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Anatomy and Physiology Midterm Study Guide

by: Cheyenne

Anatomy and Physiology Midterm Study Guide Biol 3320

Marketplace > Bowling Green State University > Biology > Biol 3320 > Anatomy and Physiology Midterm Study Guide
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About this Document

This study guide is for our Midterm Exam, it covers the subjects of Blood, The Heart, The Lymphatic System, and the Respiratory System, going in depth on each topic as discussed in class. The study...
Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Lee Meserve
Study Guide
Blood, bloodflow, midterm, Midterm Study Guide, respirtory, LYMPHATIC SYSTEM, Heart, anatomy, Anatomy & Physiology II
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cheyenne on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 3320 at Bowling Green State University taught by Lee Meserve in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Bowling Green State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
1 Anatomy and Physiology Mid­Term Study Guide Homeostatic Controls  Afferent pathways: bring the signal to CNS o Sensory Neurons  Effect Pathways: bring signal out from CNS o Motor Neurons o Muscles and Glands  Muscle Types  Visceral/Smooth Muscle: Involuntary   Skeletal Muscle: Voluntary, Banding, Branching  Cardiac Muscle: Most Involuntary, Branching  The Heart Heart Contraction Signal Pathway  1 .     Sinoatrial Node: Pacemaker of the heart, nervous system input (autonomic)  2 .     Atrioventricular Node:   3 .     AV Bundle/Bundle of HIS:   4 .     Bundle Branches:   5 .     Purkinjie Fibers:  a.   To papillary muscles  Heart Rhythm  Atria the ventricles contact (depolarize) o Ventricles are stronger muscles because gravity is not assisting them   Isovolumetric Contraction: All four valves are closed at once, there is equal blood in the chambers  Heart Sounds o  LUBB: Atrioventricular Valve Close (tricuspid/mitral) o DUBB: Semilunar Valve Closes  P­Wave: Depolarization of the Atria  QRC Chamber: Atria will relax, and the Ventricles Contract therefor depolarization of Ventricles   T­Wave: Repolarization of the ventricles   Lubb Sound: Atrioventricular valves close (tricuspid and mitral)  Dubb Sound: Semilunar valve closes Heart Anatomy Layers 1. Pericardium: tough membrane that surrounds and protects the heart, anchor to mediastinum a. Fibrow Pericardium b. Serous Pericardium (double layer with fluid inside) 2. Epicedium: Adheres to the surface of the heart a. Made of connective tissue 3. Myocardium: Muscle  4. Endocardium: Lines the chambers 2 Blood Flow 1. Superior Vena Cava 2. Right Pulmonary Artery 3. Right Pulmonary Vein 4. Right Atrium 5. Tricuspid 6. Right Ventricle 7. Inferior Vena Cava 8. Apex 9. Left Ventricle 10. Bicuspid 11. Pulmonary Semilunar Vein 12. Left Atrium 13. Left Pulmonary Vein 14. Left Pulmonary Artery 15. Aorta  Atrium: first part of the heart where blood enters  Auricles: flaps on the outside of the heart vs Atria: cavity on the inside of each of the upper chambers  Interventiruclar Suculus: Grove on outside of heart  Heart Problems  Myocardial Infarction: Heart Attack, Cardiac muscle cell death, heart not strong enough for pumping   Angina  Coronary Embolism: Blood clot that formed elsewhere and moves to block a coronary artery  Coronary Occlusion: Partial or complete obstruction of blood flow in a coronary artery  sent are placed  Atherosclerosis: Fatty buildup in a supply vessel  Mitral Prolapse: Cusps of the mitral valve turn inside out  Mitral Stenosis: Mitral valve doesn’t open as wide as it needs too  Endocarditis: Inflammation of a value or lining  Patent Foramen Ovale: Hole in atrial septum  Patent Ductus Arteriousus: Ligamentum Arteriousus doesn’t close letting pulmonary trunk blood to mix  with the aorta 3       Torn Cusp: Cooing Murmur  Cardiac Ischemia: Lack of blood flow, lack oxygen to heart muscle   Bradycardia: Less than 60 BPM  Sinus: Normal Rhythm ~80 BPM  Fibrillation: Asynchronous contraction of chambers  Tachycardia: More than 100 BPM Blood Blood Pressure  Measured with sphygmomanometer in mmHg  Average BP: 120/80 Systolic/Diastolic  Poisulle’s Equation   Modifying Flow:  o Increase or Decrease Heart Rate by increasing sympathetic or decreasing  parasympathetic o Stroke Volume, Look at viscosity and vessel  diameter  o Blood Vessels  Supply Vessels: High Pressure, High Resistance ** Aneurism can happen here **  Bolus Pump- has to bounce back from a large pump of blood  Contains a lot of elastic lamina, and smooth muscle to regulate blood flow o Tunica Interna: endothelium, basement membrane, internal