Communications Midterm 230
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Fugett on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 230 at Caldwell University taught by Cameron in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Communication Skills in Communications at Caldwell University.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Communications Midterm Fall 2016 Chapter 1: 1. Benefits of Public Speaking a. Personal benefits – can develop self-awareness, self- confidence, improve listening and critical thinking skills, and enhance your ability to use messages to generate meaning b. Professional benefits – can analyze, adapt, and appeal to a variety of audiences, enhance credibility, become a leader, and improve chances of getting or advancing a job c. Public benefits – can understand, analyze, and critique public speeches, participate in public discussions and decision making 2. Public speaking – special type of presentation speaking that occurs when speakers address public audiences in community, government, or organizational settings 3. Presentational speaking – any time speakers use verbal and nonverbal messages to generate meanings and establish relationships with audience members, who are usually present at the delivery of a presentation a. More common than public speaking b. Is less formal than public speaking c. Is more important to employers 4. Guiding Principles a. Purpose – first and most crucial step b. Audience c. Credibility d. Logistics e. Content f. Organization g. Performance 5. Communication models – identify basic components in the communication process 6. Dynamic Presentation Model a. Includes a source who encodes a message in a form that can be transmitted through one or more channels to a receiver who decodes and reacts to the message b. Feedback – any verbal or nonverbal response from your audience that you can see or hear c. Noise – a communication term used to describe inhibiting factors that come in two forms i. External noise – can be seen, heard, or sensed by the audience ii. Internal noise – can be physical or psychological 1. Physical noise – occurs when an audience member doesn’t feel well 2. Psychological noise – occurs when a listener is preoccupied with private thoughts, distressing feelings, or inappropriate biases that prevent a message from achieving its intended purpose 7. All presentations take place in a context a. Context – a surrounding and often unpredictable environment that can affect every aspect of the communication process i. Context can be physical or psychological 1. Physical context – size of room, lighting, the attractiveness or comfort of the setting 2. Psychological context – the mood of audience, temperament of speaker, unsettling effects of a recent event 8. Culture – represents the common characteristics and collective assumptions that distinguish one group of people from another group Chapter 2: 1. Confidence matters 2. Presentation anxiety – speaker’s individual level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication of a group of people or an audience 3. Misconceptions About Presentation Anxiety a. I am more nervous than most people i. 75-85% of U.S. population experiences some form of anxiety when making a presentation b. Speaking anxiety is the number one fear c. Reading this chapter will make me more nervous 4. Build Your Presentation Confidence a. Focus i. Make sure you believe your purpose ii. Know your audience iii. Focus your attention of a few friendly faces in the audience b. Prepare i. Master the preparation process ii. Check it out 1. Check out where you are speaking iii. Speak about a familiar topic iv. Being in your comfort zone c. Relax i. Systemic desensitization – effective as a relaxation technique for reducing performance anxiety ii. Cognitive restructuring – assumes that worrisome, irrational, and nonproductive thoughts about speaking cause presentation anxiety iii. Visualization iv. Seek support d. Adapt i. Anticipate and address potential problems ii. Bend or break the rules 5. Practice matters a. Practice in private b. Practice on tape c. Practice in front of friends d. Practice session guidelines 6. Triangle of Terror – represents three interacting components of presentation anxiety and how they affect your head, heart, and habits a. Head i. Causes: fearful thoughts, irrational thoughts ii. Coping: develop a realistic assessment of your attitudes and beliefs about presentational speaking b. Heart i. Causes: emotional distress, physical distress ii. Coping: analyze where, when, and why you experience emotional and physical distress c. Habits i. Causes: poor preparation, inadequate practice ii. Coping: keep working to improve your preparation and delivery skills Chapter 13: 1. Forms of Delivery a. Impromptu delivery – speaking with little or no prep, usually casual and give almost no time to plan or practice b. Extemporaneous delivery – using