Study Guide for the 1st Meteorology Exam
Study Guide for the 1st Meteorology Exam metr 121
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah Notetaker on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to metr 121 at Western Kentucky University taught by Rezaul Mahmood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see METEOROLOGY in Science at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
STUDY GUIDE EXAM #1 1. Troposphere: Region of the atmosphere from the surface up to 11km that contains all of the weather we are familiar with (1st layer) 2. Ozone Layer: Colorless, gaseous form of oxygen found in the stratosphere (stratospheric ozone) Found in polluted air near the surface in photochemical smog (tropospheric ozone) 3. Stratosphere: The layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere and below the mesosphere, between 10km and 50km, characterized by an increase in temperature with height (2nd Layer from the Surface) 4. Thermosphere: The “hot layer” above the mesosphere 500 degrees celsius at most 85km and above Charged particles from the sun interact with air molecules and create the aurora displays Temperature increases rapidly here (4th layer from the surface) 5. Nitrogen: Occupies 78% of the atmosphere 6. Temperature lapse rate: The rate at which air temperature decreases with height 6.5 degrees celsius per 1000m is the average or 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit per 1000ft. 7. Inversion: An increase in air temperature with height 8. Temperature and Altitude: As you increase in elevation, there is less air above you thus the pressure decreases. As the pressure decreases, air molecules spread out further (i.e. air expands) and the temperature decreases. If the humidity is at 100 percent (because it's snowing), the temperature decreases more slowly with height 9. Evaporation: Evaporation is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase 10. Albedo: the proportion of the incident light or radiation that is reﬂected by a surface, typically that of a planet or moon 11. Radiation: Energy propagated in the form of electromagnetic waves The energy transferred from the sun to your face 12. Condensation: Water that collects as droplets on a cold surface when humid air is in contact with it The conversion of a vapor or gas to a liquid 13. Winter Solstice: The solstice that marks the beginning of winter, at the time of the shortest day, about December 22 in the northern hemisphere and June 21 in the southern hemisphere. 14. Radiational Cooling: It is caused by the emission of infrared radiation from the Earth's surface and from the tops of clouds and the atmosphere. Because infrared radiation is absorbed by water vapor, cloudless nights usually allow for greater radiational cooling than overcast nights. 15. Relative Humidity: The amount of water vapor present in air expressed as a percentage of the amount needed for saturation at the same temperature 16. Vernal Equinox: The equinox in spring, on about March 20 in the northern hemisphere and September 22 in the southern hemisphere 17. Water Vapor: The gaseous phase of water 18. Aerosols: An aerosol is a colloid of ﬁne solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas. Aerosols can be natural or artiﬁcial. Examples of natural aerosols are fog, forest exudates and geyser steam. Examples of artiﬁcial aerosols are haze, dust, particulate air pollutants and smoke. 19. Atmospheric pressure: The pressure exerted by the weight of the atmosphere 20. Trend in global CO2 Rising exponentially over the years. Slow rise before the industrial era. 21. Temperature Scales Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin 22. Freezing and boiling point at different temperatures C: 0, 100 F: 32, 212 K: 273, 373 23. Latent Heat: The energy required to change a substance (such as water) from one state to another 24. Sensible Heat: The heat we feel and measure with a thermometer 25. Conduction: The transfer of heat from molecule to molecule within a substance 26. Convection: Motions in a ﬂuid that result in the transport and mixing of the ﬂuids property 27. Mechanisms of energy transfer: There are three mechanisms by which heat (energy) is transferred in the atmosphere: Radiation, Conduction, Convection 28. Sublimation: Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase 29. Deposition: The process by which, in sub-freezing air, water vapor changes directly to ice without ﬁrst becoming a liquid 30. Hydrologic Cycle: The hydrologic cycle begins with the evaporation of water from the surface of the ocean. As moist air is lifted, it cools and water vapor condenses to form clouds. Moisture is transported around the globe until it returns to the surface as precipitation. 31. Cause of Seasonal Changes The Earth’s tilt towards the sun, whichever hemisphere (North or South) is tilted towards the sun has summer. The physical distance of the Earth from the sun does NOT cause the seasons, it is the tilt. 32. Advection: The transfer of properties by horizontally moving air 33. Air and conduction: One way that conduction happens in the air is with the collision of air particles. Conduction occurs when a substance is heated, particles will gain more energy, and vibrate more. These molecules then bump into nearby particles and transfer some of their energy to them. This then continues and passes the energy from the hot end down to the colder end of the substance. 