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Study guide for Exam 2

by: Madison Corkran

Study guide for Exam 2 BIOL 2402

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Madison Corkran
Lamar University
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This is a study guide for the upcoming exam in A&P 2 Lecture.The test covers The lymphatic system, Respiratory system and some of the digestive system - everything professor Armacost has lectured o...
Anatomy and Physiology Lab II
Amanda Posey
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A&P2, exam, 2, exam2, Studyguide, Anatomy and Physiology Gillian Lymphatic System Chapter 21, lymphaticsystem, digestive, Respiratory
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This 48 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Corkran on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2402 at Lamar University taught by Amanda Posey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology Lab II in Biology at Lamar University.

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Date Created: 10/13/16
PRACTICE EXAM 1   1. The specialized lymphatic capillaries in the small intestine are _______.  a. Valves b. Lymphatic vessels  c. Lacteals d. Intestinal fluid  2. These cells remind your body when it has already fought a foreign substance.  a. Active T cells  b. Plasma cells  c. Cytotoxic  d. Memory cells  3. The nose and pharynx are part of the: a. Upper respiratory tract b. Lower respiratory tract c. A & B d. None of the above  4. Which of the following is major step in gas exchange? a. External respiration  b. Internal respiration  c. Pulmonary ventilation  d. All of the above 5. Upon first exposure to a foreign antigen:  a. Thousands of memory cells recognize the foreign antigen; proliferation is rapid. b. Thousand of memory cells recognize the foreign antigen; proliferation is slow. c. Only a few cells recognize the foreign antigen; proliferation is rapid. 6. This layer of the lymph node includes masses of B cells that are called lymphatic nodules.  a. Medulla  b. Internal cortex c. Internal medulla d. Outer cortex  7. T cells mainly target:  a. Intracellular pathogens b. Extracellular pathogens c. Foreign antigens d. All of the above 8. This law states that each gas in a mixture exhorts it own pressure as if it were alone. a. Daltons Law b. Henrys Law  c. A&B  d. None of the above 9. The _____ is the site of muscular contraction made of muscles and neurons.  a. Mucosa  b. Submucosa  c. Muscularis  d. Serosa 10.____ are teeth that are broad, flat crown for crushing and grinding. They have 2 or 3 roots.  a. Incisors  b. Canines c. Premolars d. Molars 11.Which of the following is true about absorptive cells? a. They produce several digestive enzymes  b. Inserted into plasma membrane of the microvilli  c. Called brush border enzymes  d. All of the above 12.What is the purpose of the pleural cavity? a. Anchor the lungs b. To separate the lungs and diaphragm  c. Keep the lungs from colliding with other organs  d. Stop lung movement  13.This law states the quantity of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to its partial  pressure and to it solubility.  a. Daltons Law b. Henrys Law  c. A&B  d. None of the above  14.Which is involved in the chemical digestion of the stomach? a. Starch  b. Protein  c. Triglycerides d. All of the above 15.Which of the following is NOT a function of the mouth? a. Chemical digestion  b. Enzyme breakdown  c. Mechanical digestion  d. Forming bolus on the tongue  16.The involuntary movement of bolus through esophagus into the stomach.  a. Esophageal Stage of digestion  b. Pharyngeal Stage of digestion  c. Voluntary Stage of digestion  d. None of the above  17.In the process of ________, phagocytes engulf microbes.  a. Mytosis b. Cytosis  c. Phagocytosis  d. Chemotaxis  18.What is a clone? a. 100 different  cells  b. Thousands of copied cells c. Two of the exact same cells d. None of the above 19.What is an accessory digestive organ? a. Liver b. Gallbladder c. Tongue d. All of the above  20.____ are the site of gas exchange in the lungs.  