an outline or a set of notes to guide you c. Manuscript delivery – writing your presentation in advance and reading it word for word d. Memorized delivery 2. Vocal Characteristics a. Breath b. Volume i. Gauging your volume ii. Projection c. Rate d. Pitch i. Optimum pitch – when you speak most easily and expressively ii. Inflection – the changing pitch within a syllable, word, or group of words 1. Monotone – occurs when you don’t change the pitch of sounds within words or the pitch of words within phrases or sentences e. Fluency i. Filler phrases – verbal interruptions, blunders, restarted sentences, repeated words, and stutters that disrupt or break up vocal fluency ii. Run on sentences 3. Factors Affecting Clarity and Correctness a. Articulation – diction or how clearly you make the sounds in words of a language b. Pronounciation – whether you say a word correctly c. Accents and Dialects i. Accent – the sound of one language opposed to another ii. Dialect – represents regional and cultural differences within the same language 4. Benefits of Eye Contact a. Initiates and controls communication b. Enhances speaker credibility c. Provides feedback 5. Components of Physical Delivery a. Facial expression b. Gestures - body movement that conveys or reinforces a thought, an intention, or an emotion c. Posture and Movement Chapter 15: 1. Informative presentation – purpose is to instruct, explain, describe, enlighten, demonstrate, clarify, correct, or remind 2. Informative Presentation Strategies a. Reporting new information b. Clarifying difficult terms c. Explaining quasi-scientific phenomena d. Overcoming confusion and misunderstanding 3. Informatory communication – aims to increase audience awareness about a fact or incident 4. Explanatory communication – aims to enhance or deepen an audience’s understanding about a fact or incident 5. Strategies for Reporting New Information a. Include a value step in the intro b. Use a clear organizational pattern c. Use various types of supporting material d. Relate info to audience interests and needs 6. Strategies for Clarifying Difficult Terms a. Define essential features b. Use varied examples c. Discuss nonexamples d. Quiz the audience 7. Quasi-Scientific Phenomenon – involves using explanatory strategies sufficient to enhance audience understanding, but not vigorous enough to pass as science 8. KISS – keep it simple, speaker Chapter 4: 1. Purpose asks: What do I want my audience to know, think, feel, or do as a result of my presentation? 2. Public purpose – stating the goal of your presentation 3. Private purpose – the personal goal of your presentation 4. Purpose statement – clearly specifies the goal of your presentation a. Effective Purpose Statement Characteristics i. Specific – narrows a topic to content appropriate for the purpose and audience ii. Achievable – purpose can be achieved in the given time limit iii. Relevant – relates your topic to audience needs and interests 5. Presentation Goals a. Speaking to inform b. Speaking to persuade c. Speaking to entertain d. Speaking to inspire 6. Informative presentation – instructs, explains, describes, enlightens, demonstrated, clarifies, corrects, or reminds 7. Persuasive presentation – attempts to change audience opinions and/or behavior 8. Entertainment presentation – tries to amuse, interest, divert, or “warm up” the audience 9. Inspirational presentation – brings like-minded people together, creates social unity, builds goodwill, or celebrates by arousing audience emotions 10. Topic – often a simple word or phrase 11. Universal Human Values a. Love b. Truthfulness c. Fairness d. Responsibility e. Respect for life f. Freedom g. Unity h. Tolerance Chapter 5: 1. Audience analysis – the ability to understand and adapt to listeners 2. Through understanding of your audience helps you to focus your presentation and decide how to narrow your topic 3. Audience Analysis Questions a. Who are they? b. Why are they here? c. What do they know? d. What are their interests? e. What are their attitudes? f. What are their values? g. What are their learning styles? h. What can they tell you? 4. Demographic information – gender, age, ethnicity, place where you live, college status or career, religion, marital status, income level 5. Self-centered interests – when a presentation can result in personal gain or loss 6. Topic-centered interests – include hobbies, favorite sports or pastimes, or subjects and tend to be personal 7. Attitude – describe our positive or negative evaluation of the world around us 8. Learning styles – the characteristic strength and preferences that exemplify the way that you take in and process information a. Visual learners – prefer reading and seeing b. Auditory learners – learn by listening c. Kinesthetic learners – learn by hands on approach i. Kinesthetics – study of movement and activity 9. Gathering Information from Audience a. Look – observe