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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Kendall Mansfield

Exam 2 Study Guide 1000

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Kendall Mansfield

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here's the filled out study guide for the test on Tuesday
Introduction to Anthropology
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kendall Mansfield on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1000 at Auburn University taught by Schuler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in ANTH at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
ANTH 1000 Exam 2 Review Guide – Fall 2016 The exam will be comprised of 50 questions:  multiple choice, matching, and true/false.   You will be tested on  materials from lectures, films, and readings (see the syllabus for specific reading assignments).  The exam will  emphasize the following key terms and concepts.  Be able to apply these concepts to the practice of  anthropology through examples from lecture, readings, labs and films. ** Note that the Kula review in class will be used to generate test questions. Topics from the review  session may be in addition to those found on this review guide. Archaeology (Lavenda Chapters 5­7; Angeloni; Lab 6 ­ Fringes of a Creek Community) Oldowan tradition: A stone­tool tradition named after the Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania), where the first  specimens of the oldest human tools were found (2­2.5 mya) Taphonomy: the study of the various processes that objects undergo in the course of becoming part of the fossil and archeological records Acheulean tradition: a Lower Paleolithic stone­tool tradtion associated with homo erectus and characterized  by stone bi­faces, or “hand axes” Early Stone Age (ESA):the name given to the period of Oldowan and Acheulean stone­tool traditions in Africa Mousterian Tradition: a middle Paleolithic stone­tool tradition associated with Neandertals in Europe and  southwestern Asia and with anatomically modern human beings in Africa Middle Stone Age (MSA): the name given to the period of Mousterian stone­tool tradition in Africa, 200,000  to 40,000 years ago Blades: stone tools that are at least twice as long as they are wide Composite tools: tools such as bows and arrows in which several different materials are combined(ex: stone,  wood, bone, ivory, antler) to produce the final working implement Archaeology: a cultural anthropology of the human past involving the analysis of material remains left behind  by earlier societies Material Culture: objects created or shaped by human beings and given meaning by cultural practices Archaeological record: Culture: key concept of US anthropology ­ “C”ulture: a learned, shared, way of life that includes technology, values, beliefs transmitted within a particular society from generation to generation ­ “c”ulture: a particular set of learned phenomena that relate to specific patterns of a group of people Processual archaeology: views archaeology as objective, empirical science and use mathematics to examine  distribution of material remains over space and time, as well as emphasize human adaptions to different  environments and social structure  Post­processual archaeology: emphasize human agency (decisions) and the power of ideas and values when  studying past cultures, stress symbolic and cognitive aspects of societies, examine power, domination, and  internal contradiction within a society from the archaeological record, and consider social relations and social  processes not only structure. Artifacts: objects that have been deliberately and intelligently shaped by human or near­human activity Features: non­portable remnants from the past, such as house walls or ditches Ecofacts: plant or animal remains that are byproducts of hominin activities Sites: a precise geographical location of the remains of past human activity Matrix: the physical medium that surrounds, holds, and supports archaeological remains Association: two or more objects found in the same matrix Provenance (provenience): the three­dimensional location of an object within the matrix Context: evaluation of what happened to an object after it entered the archaeological record Survey: the physical examination of a geographical region in which promising sites are most likely to be found Excavation: the systematic uncovering of archaeological remains through removal of the deposits of soil and  other material covering them and accompanying them Cataloging: involves classifying an object’s shape, material, and function ­ typologies Assemblage: artifacts and structures from a particular time and place in an archaeological site Archaeological Cultures: are constructed by grouping similar assemblages from many sites ­ Map similarities and differences across space ­ May be mistakenly assumed to represent a real social group Bands: the characteristic form of social organization found among foragers. Bands are small, usually no more  than 50 people, and labor is divided ordinarily on the basis of sex and age. All adults in band societies have  roughly equal access to whatever material or social valuables are locally available Tribes or tribal societies: a society that is generally larger than a band, whose members usually farm or herd­  living. Social relations in a tribe are still relatively egalitarian , although there may be a chief who speaks for the group or organizes certain group activities Chiefdoms: a form of social organization in which a leader (the chief) and close relatives are set apart from the  rest of society and allowed privileged access to wealth, power, and prestige. States: a stratified society that possesses a territory that is defended from outside enemies with an army and  from internal disorder with police. A state which has a separate set of governmental institutions designed to  enforce laws and to collect taxes and tribute, is run by an elite that possesses a monopoly use of force. Subsistence strategy: different ways people in different societies go about meeting their basic material survival needs Niche construction: when organisms actively perturb the environment in ways that modify the selection  pressures experienced by subsequent generations of organisms Domestication: human interference with the reproduction of another species, with the result that specific plants  and animals become more useful to people and dependent on them. Neolithic: the “New Stone Age” which began with the domestication of plants 10,300 years ago Sedentism: the process of increasingly permanent human habitation in one place Moundville: 2  largest ceremonial center of late prehistoric North America Late Woodland: (AD 