a. Bronchioles b. Circulatory Capillaries  c. Epithelium Membrane  d. Type 1 alveolar cells   Practice Exam 2  1.  Which of the following is true? a. The lymphatic tissue is a high­pressure system because the pump it uses  is stronger in comparison with the cardiovascular system.  b. The lymphatic tissue is a low­pressure system because the pump it uses  is stronger in comparison with the cardiovascular system.  c. The lymphatic tissue is a high­pressure system because the pump it uses  is weaker in comparison with the cardiovascular system.  d. The lymphatic tissue is a low­pressure system because the pump it uses  is weaker in comparison with the cardiovascular system.  2.  Redness, pain, heat, swelling and loss of function are all symptoms of ____.  a. Fever b. Digestion  c. Inflammation  d. immunity responses 3. Deglutition is _____.  a. Chemical digestion  b. Mechanical digestion  c. Swallowing  d. None of the above  4. How many lobes does the liver have? a. 3 b. 4 c. 2 d. 8 5. What is the function of the gallbladder? a. Receives bile from liver b. Stores and concentrates bile  c. Secrets bile into the small intestine  d. All of the above  6. In _______ _________ oxygenated blood in the systemic capillary exchanges  gases with tissues cells. a. Henrys law b. Daltons Law  c. Internal Respiration  d. External Respiration  7. The ______ monitor movement of joints and muscles and increase ventilation rate in response to exercise.  a. Apneustic Area  b. Pneumotaxic c. Proprioceptors  d. Chemoreceptors 8. The ____ ____ surrounds most digestive organs.  a. Parietal Peritoneal  b. Visceral Peritoneal  c. Peritoneal cavity  d. None of the above  9. ____ is made of lymph vessels, blood vessels and neurons.  a. Pulp cavity & root canals b. Dentin  c. Enamel  d. Root  10._____ digest lipids in the mouth.  a. Lingual lipase  b. Salivary amylase  c. Pepsin  d. Gastric Lipase  11.____ are projections of the plasma membrane of absorptive cells.  a. Microvilli  b. Villi c. Circular folds d. None of the above  12.The ____ filters incoming air, detects olfactory stimuli and modifies vocalizations.  a. Nose b. Pharynx c. Larynx d. None of the above  13.How is the respiratory system made and why? a. A thin structure to minimize gas exchange b. A thin structure to maximize gas exchange  c. A thick structure to minimize gas exchange  d. A thick structure to maximize gas exchange 14.The _____ is part of the pons and increases the length of inhalation and  decreases ventilation rate. a. Inspiratory Area b. Expiratory Area c. Pneumotaxic Area d. Apneustic Area 15.The ____ ____ is filled with serous fluid.  a. Parietal Peritoneal  b. Visceral Peritoneal  c. Peritoneal Cavity  d. None of the above  16.The ability to ward off disease and damage to the body is ____. a. Innate immunity  b. Adaptive immunity  c. Immunity  d. All of the above  17.Select all that are true about Acini?  a. 1 % of cell clusters  b. 99% of cell clusters  c. Endocrine function  d. Exocrine function  18.___ create a very large surface area for absorption. a. Microvilli  b. Villi c. Circular folds d. All of the above  19.How many layers are in the GI tract? a. 3 b. 2 c. 4 d. 1 20.___ are teeth that are chisel shaped for nipping and cutting. a. Incisors  b. Canines c. Premolars d. Molars PRACTICE EXAM 3  1. The ability to react with antibodies or cells is ______.  a. Immunogenicity b. Antigen receptors  c. Chemo Taxis  d. Reactivity  2. What prevents bolus from entering the larynx? a. Esophageal  b. Epiglottis  c. Tongue  d. Peristalsis  3. The name for the volume of one breath:  a. Tidal Volume  b. Minute ventilation  c. Ventilation rate  4. Lymphatic veins merge into _______.  a. 10 Lymphatic capillaries  b. 5 lymphatic trunks  c. 2 Lymphatic ducts d. 8 Lymphatic capillaries  5. The exhalation process is a(n) ______ process a. Passive b. Active c. A&B d. None of the above 6. The _____ is a common passage way for the respiratory and digestive  system.  a. Nose b. Pharynx c. Larynx d. None of the above  7. ______ are found in blood, spleen, lymph nodes and red bone marrow.  