Sociology Study Guide Exam #2
Sociology Study Guide Exam #2 SOC 1004
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by P'Trice Notetaker on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Neal King in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Organizations, Societies, and the Global Domain Organizations: A collective purposely constructed to achieve particular ends; ex. College, corporations. Bureaucracy: A highly rational organization characterized by efficiency; Key element of Weber’s theory of the rationalization of the western world. Domination: The probability or likelihood that commands will be obeyed by subordinates; degrees can be weak or strong. Authority: A particular type of domination: legitimate domination. Rational Legal Authority: Authority that is legitimated on the basis of legally enacted rules and the right of those with authority under those rules to issue commands; ex. President of the US, professors. Traditional Authority: Authority based on a belief in long-running traditions; ex. Pope. Charismatic Authority: Authority based on the devotion of the followers to what they define as the exceptional characteristics, such as heroism, of the leaders; ex. Dr. King, Gandhi. Bounded Rationality: Rationality limited by, among other things, instabilities and conflicts within most, if not all, organizations, as well as by the limited human capacity to think and act in a rational manner. Bureaucratic Personality: A type of bureaucrat who slavishly follows the rules of the organization to such an extent that the ability to achieve organizational goals is subverted; ex. Admissions clerk at hospital makes patients fill out so many medical forms that they do not get medical care promptly. Informal Organization: An organization as it really functions as opposed to the way it is intended to function. Oligarchy: An organization led by a small group of people who illegitimately acquire and exercise far more power than they are entitled to have; ex. Communist Party in Soviet Russia or China. Sexual Harassment: Unwanted sexual attention that takes place in the workplace of other settings. Outsourcing: The transfer of activities once performed by one organization to another organization in exchange for money. Offshore Outsourcing: The transfer of work to organizations in other countries; ex. Call center work. Network Organization: A new organizational form that is flat and horizontal; is intertwined with other organizations; is run and managed in very different ways than traditional organizations; uses more flexible production methods; and is composed of a series of interconnected nodes; ex. TV, home computers. Networks: “Interconnected nodes” that are open, capable of unlimited expansion, dynamic, and able to innovate without disrupting the system in which they exist. Informationalism: The processing of knowledge. Gemeinschaft Societies: Traditional societies characterized by face to face relations; small, intimate interactions. Gesellschaft Societies: Modern societies characterized by impersonal, distant, and limited social, relationships; enter relationship on what you can gain. Risk Society: A society whose central issue is preventing, minimizing, and channeling risk; how to remain safe in in the face of increasing risk. Nation: A group of people who share similar cultural, religious, ethnic, linguistic, and territorial characteristics. State: A political body organized for government and civil rule, with relatively autonomous officeholders and with its own rules and resources coming largely from taxes; ex. US Government. Nation-State: The combination of a nation with a geographic and political structure; encompasses both the populations that define themselves as a nation with various shared characteristic and the organizational structure of the state; ex. Israel. Landscapes: Fluid, irregular, and variable global flows that produce different results throughout the world; involve flow of people and ideas. Ethnoscapes: Landscapes that involve the movement, or fantasies about movement, of various individuals and groups; ex. Tourists, refugees, immigrants. Technoscapes: landscapes that involve mechanical and informational technologies, as well as the material that moves quickly and freely through them; ex. Internet, refrigerators, emails. Financescapes: Landscapes that involve the use of various financial instruments to allow huge sum of money and other things of economic value to move into and across nations and around the world at great speed, almost instantaneously; ex. The great global economic meltdown. Mediascapes: Landscapes that involve the electronic capability to produce and transmit information and images around the world; ex Crime & Deviance Deviance: Any action, belief, or human characteristic that members of a society or a social group consider a violation of group norms and for which the violator is likely to be censured or punished. Conformists: People who accept both cultural goals and the traditional means of achieving those goals; ex making money through hard work. Innovators: Individuals who accept cultural goals but reject conventional means of achieving success; ex. Bernie Madoff or Shaun White. Ritualists: Individuals who realize that they will not be able to achieve cultural goals, but who nonetheless continue to engage in the conventional behavior associated with such success; ex. Low level employee. Retreatists: Individuals who reject both cultural goals and the traditional routes to their attainment; they have completely given up on attaining success within the system. Ex. Theodore Kaczynski the “Unabomber” Rebels: Individuals who reject both traditional means and goals and instead substitute nontraditional goals and means to those goals. Ex. Ernesto Guevara chose to assist Fidel Castro. Social Control Theory: A theory that focuses on the reasons why people do not commit deviant acts and the stake people have in engaging in conformist behavior; Travis Hirschi; people are less likely to commit deviant acts if they have a variety of social bonds. Symbol: A word, gesture, or object that stands in for something or someone. Ex. Labeling someone. Social Control Agents: Those who label a person as deviant. Ex. Police, psychiatrists, friends, family, media. Labeling Theory: A theory contending that a deviant is someone to whom