audience for info b. Listen – ask questions about the people in your audience and listen to the answers c. Survey Audience i. Survey – series of written questions designed to gather info about audience characteristics and opinions 10. Good Surveys a. Provide new info b. Provide useful info c. Fair d. Confidential e. Short f. Look professional 11. Types of Survey Questions a. Open-ended questions – let respondents come up with long or short written answers b. Close-ended questions – force audience members to choose an answer from a limited list i. Agree/Disagree ii. Multiple choice iii. Ratings iv. Checklist 12. Audience adaption – process of modifying your presentation based on what you know about your audience’s demographics, motivations, knowledge, interest, attitudes, and learning styles Chapter 9: 1. Key Points – represent the most important issues or main ideas that you want your audience to understand and to remember during and after your talk 2. Methods for Generating Key Points a. 4Rs method i. Review – gather your notes and supporting materials, then reread and critique them ii. Reduce – try to boil down the “keepers’ to a few essential points; choose key items that the audience will remember and notice iii. Regroup – regroup your ideas and supporting materials into categories iv. Refine – make sure your key points are clear and memorable b. Chunking method – the process of sorting the ideas and supporting material you have gathered for a presentation into unique categories i. Record separate items on separate cards ii. Sort the cards into unique categories iii. Reconsider the leftovers iv. Evaluate the categories v. Identify key points c. Mind Mapping method – idea-generating technique that encourages the free flow of ideas and lets you define relationships among those ideas i. Record your central and supporting ideas ii. Begin connecting related ideas iii.Refine your mind map 3. Make sure you link the key points to your central idea a. Central idea – sentence of thesis statement that summarizes the key points you want your audience to understand and remember 4. Outlining helps you organize and order your ideas a. Three Basic Rules of Outlining i. Use numbers, letters, and indentations ii. Divide your subpoints logically iii. Keep the outline consistent b. Types of Outlines i. The Preliminary Outline – puts the major pieces of your message into a clear and logical order ii. The Full Sentence Outline – comprehensive written framework for a presentation that follows established conventions concerning content and format and helps create your first full draft iii. The Presentation Outline – short outline that includes little more than a list of key points and reminders and supporting details c. Organizational Patterns i. Topical – involves dividing a large topic into smaller subtopics ii. Time – orders info according to time or calendar dates iii. Space – ordered by different locations iv. Problem-solution – used to describe a situation that is harmful and then offer a plan to solve the problem v. Causes and effects –orders based on the a cause and its effects vi. Scientific method – organizational pattern that is the mainstay of scientific reporting vii. Stories and examples viii. Compare and contrast – shows how two things are similar or different ix. Memory aids 5. Techniques for Shaping a Presentation a. The Speech Framer – helps students organize by identifying a place for every organizational component of a presentation b. Organization Tree – major parts of a tree become a metaphor for the parts of a presentation 6. Connectives – link one part of a presentation to another, clarify how one idea relates to another, an identify how supporting material bolsters a key point a. Internal Previews – reveals or suggests your key points to the audience b. Internal Summaries – ends a section and helps to reinforce important ideas c. Transitions – words, numbers, brief phrases, or sentences that help you lead your audience from one key point or section to another d. Signposts – short phrases that tell or remind your listeners where you are in a presentation Chapter 10: 1. Goals of Effective Introductions a. Focus audience attention b. Connect to your audience – relate your purpose and topic to the audience’s characteristics, motives, interests, needs, and attitudes c. Put you in your presentation – link yourself to your topic or purpose by personalizing it so your audience is much more likely to pay attention and stay interested d. Set the emotional tone – make sure intro sets an appropriate emotional tone to suit your purpose e. Preview your message – your audience should know what you will be talking about 2. Topic Specific Intro Methods – rely on topic-related supporting material a. Use an interesting example or statistic b. Quote someone c. Tell a story d. Ask a question e. Use a presentation aid 3. Situation Specific Intro Methods – rely on the speaker