a. B cells  b. T cells  c. INF’s  d. NK cells  8. What is part of the tooth anatomy? a. Crown  b. Neck  c. Root d. All of the above  9. These are closed at one end and merge together to form lymphatic vessels a. Blood capillaries b. Lymphatic capillaries  c. Lymphatic veins  d. Lymphatic ducts  10. ______ target antigens  in body fluids and extracellular pathogens. a. B cells  b. T cells  c. Antigens d. Antibodies  11.The name for breathes per minute: a. Tidal volume  b. Minute ventilation  c. Ventilation Rate d. All of the above 12.Which of the following is a major gland of the digestive system? a. Parotid Glands b. Submandibular Gland  c. Sublingual Gland  d. All of the above  13.All of the following are foreign substances that can provoke an immune  response except _____.  a. Virus  b. Germ c. Bacteria d. Toxin 14.Where does the body receive nutrients for tissue growth and repair and  chemical energy for metabolism? a. Vitamins  b. Food  c. Water d. Environment  15.Cytotoxic t cells leave ____ tissues and bind to _____ cells.  a. Connective; healthy  b. Lymphatic; healthy  c. Connective; infected  d. Lymphatic; infected  16.The ____ is always active and establishes basic rythum of breathing. a. Inspiratory Area b. Expiratory Area c. Pneumotaxic Area d. Apneustic Area 17.Where is the site of absorption in the GI that is made of some blood  vessels, lymph vessels and smooth muscle? a. Mucosa  b. Submucosa c. Muscularis  d. Serosa  18.In the second stage of Phagocytosis, what occurs? a. Phagocyte releases lysosomes and other proteins to destroy  b. Phagocyte binds to microbe c. Phagocyte extends to pseudopodia to engulf microbe  d. Phagocyte migrate to sites of infection 19. What makes up lymphatic fluid? a. Lymphocytes  b. Monocytes  c. Erythrocytes  d. None of the above 20.Antimicrobial proteins, NK cells, phagocytes and inflammation are all  examples of:  a. Adaptive immunity  b. Innate immunity c. Primary lymphatic organs  d. Lymph ducts  PRACTICE EXAM 4  1. What secretes alveolar fluid? a. Type 1 alveolar cells b. Type 2 alveolar cells c. Epithelial Cells  d. Epithelial basement membranes  2. The inhalation process is a(n) _____ process.  a. Passive  b. Active c. A&B  d. None of the above  3. Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system? a. Homeostasis  b. Transportation  c. Regulation of Body Temp d. Immune response  4. How many lobes are there in the right lung? a. 4 b. 3 c. 2 d. None of the above 5. Physical and chemical barriers of the skin and mucous membranes are ______. a. Internal Innate immunity Defense b. Internal Adaptive Immunity Defenses  c. External Innate Immunity Defenses  d. External Innate Immunity Defenses 6. T & B cells _____ self­MHC antigens.  a. Bind to  b. Ignore c. Break­down  d. Attack  7. Why is the left lung smaller than the right? a. It is responsible for less air  b. To accomadate the higher end of the diaphragm  c. To accommodate the heart  d. None of the above, they are the same size 8. According to Dalton’s law, how do gases diffuse? a. Low to high pressure across a permeable membrane  b. Low to high pressure across a plasma membrane  c. High to low pressure across a permeable membrane  d. High to low pressure across a plasma membrane  9. The secondary exposure to previously encountered antigens is referred to as  _____.  a. Specifically  b. Memory  c. Immune response  d. Secondary exposure  10.Boyle’s law states: a. The upper respiratory tract is dependent on the lower respiratory tract  b. The lower respiratory tract is dependent on the upper respiratory tract  c. Pulmonary ventilations is driven by the pressure changes within the lung d. The three major steps of gas exchange depends on pressures of  diaphragm movement  11.What digestive organ serves as a reservoir for food and is responsible for  digestion? a. Colon b. Stomach  c. Small intestine  d. Gall Bladder  12.The _____ is composed of cartilage rings and plates connected by muscle and is  involved in production of vocalization.  a. Nose  b. Pharynx c. Larynx d. None of the above 13.In ________ _______ deoxygenated blood in the pulmonary capillary exchanges  gases with alveolar air.  a. Henrys law  b. Daltons Law  c. Internal respiration  d. External respiration  14.Antibody ­ mediated immune response _____.  