the risk of heart disease. Bile, vitamin D, and hormones such as testosterone and estrogen are derived from what type of lipid? Sterols Which type of organism make cholesterol: animals or plants? Know the dietary sources of cholesterol. Animals What do emulsifiers do? What is the function of bile in triglyceride digestion? What do enzymes do? Is bile an enzyme? Emulsifiers are substances that allow water and fat to mix by breaking down large fat globules into smaller ones. The function of bile is to basically help with the absorption of fats and fat soluble substances. Enzymes basically are substances that are produced by the body to help with making certain reactions happen. Bile could be considered an enzyme because it does help make absorption of fat a little faster. Adipose tissue cells contain droplets of what type of lipid? A​dipose tissue cells contain large droplets of triglyceri​ . Having high levels of HDLs in the blood is associated with a reduced risk of what type of disease? Coronary Heart disease. 1 List the diseases that occur more frequently in populations with high fat diets than in populations with low fat diets ● Heart disease ● Certain types of cancer How are trans fats made? What are partially hydrogenated oils? What types of food items are most likely to contain trans fats? Trans fats are made through a process called hydrogenation. And food items that are high in trans fat​. What disease is associated with high levels of trans fats in our diets? Heart Disease What type of fatty acid (cis or trans) has carbon-carbon double bond with the H atoms on the same side of a double bond? A cis fatty acid has a carbon-carbon double bond with the H atoms on the same side of a double bond. A dietary factor that can protect against heart disease is the consumption of foods made with what type (saturated or unsaturated) of fats? Consuming foods made up of unsaturated foods can protect against heart disease. Know the dietary practices that help to protect a person from developing heart disease. ● Eat healthy ● Avoid trans fat Heart healthy diets such as the Mediterranean Diet encourage consumption of a large proportion of what types of foods? What types of things should be minimized according to this diet? Which is the heart healthier food, beef or fish? The diet encourages large amounts of Fruits and vegetables, grains, Olive oil, Beans, Nuts, Legumes, Seeds, and herbs and spices. But during this diet, things like meats and sweets should minimized. The heart healthier food is fish. Does the consumption of oats, flaxseed and nuts raise or lower LDL cholesterol? What effect, if any, do these foods have of HDL cholesterol? The consumption of oats, flaxseeds, and nuts lower LDL cholesterol. A strong correlation exists for colon cancer and diets high in what type of fats? High in Omega-3 fatty acids What is the most likely reason that high fat diets contribute to weight gain and obesity? 2 Because their diets may be high in trans fat and saturated fats which may cause the food to be stored in adipose tissue. Chapter 6 Proteins The basic building blocks of proteins are? Amino Acids Ketones are? Molecules that are formed in the liver when there isn’t sufficient carbohydrate to completely metabolize the two-carbon units produced from fat breakdown. The nutrient is found in plant protein foods and not in animal protein foods is? Fiber Protein differs from carbohydrate and lipid in that protein contains the element? Proteins are different from carbohydrates, lipids because they have nitrogen in them, while some may have sulfur as well. Carbohydrates and lipids don’t contain those elements. Describe the process for amino acid absorption? The process for amino acid absorption is when amino acids and di and tripeptides enter the mucosal cells of the small intestine using one of the many active transports. From there, similar structures of amino acid that share the same transport system must compete for absorption. Explain what causes protein food allergies? Food allergies can be triggered when a protein from the diet is absorbed and it isn’t totally digested. Basically it’s when the first time you eat a particular food item and it doesn’t digest, the second time you eat it, the body thinks of it as a foreign item and attacks it. Define: limiting amino acid The essential amino acid that is available in the lowest concentration in relation to the body’s needs. Describe Kwashiorkor and Marasmus Kwashiorkor- A form of protein energy malnutrition in which only protein is deficient. Marasmus- A form of protein-energy malnutrition in which deficiency of energy in the diet causes severe body wasting. What is considered in determining a person’s protein requirements? The weight of a person. Protein quality is defined as? Protein quality is defined as the measure of how efficiently a protein in the diet can be used to make body proteins. 3 Define: vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian, vegan Vegetarian- a person whose food intake only consists of plant based foods and eliminates some or all foods of animal origin. Lacto-ovo vegetarian- One who eats no animal flesh but eats eggs and and dairy products such as milk and cheese. Vegan-A person who doesn’t eat any animal products. Describe protein complementation The process of combining proteins from different sources so that they collectively provide the proportions of amino acids required to meet the body’s needs. Name the diseases/health conditions that vegetarians have a lower risk of developing ● Diabetes ● Cardiovascular disease ● High blood pressure ● Some types of cancer Describe the genetic disorder phenylketonuria (PKU). Which foods should individuals with phenylketonuria limit? Phenylketonuria- is an inherited disease in which the body can’t metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine. If it goes untreated, phenylketones (toxic waste products) will accumulate in the blood and mess with the development of the brain. They should avoid foods with aspartame, which include: ● Carbonated beverages ● Gelatin desserts ● Chewing gum Define: complete dietary protein Complete dietary protein- Protein that provides essential amino acids in the proportional needed amount to support protein synthesis. Focus on Eating Disorders _ What eating disorder is characterized by self-starvation, a distorted body image, and below-normal body weight? Anorexia Nervosa Eating disorders affect what percentage of girls and women in the United States between the ages of 18 and 30? 5.9% A defect in what gene may contribute to binge-eating disorder? Melanocortin 4 receptor gene What is meant by the term “body image”? 4 What’s meant by the term body image, is basically the way a person sees themselves in the mirror What are characteristics of anorexia nervosa? ● Severe weight loss ● Amenorrhea (a delayed onset of menstruation or absence of it for 3 or more months) ● Constipation ● Restlessness What are the physical complications of bulimia? ● Tooth decay ● Sores in the mouth and lips ● Swelling of the jaw and salivary glands ● Irritation of the throat ● Inflammation of esophagus ● Changes in stomach capacity and stomach emptying ● Broken blood vessels in face ● Electrolyte imbalance ● Dehydration ● Muscle weakness ● Menstruation irregularities Which of the following is the female athlete triad? ● Amenorrhea ● Osteoporosis ● Disordered eating What is the typical amount of kcalories consumed during a bulimic binge? 3400 Kcalories How long (number of hours) do bulimic binges usually last? Less than 2 hours Focus on Alcohol What percent of the alcohol consumed is metabolized by the liver? 90% An alcoholic beverage consists primarily of what components? Which of these is present in greatest quantity? ● Ethanol ● Water ● Melted sugars 5 Water is present in greater quantities. Compare the alcohol dehydrogenase and MEOS pathways. Which predominates when alcohol intake is large and which when intake is small? Which pathway is more harmful to the body? Alcohol dehydrogenase is when the alcohol intake is small and MEOS is when the alcohol intake is large. MEOS pathway is more harmful to the body. Alcohol metabolism produces fat which can be a problem when the fat accumulates in which organ of the body? Is it true that accumulation of fat at this site occurs only after months or even years of excessive alcohol consumption? Liver and yes its true List the benefits of moderate alcohol consumption. List the detriments. For women, “moderate” drinking means how many drinks per day? What is it for men? ● Reduce the formation of blood clots ● Reduces risk of heart disease Which body system is most effected by circulating (in the blood stream) alcohol? ● Liver ● Brain 6


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