adapting to the interests and concerns of a specific audience in a particular setting or situation a. Refer to the place or occasion of the presentation b. Refer to a recent or well-known event c. Directly address audience interests and needs d. Establish a personal link 4. Ways to Start Strong a. Plan the beginning at the end b. Do not apologize c. Avoid using “My speech is about…” d. Give more than a great beginning e. Don’t overpromise 5. Effective Conclusions a. Be memorable b. Be clear c. Be brief 6. Ways to End a. Summarize b. Quote someone c. Tell a story d. Share your personal feelings e. Use poetic language f. Call for action g. Bookend h. Mix your methods Chapter 14: 1. Presentation aids – supplementary resources that give your audience additional sensory contacts with your presentation a. Function of Presentation Aids i. Gain audience attention and interest ii. Enhance clarity and comprehension iii. Improve efficiency b. Types of Presentation Aids i. Pie charts – show how much and proportions in relation to a whole or they depict relationships among related items ii. Graphs – show how but primarily used to demonstrate comparisons such as trends 1. Bar graphs 2. Line graphs iii. Text charts – summarize and compare or provide lists of ideas or key phrases iv. Tables – summarize and compare data v. Diagrams and Illustrations – show how things work and can explain relationships or processes vi. Maps – show where by translating data into spatial patterns vii. Photographs – portray reality viii. Other aids 1. Audio recording 2. Objects 3. Handouts 4. Physical demonstrations 2. Media a. Computer-Generated slides b. Overhead projectors c. Flip chart – a large pad of paper on an easel 3. Visual Design Principles a. Preview and highlight b. Headline your visuals c. Exercise restraint d. Create an overall look i. Choose readable font ii. Choose readable type sizes iii. Choose suitable colors iv. Choose appropriate templates v. Choose appropriate graphics vi. Choose appropriate sounds e. Build sequentially 4. Handling Presentation aids a. Timing is everything b. Focus on your audience c. Handle handouts effectively - give handout before you being speaking d. Be ready to speak without aids Chapter 16: 1. Persuasion – encourages audience members to change their opinions or their behavior 2. Classify Audience Attitudes a. They agree with me i. Present new info ii. Strengthen audience resistance to counterpersuasion iii. Excites the audience’s emotions iv. Provides a personal model v. Advocates a course of action b. They disagree with me i. Sets reasonable goals ii. Finds common ground iii. Accepts differences of opinion iv. Uses fair and respected evidence v. Builds personal creditability c. They are undecided i. The uninformed audience 1. Providing info ii. The unconcerned audience 1. Gaining their attention and interest 2. Giving them a reason to care 3. Presenting relevant info iii. The adamantly neutral audience 1. Acknowledging both sides of the argument 2. Providing new info 3. Reinforcing old arguments 3. Four Schools of Thought on the Nature of Persuasion a. Aristotle’s Persuasive Proof i. Four Forms of Proof 1. Logos – logical proof, appeal to intellect a. Deductive logic – make your case by moving from accepted general premises to a specific conclusion b. Inductive logic – make your case by moving from specific instances to a general conclusion 2. Pathos – emotional proof 3. Ethos – personal proof a. Competence b. Character c. Caring 4. Mythos – narrative proof, addresses the values, faith, and feelings that make up our social character and is expressed through stories b. Elaborate Likelihood Model of Persuasion – claims there are two routes to persuasion i. Routes to Persuasion 1. Central route – using strong and believable evidence to supports a speaker’s claims 2. Peripheral route – using evidence and personal proof that are not supportive or directly related to the speaker’s claims c. Social Judgment Theory – explains why persuasive speakers should set reasonable goals when trying o change a person’s opinion i. Begins with two assumptions about audience members: 1. Audience members judge a message in terms of whether it conforms to their own attitudes on the subject 2. Audience members’ views of how important a topic is to them affects how willing they are to change their attitudes ii. Latitude of acceptance – range of positions they agree with iii. Latitude of rejection – range of positions they will not agree will iv. Latitude of non commitment – range of positions they may accept or reject d. Psychological Reactance Theory – explains why telling an audience what not to do can produce the exact opposite reaction i. Avoid strong, direct commands ii. Avoid extreme statements, depicting terrible consequences iii. Avoid finger pointing iv. Advocate a middle group that preserves the audience’s freedom and dignity while moving them toward attitude