a. Matures into plasma cells b. Releases antibodies  c. Destroy pathogens d. All of the above  15.True or False: Because different gases in a mixture have independent partial  pressures, they can diffuse in different directions  a. True  b. False  c. Who cares 16.Which of the following is true about the chemical nature of antigens? a. Typically large molecules b. Most often proteins c. Often only in small regions  d. All of the above  17.The ______ is only active during forced breathing. a. Inspiratory Area  b. Expiratory  c. Pneumotaxic area d. Apneustic  18.The ____ connects the GI tract to surrounding tissues and is made of connective  tissues and epithelium.  a. Mucosa  b. Submucosa c. Muscularis  d. Serosa 19._______ allows B & T cells to recognize and react to foreign antigens. a. Antibodies b. Antigens  c. Both A & B  d. None of the above  20.____ protects mucosa from acidic gastric juices and from pepsin. a. Salivary Amylase  b. Lingual Lipase  c. Parietal Cells  d. Alkaline mucus  PRACTICE EXAM 5  1. ____ are a cup sized structure that is arranged in a ____ ____. a. Alveolar; respiratory membrane  b. Epithelium; alveolar cell c. Alveolar; alveolar sac  d. Epithelium; capillary basement membrane 2. Which of the following is not involved in the gastrointestinal tract? a. Stomach  b. Anus  c. Pituitary gland  d. Pharynx  3. Which of the following is not a layer of a lymph node? a. Inter media  b. Outer cortex c. Medulla  d. Internal cortex  4. The volume of air inhaled and exhaled per minute: a. Tidal volume b. Minute ventilation  c. Ventilation rate  5. What is the function of the peritoneum? a. Attaches and anchors digestive organs to the rest of the body b. Provides for movement and expansion and contraction of the digestive  tract c. Supplies digestive organs with blood and lymph vessels and neurons  d. All of the above  6. The ability to provoke an immune response is _____. a. Immunogenicity b. Antigen receptors  c. Chemo Taxis  d. Reactivity 7. Which of the following is a layer of the pleural membrane? a. Parietal  b. Visceral  c. A&B  d. None of the above  8. Select all that are true about pancreatic islets? a. 1 % of cell clusters  b. 99% of cell clusters  c. Endocrine function  d. Exocrine function 9. The ____ ____ lines the abdominal cavity.  a. Parietal Peritoneal  b. Visceral Peritoneal  c. Peritoneal Cavity  d. None of the above  10.The larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs are part of the:  a. Upper respiratory tract b. Lower respiratory tract c. A&B  d. None of the above  11.Antibodies are most compose of ____ polypeptide chains.  a. 5 b. 4 c. 8 d. 2 12.The _____ is part of the pons and decreases the length of inhalation and  increases ventilation rate.  a. Inspiratory Area b. Expiratory Area c. Pneumotaxic Area d. Apneustic Area 13.____ digest starches in the mouth. a. Lingual lipase  b. Salivary amylase  c. Pepsin  d. Gastric Lipase  14.Antibody­mediated Immunity is when B cells are: a. Activated when presented with an antigen  b. Activated when presented with an antibody  c. Deactivated when presented with an antigen  d. Deactivated when presented with an antibody  15.What type of tissues are Lymphatic tissues? a. Muscle  b. Connective c. Epithelial  d. Nervous 16.What are attached to cartilage and elastic ligaments in the larynx? a. Ventricular fold  b. Vocal Folds c. Intrinsic laryngeal muscles  d. Extrinsic laryngeal muscles  17.___ are teeth that are broad, flat crown for crushing and grinding. They have 1 or  2 roots a. Incisors  b. Canines  c. Premolars d. Molars  18.___ are projections of the plasma membrane of absorptive cells. Collectively  these projections form ‘brush border’. a. Microvilli  b. Villi c. Circular folds d. None of the above  19.