34. Wein’s Law: Wien's displacement law states that the black body radiation curve for different temperatures peaks at a wavelength inversely proportional to the temperature 35. Stefan-Boltzmann’s Law The Stefan–Boltzmann law describes the power radiated from a black body in terms of its temperature 36. Summer Solstice The solstice that marks the onset of summer, at the time of the longest day, about June 21 in the northern hemisphere and December 22 in the southern hemisphere. 37. Autumnal Equinox The equinox in autumn, on about September 22 in the northern hemisphere and March 20 in the southern hemisphere. 38. Controlling Factors of Global Temperature Ocean Current Latitude Land and Water Distribution Elevation 39. Absolute Humidity Absolute humidity is the measure of water vapor (moisture) in the air, regardless of temperature 40. Speciﬁc Humidity A ratio of the water vapor content of the mixture to the total air content on a mass basis. 41. Mixing Ratio The ratio of the mass of water vapor in a given volume of air 42. Actual Vapor Pressure: Actual vapor pressure is a measurement of the amount of water vapor in a volume of air and increases as the amount of water vapor increases. 43. Saturation Vapor Pressure: When air reaches the saturation vapor pressure, the water vapor in it will condense. 44. Timing of day and night maximum and minimum temperature: The lowest temperature of a day will occur soon after sunrise. The highest temperature of a day will occur in the afternoon, typically between 2 and 4. 45. Chill after Shower: After a shower, you will feel cool because of evaporation. The water droplets on your skin will start to evaporate, in order for this to happen the water droplets are taking heat from your skin and the water droplets on your skin. As you lose that energy, the water droplets left on your skin begin to cool, and you will feel cool as well. 46. Ocean current and surrounding temperature: The oceans absorb most of the sun’s radiation. Oceans act as large heat retainers. The water molecules in the ocean are heated causing evaporation. The evaporated water is then transported long distances by winds. Ocean currents act as conveyor belts moving warm water from the equator to the north and south, helping to distribute the solar radiation. The places along the coast are impacted greatly by the oceans currents, explaining why they experience warmer temperatures. 47. Growing Degree Day: These are used by farmers and people involved with agriculture. They are the base temperature that a plant can tolerate to continue growing. If the actual temperature is 55 degrees, and a plants base temperature is 50, you end up with 5 growing degree days. Actual Temperature - Base temperature = Growing Degree Days 48. Cooling Degree Day: Cooling degree days are the days where people will be using Air Conditioning units based on the temperature. If the base is 65 degrees, and the actual temperature outside is 75 degrees, you will have 10 cooling degree days. Actual Temperature - Base Temperature = Cooling Degree Days 49. Heating Degree Day The opposite of cooling degree days, these are the days where people will be using heating units, based on the temperature outside. If the base temperature is 65 degrees, and the actual temperature outside is 60 degrees, you will have 5 heating degree days. Base Temperature - Actual Temperature = Heating Degree Days 50. Diurnal range of temperature: The diurnal temperature range (DTR) is the difference between the daily maximum and minimum temperature. Changes in DTR have multiple possible causes (cloud cover, urban heat, land use change, aerosols, water vapor and greenhouse gases) 51. Daily Maximum temperature: The highest temperature recorded in a single day. 52. Daily Minimum Temperature The lowest temperature recorded in a day. 53. Radiational Inversion: Radiation inversions generally happen in places where it cools off a lot at night. During the night, the ground cools off, radiating the heat to the sky. Hence, an inversion. 54. Thermal Belt: The thermal belt refers to a mountainside zone where frost or freezing temperatures are less likely to occur than they are at either higher or lower elevations. 55. Speciﬁc Heat: the heat required to raise the temperature of the unit mass of a given substance by a given amount (usually one degree) 56. Atmospheric Window: The wavelength range between 8 and 11um in which little absorption of infrared takes place. 57. Selective Absorber: Substances such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, clouds, and snow that absorb radiation at only particular wavelengths 58. Lapse Rate: the rate at which air temperature falls with increasing altitude. 59. Temperature Inversion at the lower atmosphere: Usually, within the lower atmosphere (the troposphere) the air near the surface of the Earth is warmer than the air above it, largely because the atmosphere is heated from below as solar radiation warms the Earth's surface, which in turn then warms the layer of the atmosphere directly above it. An inversion is when this is reversed and the temperature at the surface is colder than the air above it. This can occur on nights when the air is dry, the night is long, the air is calm, and there is a lot of cloud cover. 60. Clouds Types of Clouds:
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