or behavior change 4. Marketing Principles for Persuasion a. Create a memorable slogan b. Generate strong images c. Focus on benefits d. Address audience needs e. Enlist celebrities 5. Persuasive Evidence – info, data, or audience beliefs used to support and prove the claim of an argument; verifies and strengthens the proof you use to secure belief in an argument a. Novel – look for new evidence b. Believable c. Dramatic – make it memorable 6. Common Fallacies – an invalid argument or misleading statement that can deceive an audience a. Faulty Cause – superstition fallacy b. Attacking the person – involves attacking a person rather than the substance of the person’s argument c. Hasty generalization – jump to a conclusion based on too little evidence d. Selected instances – occurs when a speaker purposely picks atypical examples to prove an argument e. Bandwagon – an appeal to popularity f. Begging the question – assumes that an unproven fact in an argument is true g. Victory by definition – makes definition of a word self- serving 7. Persuasive Organizational Patterns a. Problem/Cause/Solution – describe problem, then explain why the problem continues, and then offer a solution b. Better Plan – present a plan that will improve a situation or help to solve a problem while acknowledging that a total solution may not be possible c. Overcoming Objections organizational pattern – a useful pattern for strengthening the resolve of audience members who agree but still need motivation before they will take action d. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence i. The attention step – get the audience’s attention ii. The need step – show the audience there is problem related to their individual interests iii. The satisfaction step – propose a plan of action iv. The visualization step – describe what the audience’s life and/or the lives of others will be like once the plan of action is implemented v. The action step – ask the audience to act in a way that demonstrates personal commitment e. Persuasive Stories – rely on narrative proof to organize your presentation along with emotional proof to show how people, events, and objects are or can be affected by the change you are seeking Chapter 12: 1. Disinterest factors a. Limited attention span i. Attention span – the amount of time an audience member is attentive to sensory stimulation, differs for each of us according to age, intelligence, health, past experience, and motivation b. Poor listening habits – most audience members forget a large portion of what hey have seen or heard in the presentation c. Length of presentation d. Poor delivery i. Expressiveness – vitality, variety, and sincerity that a speaker puts into his or her delivery 2. Sources of Stories a. You i. The story of your name ii. When I was young in… iii. Your family’s roots iv. Your special place v. Your special mentor vi. Your success vii. Your failures b. Your values c. Your audience d. Other people e. The occasion f. Media 3. Telling Stories a. Keep it simple b. Exaggerate c. Provide audience links d. Practice 4. Make sure the point of your story supports your purpose 5. Narrative – term that encompasses the process, art, and techniques of story telling a. Good stories posses two essential qualities i. Probability – asses the formal features of a story such as consistency of characters and actions ii. Fidelity – refers to the apparent truthfulness of a story 6. Injecting humor into a presentation can capture and hold an audience’s attention and help listeners remember you and your presentation a. Types of Humor i. Planned humor – speaker deliberately selects, inserts, and practices a humorous story, a pun, or a joke as part of the presentation planning process ii. Spontaneous humor – speaker uses humor to respond to unplanned occurrences such as audience feedback, a question, a mispronounced word or phrase, a logistical/technical problem, or a last-minute change b. Forms of Humor i. Pun – play on words that transfers the meaning of words with similar sounds ii. Joke – funny story with a punch line iii. Humorous story – may not have a punch line but relates a series of humorous situations iv. Satire – makes fun of personal, social, or political situation without explicitly acknowledging that the situation is funny v. Irony – compares two concepts or events resulting in an unexpected outcome c. Self- effacing humor – the ability to direct humor at yourself 7. Forms of Audience Participation a. Ask questions b. Encourage interaction c. Involve their senses d. Do an exercise e. Ask for volunteers f. Invite feedback 8. Immediacy – an audience’s perceptions of physical and psychological closeness to the speaker; marked by closer physical distance, smiling, increased eye contact, natural body movement and gestures, touching audience members, a relaxed posture, and vocal expressiveness
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