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Modern Biology II- Study Guide 2

by: Angela O.

Modern Biology II- Study Guide 2 BIO 1421 - 005

Marketplace > Texas State University > Science > BIO 1421 - 005 > Modern Biology II Study Guide 2
Angela O.
Texas State

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About this Document

This study guide covers what will be on our second exam (topics 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9).
Modern Biology II
Kavita S. Kakirde
Study Guide
Science, Biology, Bacteria, Viruses, protists, archaea
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela O. on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1421 - 005 at Texas State University taught by Kavita S. Kakirde in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Modern Biology II in Science at Texas State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Modern Biology II­ Exam 2 What event may have sparked the formation of our solar system?  Super nova Spontaneous generation:  “life arose from non­life”  Maggots were thought to arise from meat o Disproved by Redi in 1668 Prebiotic chemical evolution: preceded appearance of first life forms on earth  No air (no oxygen or ozone)  High amounts of water, methane, hydrogen, ammonia  High UV rays  Meteorite strikes  Volcanic eruptions, lightning storms  Prebiotic simulation: 1950s­ formed organic molecules in simulation in only a few days Evolutionary timeline: Prokaryotic anaerobes  photosynthesis  prokaryotic aerobes  eukaryotes  multicellular  algae animals (Invertebrates, Vertebrates) plants on land (obstacles, advantages)  animals on land (Invertebrates & lobefin fish)  amphibians  reptiles (adaptations) birds & mammals Human timeline: Primates­ opposable thumbs, flat nails, binocular vision, color vision, large brain Hominins­ humans and extinct human­like primates st Australopithecines: 1  well­known hominin line  Come from Kenya­ bipedal, upright Homo diverged from australopithecines  Homo habilis  Larger brains, larger bodies, long arms and short legs, used tools Homo ergaster  More proportionate limbs Homo erectus  First to leave Africa  Used tools   Spread throughout Asia  Unknown extinction Neanderthals: migrated to Europe, DNA different from us by 0.12% Homo sapiens  Modern humans  Developed 150,000 years ago  Africans more diverse than Asians and Europeans  Clothing eating lice can tell how long ago we started wearing clothes. Taxonomy: branch of biology that names and classifies organisms  Scientific names are necessary to maintain consistency in literature, and are unique and  recognized worldwide. Domain­Kingdom­Phylum­Class­Order­Family­Genus­Species Viruses:  Contain DNA or RNA and a protein coat  Not a cell  No cell membrane or cytoplasm  Very small  Replicates inside host cell  Host cell bursts and releases new particles  Each virus only uses a specific type of cell  Mutations allow it to jump species  Prevention: o Immunity from previous infection o Fever fights off infection o Vaccinations o Antibodies bind to antigens Viroid: infectious particles, ONLY RNA, affects plants Prion: infectious proteins, LACK nucleic acid, form complexes in brain tissue Prokaryotes:  Domains­ bacteria and archaea  Single cells  No nucleus  Small  Grow rapidly  Spherical, rod, or spiral shaped  Live everywhere  Single chromosome, plasmids  Binary fission  Conjugation: DNA exchange involves direct contact Differences between Bacteria and Archaea:  Molecular and structurally  Metabolism (archaea produce methane)  Archaea cannot undergo photosynthesis (all heterotrophs)  Some bacteria are pathogenic  Bacteria contain peptidoglycan  Bacteria­ Gram positive (thick)/ Gram negative (thin)  Biofilms= communities of slime secreting bacteria on a surface Endospores­ resistant to extreme temperatures Good prokaryotes:  Nutrition  Recycling  Bioremediation  Nitrogen fixation Bad prokaryotes:  Food spoilage  Illness  Disease Protists: any organism that is a eukaryote, but not an animal, plant or fungi Protists used to be one kingdom, but now classified into 3 categories: animal­like, plant­like and  fungi­like. Can be:  Single vs. multicellular  Terrestrial vs. aquatic o Live in soil, trees, or rocks vs. water  Motile vs. stationary o Some have flagella, some have cell walls  Asexual vs. sexual reproduction  Autotrophic vs. heterotrophic o Some are both o Heterotrophs absorb nutrients through cell membrane or ingest food (free­living  or parasite) Good protists:  Photosynthesis, food sources, commercial uses Bad protists:  Pathogens, ecological damage


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