elastic lamina o Tunica Media: Smooth muscle, external elastic lamina o Tunica Externa: Anchors the vessel o Large Arteries: Most elastic lamina o Medium Arteries: Muscular Arteries 4 o Small/Resistance Arteries: Most smooth muscle o Metarterioles: Have Sphincter  Return Vessels: Low pressure, low resistance  Same Three Layers with no elastic lamina, little muscle o Large Veins: Most tunica media o Medium Veins: Have VALVES o Small/Muscular Venules: Most smooth muscle o Venules: Super thin walled  Exchange Vessels: Capillaries o Complete: Least leaky, endothelium goes all the way around o Fenestrated: Kidneys, small pores o Sinusoids: Liver, largest pores, super leaky  Where is my blood right now? o 84% in systemic  15% arteries  64% veins  5% capillaries o 9% in pulmonary o 7% in heart Components of Blood  Blood is a tissue made of formed elements and matrix Blood Plasma (Matrix 55%) o Mostly water o Serum = Plasma – Clotting Factors o Proteins  Albumin is most abundant  Alcohol causes low amounts, needed in osmosis  Globulin  Antibodies = gamma globulin o Formed Elements  Erythrocytes  RBC’s 120 days  Move oxygen in the body  Sickle cell = shitty RBC  Leukocytes  WBC  Granular o Neutrophils – most abundant, bacterial infection, burns, stress o Eosinophil – Parasitic infection, allergic reaction o Basophil – Cancer and allergic reactions  Agranular o Lymphocyte – Viral Infection, AIDS (helper T) o Monocyte – largest, becomes macrophage, fungal infection  Platelets/Thrombocytes  Megakaryocytes  Hemostasis: Preventing blood loss 5 o Vascular Spasm  Vasoconstriction due to puncture in vessel  Collagen fibers attract platelets o Platelet Plug Formation  Platelets get sticky with each other o Coagulation  Extrinsic: May not always require platelets, produces Thromboplastin  Intrinsic: Clotting factors produce  Both: Prothrombinase converts prothrombin to thrombin  fibrogen  fibrin (not soluble)  Agglutination: Requires antigen and specific antibodies o Rh Factor: = + or – is the smaller IgG o Universal Donor: o- o Universal Recipient: AB+ Erythroblastosis Fetalis: o Mom – Dad + o Baby 1+ o Mom makes antibodies o Baby 2+ gets attached Hemolytic Disease o RBC Fragments formed Pluripotent Stem Cells o Come from the bone marrow o Can become any formed element Immune System  Non-Specific Immunity: Skin, substances that lyse the microorganisms, virus  Specific Immunity o Natural Active Immunity: being exposed to crap, making your own antibodies, Mumps o Artificial Active Immunity: Purposely exposed to create own antibodies, Vaccine o Natural Passive Immunity: Moms antibodies passed down to kid, breast milk o Artificial Passive Immunity: Given someone else’s antibodies, gamma globulin  T-lymphocytes: Mature in Thymus B-lymphocytes: Mature in Bone Marrow o Antigen binds directly to B cell o Become plasma cells and secrete antibodies  Cytotoxic T-Cell (killer T-Cells) o Kill foreign cells  Primary Immune Response  Primarily IgM 6  Secondary Immune Response  Primarily IGG, stay in lymph nodes  Chemotaxis: Attracting Neutrophils Lymphatic System  Lymph Capillaries: single celled, have valves 1. Lymph comes from interstitial fluid  Thoracic Lymph Duct: empties into left jugular and subclavian vein 1. Whole left and right lower sections  Right Lymph Duct: Upper right side of body only, right jugular and subclavian vein  How Does Lymph Move? 1. New lymph moves old lymph 2. Pulsing vessels along lymph vessels 3. Skeletal muscles push 4. Respiratory Pressures  Lymph Nodes: contain lymphocytes  Spleen: removes old RBC  Thymus Gland  Tonsils  Diapedesis: Process where neutrophils leave capillaries and go to damaged tissue Breathing  Total Lung Capacity = 5,900 mL  Residual: when you exhale as much as possible o 1200 left in your lung  Vital Capacity: Max air in and out o Tidal: relaxed 500mL o Inspiratory: max after resting 3000 mL o Expiratory: max after resting 1200 mL  Inhaling Muscles o Thoracic pressure down, contract diaphragm, external intercostal  Boyles Law: smaller the cavity, the more the pressure  Exhaling Muscles o Thoracic pressure up, relax diaphragm, internal intercostal  Emphysema: Clog alveoli until they blow out  Pneumonia: Alveoli filled with liquid Respiratory Anatomy  Upper Tract o Nasal Cavities above hard palate  Capillaries moderate air temperature into the lungs o Pharynx – throat  Lower Tract o Larynx – voice box  Thyroid cartilage like a shield  Cricoid cartilage goes all the way around o Trachea  Cartilage rings o Bronchi  Bronchioles 7 o Alveoli  Surfactant adds surface tension  Thin enough to allow O2 and Co2 to go through


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