Anatomy and Physiology Midterm Study Guide
Anatomy and Physiology Midterm Study Guide Biol 3320
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cheyenne on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 3320 at Bowling Green State University taught by Lee Meserve in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
1 Anatomy and Physiology MidTerm Study Guide Homeostatic Controls Afferent pathways: bring the signal to CNS o Sensory Neurons Effect Pathways: bring signal out from CNS o Motor Neurons o Muscles and Glands Muscle Types Visceral/Smooth Muscle: Involuntary Skeletal Muscle: Voluntary, Banding, Branching Cardiac Muscle: Most Involuntary, Branching The Heart Heart Contraction Signal Pathway 1 . Sinoatrial Node: Pacemaker of the heart, nervous system input (autonomic) 2 . Atrioventricular Node: 3 . AV Bundle/Bundle of HIS: 4 . Bundle Branches: 5 . Purkinjie Fibers: a. To papillary muscles Heart Rhythm Atria the ventricles contact (depolarize) o Ventricles are stronger muscles because gravity is not assisting them Isovolumetric Contraction: All four valves are closed at once, there is equal blood in the chambers Heart Sounds o LUBB: Atrioventricular Valve Close (tricuspid/mitral) o DUBB: Semilunar Valve Closes PWave: Depolarization of the Atria QRC Chamber: Atria will relax, and the Ventricles Contract therefor depolarization of Ventricles TWave: Repolarization of the ventricles Lubb Sound: Atrioventricular valves close (tricuspid and mitral) Dubb Sound: Semilunar valve closes Heart Anatomy Layers 1. Pericardium: tough membrane that surrounds and protects the heart, anchor to mediastinum a. Fibrow Pericardium b. Serous Pericardium (double layer with fluid inside) 2. Epicedium: Adheres to the surface of the heart a. Made of connective tissue 3. Myocardium: Muscle 4. Endocardium: Lines the chambers 2 Blood Flow 1. Superior Vena Cava 2. Right Pulmonary Artery 3. Right Pulmonary Vein 4. Right Atrium 5. Tricuspid 6. Right Ventricle 7. Inferior Vena Cava 8. Apex 9. Left Ventricle 10. Bicuspid 11. Pulmonary Semilunar Vein 12. Left Atrium 13. Left Pulmonary Vein 14. Left Pulmonary Artery 15. Aorta Atrium: first part of the heart where blood enters Auricles: flaps on the outside of the heart vs Atria: cavity on the inside of each of the upper chambers Interventiruclar Suculus: Grove on outside of heart Heart Problems Myocardial Infarction: Heart Attack, Cardiac muscle cell death, heart not strong enough for pumping Angina Coronary Embolism: Blood clot that formed elsewhere and moves to block a coronary artery Coronary Occlusion: Partial or complete obstruction of blood flow in a coronary artery sent are placed Atherosclerosis: Fatty buildup in a supply vessel Mitral Prolapse: Cusps of the mitral valve turn inside out Mitral Stenosis: Mitral valve doesn’t open as wide as it needs too Endocarditis: Inflammation of a value or lining Patent Foramen Ovale: Hole in atrial septum Patent Ductus Arteriousus: Ligamentum Arteriousus doesn’t close letting pulmonary trunk blood to mix with the aorta 3 Torn Cusp: Cooing Murmur Cardiac Ischemia: Lack of blood flow, lack oxygen to heart muscle Bradycardia: Less than 60 BPM Sinus: Normal Rhythm ~80 BPM Fibrillation: Asynchronous contraction of chambers Tachycardia: More than 100 BPM Blood Blood Pressure Measured with sphygmomanometer in mmHg Average BP: 120/80 Systolic/Diastolic Poisulle’s Equation Modifying Flow: o Increase or Decrease Heart Rate by increasing sympathetic or decreasing parasympathetic o Stroke Volume, Look at viscosity and vessel diameter o Blood Vessels Supply Vessels: High Pressure, High Resistance ** Aneurism can happen here ** Bolus Pump- has to bounce back from a large pump of blood Contains a lot of elastic lamina, and smooth muscle to regulate blood flow o Tunica Interna: endothelium, basement membrane, internal elastic lamina o Tunica Media: Smooth muscle, external elastic lamina o Tunica Externa: Anchors the vessel o Large Arteries: Most elastic lamina o Medium Arteries: Muscular Arteries 4 o Small/Resistance Arteries: Most smooth muscle o Metarterioles: Have Sphincter Return Vessels: Low pressure, low resistance Same Three Layers with no elastic lamina, little muscle o Large