a deviant label has been successfully applied; the way the person labeled deviant is affected by the label; how people react to the label. Primary Deviance: Early, no patterned acts of deviance or an act here or there that is considered to be strange or out of the ordinary; rarely lead to the successful application of deviant label. Secondary Deviance: Deviant acts that persist, become more common, and eventually cause people to organize their lives and personal identities around their deviant status. Ex. Sex addiction. Social Control: The process by which a group or society enforces conformity to its demands and expectations; accomplished through creation and application of rules and labels; leads to rule creators. Rule Creators: Individuals who devise society’s rules, norms, and laws; would be no deviance without them. Rule Enforcers: Individuals who threaten to, or actually, enforce the rules. Moral Entrepreneurs: Individuals or groups who come to define an act as a moral outrage and who lead a campaign to have it defined as deviant and to have it made illegal and therefore subject to legal enforcement. Ex. Drugs. Moral Panic: A widespread, but disproportionate, reaction to a form of deviance. Ex. Threat posed by immigrants, witch craze. Stigma: A characteristic that others find, define, and often label as unusual, unpleasant, or deviant; Erving Goffman; ex. Being of welfare. Discredited Stigma: A stigma that the affected individual assumes is already known about or readily apparent. Ex. Having a lost limb. Discreditable Stigma: A stigma that the affected individual assumes is neither known about nor immediately perceivable. Ex. Done poorly in school or been to prison. Crime: A violation of the criminal law; violates the law differentiates crime from other forms of deviance. Criminology: The study of all aspects of crime; many criminologists are sociologists. Differential Association: A theory that focuses on the fact people learn criminal behavior from those with whom they associate; who a person associates with is crucial. Parole: The supervised early release of a prisoner for such things as good behavior while in prison; If violated, they can be sent back to prison. Probation: A system by which those who are convicted of less serious crimes may be released into the community, but under supervision and under certain conditions such as being involved in and completing a substance abuse program; if violated, offender can be arrested or convicted. Specific Deterrence: Whether the experience of punishment in general, and incarceration in particular, makes it less likely that an individual will commit crimes in the future; If someone can be scared straight. Recidivism: The repetition of a criminal act by one who has been convicted for an offense; prisons can lead to more rather than less crime. General Deterrence: The deterrence of the population as a whole from committing crimes for fear that the members will be punished or imprisoned for their crimes; ex. No evidence that capital punishment is not a strong general deterrent of crime. Violent Crime: The threat of injury or the threat or actual use of force, including murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault, as well as terrorism and, globally, war crimes. Property Crimes: Crimes that do not involve injury or force, but rather are offenses that involve gaining or destroying property. Ex. Shoplifting, forgery, burglary, arson; about ¾ of all crime in US. Felonies: Serious crimes punishable by a year or more in prison. Misdemeanors: Minor offenses punishable by imprisonment of less than a year. WhiteCollar Crimes: Crimes committed by responsible and usually high social status people in the course of their work. Corporate Crimes: Violations of the law by legal organizations, including antitrust violations and stock market violations. Ex. Insider trading or false advertisements. Organized Crime: A type of crime that may involve various types of organizations but is most often associated with syndicated organized crime that uses violence or threats and the corruption of public officials to profit from illegal activities. Ex. Mexican drug cartels or Russian mafia. Political Crime: Either an illegal offense against the state to affect its policies, or an offense by the state, either domestically or internationally. Ex. Assassination of JFK, state sponsored terrorism, bribery of foreign official. Hate Crimes: Crimes that stem from the fact the victims are in various ways different from, and disesteemed by, the perpetuators. Ex. Race, religion, sexual orientation, gender, disability; victims are held in contempt by the perpetuators. Cybercrime: Crime that targets computers, uses computers to commit traditional crimes, or transmits illegal information and images. Ex. Hacking, steal from bank accounts, child pornography, cyberterrorism. Consumer Crime: Crimes related to consumption, including shoplifting and using stolen credit cards or credit card numbers. Social Stratification Social Stratification: Hierarchical differences and inequalities in economic positions, as well as in other important areas, especially political power and status, or social honor; profound effect on how monetary and nonmonetary resources are distributed in American society and around the globe. Social Class: One’s economic position in the stratification system, especially one’s occupation, which strongly determines and reflects one’s income and wealth; Ex. Bill Gates and Warren Buffett belong to one social class & the janitor belongs to another; upper class, middle class, working class, lower class. Power: the ability to get others to do what you want them to do, even if it is against their will. Greater power ranks high in social stratification system (president). Inequality: The fact that some positions in society yield a great deal of money, status, and power while others yield little, if any, of these; largely based on money in the US. Income: The amount of money a person earns in a given year from a job, a business, or various types of assets and investments; generally measured year by year. Wealth: The total amount of a person’s assets less the total of various kinds of debts, or liabilities. Poverty Lines: The threshold, in terms of income, below which a household is considered poor; Set by the Social Security Administration