500­900) hunter­foragers, low population densities and mobile populations, sexual  division of labor, bow hunting introduced Mississippian: (AD1000­1500) Maize becomes economically important, evidence of emerging sociopolitical  complexity  Agriculture: the systematic modification of the environments of plants and animals to increase their  productivity and usefulness  Grave goods: objects buried with a corpse Monumental architecture: architectural constructions of a greater than human scale, such as pyramids,  temples, and tombs. Social stratification: a form of social organization in which people have unequal access to power, wealth, and  prestige. Broad­spectrum collecting: a subsistence strategy based on collecting a wide range of plants and animals by  hunting, fishing, and gathering. Ecological niche: any species’ way of life; what it eats and how it finds mates, raises its young, relates to  companions, and protects itself from predators Egalitarian social relations: social relations in which no great differences in wealth, power, or prestige divide  members from one another Class: ranked group within a hierarchically stratified society whose membership is define primarily in terms of  wealth, occupation, or other economic criteria Complex societies: societies with large populations, an extensive division of labor, and occupational  specialization Occupational specialization: specialization in various occupations (ex: weaving or pot­making) or in new  social roles (king or priest) that is found in socially complex societies Surplus production: the production of amount of food that exceed the basic subsistence needs of the  population Critical Thinking Questions  What can archaeology tell us? o Archaeology can interpret cultural variation and cultural change deep into the past from the  archaeological record that reveals evidence for past forms of human culture that may no longer  exist today  What are the major killers of humanity and where do they come from? o Smallpox, flu, tuberculosis, malaria, plague, measles, and cholera, which are all infectious  diseases, that come from animals   How did most victims of war die before WWII?  o Most victims died of microbes than gunshots or sword wounds  What determined the winners of past wars? o The winner of a war was not determined by who had the best   What percentage of the pre­Columbian Indian population was killed by Spanish microbes? o Spanish microbes killed 95% of the pre­Columbian Indian population.  Why can’t “crowd diseases” sustain themselves in small bands of hunter­gatherers and slash and  burn farmers? o The diseases could not sustain themselves in the small bands of hunter­gatherers and slash and  burn farmers  What are some criticisms of Jared Diamond’s work, according to Anthropologists? o He picked facts that had to do with human’s over the course of time and their evolution  regarding the use of guns, germs, and steel but did not really reference the entire human  population, rather only a specific group of people  What is the “paleo” diet and criticisms? o The paleo diet is the return to a meat and produce based diet rather than processed foods o Criticism: excludes dairy and grains which are important for health Culture (Lavenda Chapter 8 and Module 3; Ishi film) Uni­lineal evolution: search for laws of human society Comparative Method: used meager and faulty data to classify universal laws for all people (political means) Survivals: other reasons that traits can occur in distinct groups (diffusion, independent inventation)  Franz Boas: Historical particularism: concerned primarily with collection of ethnographic data and the description of  particular cultures Holism: a characteristic of the anthropological perspective that describes, at the highest and most inclusive  level, how anthropology tries to integrate all that is known about human beings and their activities Cultural relativism: understanding another culture in its own terms sympathetically enough so that the culture  appears to be a coherent and meaningful design for living. Ethnocentrism: the opinion that one’s own way of life is natural or correct and, indeed, the only true way of  being fully human Salvage ethnography: attempt to study and record as many cultures as possible before they disappear Bronislaw Malinowski: British researcher who was traveling to Australia at the start of WWI – stayed on the  Trobriand Islands for 2 years Participant observation: living among the people being studied Functionalism: culture serves to fulfill the needs of individual psychological reductionism Structural­Functionalism: social facts are real and can be collected – cannot be reduced to psychology Structuralism (French): focuses on the underlying patterns of human thought that produce categories  Human agency: the way people struggle, often against great odds, to exercise some control some control over  their lives Symbol: something that stands for something else. A symbol signals the presence of an important domain of  experience Critical Thinking Questions  Why is the culture concept important? o The culture concept is important because culture is a central unifying concept in anthropology  that:  Represents patterns of learned behavior and ideas  Individuals acquire culture as members of society  Builds on earlier generations, but the heritage  Can borrow elements from other societies (diffusion)  And no other living organism relies on culture as their principle of navigating the world  What are the five key attributes of human culture that were highlighted in Lavenda Ch 8? o Learned o Shared o Patterned o Adaptive o Symbolic  What do anthropologists mean by holism? o Holism for anthropologists is preferable to dualistic or deterministic views about human culture  and argues that objects and environments interpenetrate and define each other  Explain ethnocentrism and cultural relativism. o Cultural Relativism: no cultural traditions are inherently inferior or superior o Ethnocentrism: practice of judging another culture by your own standards  Who was Ishi?   o Discuss his tribal affiliation and cultural background: he was the very last of his tribe and  was studied closely to learn about his culture of hunting and tribal stories and song traditions o What were the effects of “civilization” on Ishi?  Effects of civilization on Ishi were overwhelming. He was shocked by the number of  people, and the ease of their lives. Ishi was featured as an exhibit in the anthropology  museum. Ishi was sick, because he had no immunity to any European diseases. Ishi  adapted well however, and slowly learned English. He learned many things, and made  friends  Be able to identify some examples of ethnocentrism.


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