Veins: Most tunica media o Medium Veins: Have VALVES o Small/Muscular Venules: Most smooth muscle o Venules: Super thin walled Exchange Vessels: Capillaries o Complete: Least leaky, endothelium goes all the way around o Fenestrated: Kidneys, small pores o Sinusoids: Liver, largest pores, super leaky Where is my blood right now? o 84% in systemic 15% arteries 64% veins 5% capillaries o 9% in pulmonary o 7% in heart Components of Blood Blood is a tissue made of formed elements and matrix Blood Plasma (Matrix 55%) o Mostly water o Serum = Plasma – Clotting Factors o Proteins Albumin is most abundant Alcohol causes low amounts, needed in osmosis Globulin Antibodies = gamma globulin o Formed Elements Erythrocytes RBC’s 120 days Move oxygen in the body Sickle cell = shitty RBC Leukocytes WBC Granular o Neutrophils – most abundant, bacterial infection, burns, stress o Eosinophil – Parasitic infection, allergic reaction o Basophil – Cancer and allergic reactions Agranular o Lymphocyte – Viral Infection, AIDS (helper T) o Monocyte – largest, becomes macrophage, fungal infection Platelets/Thrombocytes Megakaryocytes Hemostasis: Preventing blood loss 5 o Vascular Spasm Vasoconstriction due to puncture in vessel Collagen fibers attract platelets o Platelet Plug Formation Platelets get sticky with each other o Coagulation Extrinsic: May not always require platelets, produces Thromboplastin Intrinsic: Clotting factors produce Both: Prothrombinase converts prothrombin to thrombin fibrogen fibrin (not soluble) Agglutination: Requires antigen and specific antibodies o Rh Factor: = + or – is the smaller IgG o Universal Donor: o- o Universal Recipient: AB+ Erythroblastosis Fetalis: o Mom – Dad + o Baby 1+ o Mom makes antibodies o Baby 2+ gets attached Hemolytic Disease o RBC Fragments formed Pluripotent Stem Cells o Come from the bone marrow o Can become any formed element Immune System Non-Specific Immunity: Skin, substances that lyse the microorganisms, virus Specific Immunity o Natural Active Immunity: being exposed to crap, making your own antibodies, Mumps o Artificial Active Immunity: Purposely exposed to create own antibodies, Vaccine o Natural Passive Immunity: Moms antibodies passed down to kid, breast milk o Artificial Passive Immunity: Given someone else’s antibodies, gamma globulin T-lymphocytes: Mature in Thymus B-lymphocytes: Mature in Bone Marrow o Antigen binds directly to B cell o Become plasma cells and secrete antibodies Cytotoxic T-Cell (killer T-Cells) o Kill foreign cells Primary Immune Response Primarily IgM 6 Secondary Immune Response Primarily IGG, stay in lymph nodes Chemotaxis: Attracting Neutrophils Lymphatic System Lymph Capillaries: single celled, have valves 1. Lymph comes from interstitial fluid Thoracic Lymph Duct: empties into left jugular and subclavian vein 1. Whole left and right lower sections Right Lymph Duct: Upper right side of body only, right jugular and subclavian vein How Does Lymph Move? 1. New lymph moves old lymph 2. Pulsing vessels along lymph vessels 3. Skeletal muscles push 4. Respiratory Pressures Lymph Nodes: contain lymphocytes Spleen: removes old RBC Thymus Gland Tonsils Diapedesis: Process where neutrophils leave capillaries and go to damaged tissue Breathing Total Lung Capacity = 5,900 mL Residual: when you exhale as much as possible o 1200 left in your lung Vital Capacity: Max air in and out o Tidal: relaxed 500mL o Inspiratory: max after resting 3000 mL o Expiratory: max after resting 1200 mL Inhaling Muscles o Thoracic pressure down, contract diaphragm, external intercostal Boyles Law: smaller the cavity, the more the pressure Exhaling Muscles o Thoracic pressure up, relax diaphragm, internal intercostal Emphysema: Clog alveoli until they blow out Pneumonia: Alveoli filled with liquid Respiratory Anatomy Upper Tract o Nasal Cavities above hard palate Capillaries moderate air temperature into the lungs o Pharynx – throat Lower Tract o Larynx – voice box Thyroid cartilage like a shield Cricoid cartilage goes all the way around o Trachea Cartilage rings o Bronchi Bronchioles 7 o Alveoli Surfactant adds surface tension Thin enough to allow O2 and Co2 to go through
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