in the US; multiply cost of what is deemed to be a nutritionally adequate food plan by three. Social Mobility: The ability or inability to change one’s position in the social hierarchy. Vertical Mobility: Both upward and downward mobility; the ability to move higher of lower levels within their social class. Horizontal Mobility: Movement within one’s social class; ex. Plumber becomes a taxi driver or a CEO becoming CEO of a larger corporation. Intergenerational Mobility: The difference between the parents’ social class position and the position achieved b their children; ex. Children who rise higher or descend lower in the social stratification system then their parents. Intragenerational Mobility: Movement up or down the stratification system in one’s life. Occupational Mobility: Changes in people’s work either across or within generations; ex. Difference between a man’s occupation and that of his father. Structural Mobility: The effect of changes in the larger society on the position of individuals in the stratification system, especially the occupational structure; ex. China changing from communist to capitalist economy has created increase in structural mobility since more higher-level positions are available. Achievement: The accomplishments, or the merit, of individuals; where a person is in the stratification system may have little to do with achievement. Ascription: Being born with or inheriting certain characteristics (wealth, high status, race, gender, etc); little to do with a person’s accomplishments. Caste: The most rigid and most closed system of stratification based on ascription, usually associated with India. Slavery: A system in which people are defined as property, involuntarily placed in perpetual servitude, and not given the same rights as the rest of society. Distinction: The need to distinguish oneself from others; Pierre Bourdieu; Race and Ethnicity Race: A social definition based on shared lineage and a real or presumed physical, biological characteristic, such as skin color; more about what people define it to be than it is about any basic physical differences. Ethnicity: A social definition based on a real or presumed cultural characteristic such as language, religion, traditions, and cultural practices. Ethnic Groups: Groups typically defined on the basis of some cultural characteristic such as language, religion, traditions, and cultural practices; sense of shared origins, relatively clear boundaries, and tend to endure over time; boundaries are recognized by both insider and outsiders. Hypodescent Rule: A law or judicial ruling that classified persons with even one nonwhite ancestor, or a nonwhite ancestor within a certain number of generations, as black or colored. Majority-Minority Population: A population in which more than 50 percent of the members are part of a minority group; ex. California, Texas, Hawaii, New Mexico, D.C. Minority Group: A group in a subordinate position in terms of wealth, power, and prestige (status). Majority Group: A group in a dominant position along the dimensions of wealth, power, and prestige. Stereotype: An exaggerated generalization about an entire category of people; frequently appear in daily social interaction. Prejudice: Negative attitudes, beliefs, and feelings toward minorities. Discrimination: The unfavorable treatment of black Americans and other minorities, either formally or informally, simply because of their race or some other such characteristic. Pluralism: The coexistence of many groups without any of them losing their individual qualities; ex. Pluralistic societies there might be multiple religions worshipped and many languages spoken. Assimilation: The integration of minorities into the dominant culture and leave their old ways behind; ex. Immigrants in US choose to give up their native language for English. Segregation: The physical and social separation of majority and minority group. Genocide: An active, systematic attempt to eliminate an entire group of people; final outcome of majority-minority group relations. Racism: Defining a group as a race and attributing negative characteristics to that group, and then creating the circumstances that keep group at a disadvantage relative to the majority. Xenophobia: Prejudices that cause people to reject, exclude, and vilify groups that are outsiders or foreigners to the dominant social group. White Racial Frame: An array of racist ideas, racial stereotypes, racialized stories and tales, racist images, powerful racial emotions, and various inclinations to discriminate against blacks; ex. “gangsta” style being identified as black culture. Hegemony: The subordination by one race (or other group) of another, more on the basis of dominant ideas, especially about cultural differences, than through material constraints. Institutional Racism: Race-based discrimination that results from day-to- day operation of social institutions and social structures and their rules, policies, and practices; “systematic” within society, especially American society and its most important and powerful social structures. Diaspora: Dispersal, typically involuntary, or a racial or ethnic population from it is traditional homeland and over a wide geographic area; major factor in decline in nation-based ethnic identity. Orientalism: A set of ideas and texts produced in the West that served as the basis for dominating, controlling, and exploiting the Orient (the East) and its many minority groups. Expulsion: Removal of a minority group from a territory, either by forcible ejection through military and other government action or by “voluntary” emigration due to the majority’s harassment, discrimination, and persecution. Direct Expulsion: minority ethnic groups are ejected by the majority through military or government action. Voluntary Expulsion: A minority group leaves of its own volition because it is being harassed, discriminated against, and persecutes. Ethnic Cleansing: The establishment by the dominant group of policies that allow or require the forcible removal of people of another ethnic group. . Youtube, global filmakers. Ideoscapes: Landscapes that involve images, largely political images, that are often in line with the ideologies of nation-states; may be disseminated through mediascapes and technoscapes.
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