____ is a calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate. This is the hardest  substance in the body.  a. Pulp cavity & root canals b. Dentin  c. Enamel  d. Root  20.The pressure for movement of lymph is generated by _____. a. Skeletal muscle  b. Respiratory pump  c. A&B  d. None of the above  PRACTICE EXAM 6  1. ____ are teeth for piercing and tearing. a. Incisors  b. Canines c. Premolars d. Molars 2. The process in which the immune system “remembers” specific antigens  that have triggered an immune response in the past  a. Antibody functions  b. Antibody­mediated immunity  c. Immunological memory  d. Immunoglobulin protein  3. ______ calcifies connective tissue.  a. Pulp cavity & root canals b. Dentin  c. Enamel  d. Root  4. What is the function of the respiratory system? a. Gas exchange  b. pH balance  c. A&B  d. None of the above 5. Where do T cells complete maturation?  a. Outer Cortex of Lymph nodes b. Medulla of thymus c. Cortex of thymus  d. None of the above 6. Which is a part of the mouth?  a. Teeth  b. Tongue  c. Saliva Glands  d. All of the Above  7. What is another name for chewing? a. Mastication  b. Digestion  c. Break down  d. Dentin  8. _________ shuffles gene segments to create a huge number of unique  combinations of gene segments.  a. Antigen receptors  b. MHC antigens  c. Somatic cells  d. Genetic recombination 9. ____ are ridges of mucosa and submucosa.  a. Microvilli  b. Villi c. Circular folds d. None of the above  10.The voluntary movement of bolus from the mouth into pharynx a. Esophageal Stage of digestion  b. Pharyngeal Stage of digestion  c. Voluntary Stage of digestion  d. None of the above  11.____ secretes bile that will later enter the small intestine. a. Gallbladder b. Lobules c. Lobes d. Hepatocytes  12.____ are effector cells. a. Active helper T cells b. Active cytotoxic T cells c. Plasma cells d. All of the above 13.What is the site of gas and fluid exchange? It is made of connective  tissues, blood and lymph vessels and neurons.  a. Mucosa  b. Submucosa c. Muscularis  d. Serosa 14.___ cell is activated ONLY when presented with an antigen. a. T cells  b. B cells  c. Effector cells  d. Plasma cells 15.Where does the chemical digestion of pancreatic enzymes act? a. Small intestine  b. Large intestine c. Stomach  d. Gall bladder 16.Upon second exposure to a foreign antigen: a. Thousands of memory cells recognize the foreign antigen;  proliferation is rapid. b. Thousand of memory cells recognize the foreign antigen;  proliferation is slow. c. Only a few cells recognize the foreign antigen; proliferation is rapid. d. Only a few cells recognize the foreign antigen; proliferation slow 17.The involuntary movement of bolus from pharynx into esophagus. a. Esophageal Stage of digestion  b. Pharyngeal Stage of digestion  c. Voluntary Stage of digestion  d. None of the above  18.How do antibodies disable pathogens? a. Via 3 major mechanism  b. Via 6 major mechanism c. Via 4 major mechanism  d. Via 5 major mechanism    Exam 2 Review: Questions and answers These can be cut out and numbered to make a ‘matching game’. They also can just be read. What are the three functions of the Lymphatic system?  Keep Homeostasis  Transport lipids (Dietary and soluble vitamins)  Immune responses How does the Lymphatic System keep homeostasis?  Drains excess interstitial fluid What does the lymphatic system transport?  Dietary lipids & lipid soluble vitamins The lymphatic system helps two types of immunity. What are these types and which is affected more by the Lymphatic System?  Innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Adaptive immunity is affected more than innate immunity by the lymphatic system. What type of tissues are Lymphatic tissues?  Connective tissues (like blood) What is essentially the same as interstitial fluid?  Lymphatic Fluid Lymphatic fluid is made of many ________?  Lymphocytes (a type of White Blood Cells) – learned previously What is the anatomy of the Lymphatic system? (List them form smallest to largest- 5 total)  Capillaries  Vessels  Trunks  Ducts  Organs & Trunks ** For help memorizing the order, memorize the sentence below. Carolyn’s Vacations Totally Distract Others Lymphatic capillaries merge together to form what?  Lymphatic vessels that are closed on one end What helps prevent backflow in Lymphatic vessels?  Valves What generates pressure for the movement of lymphatic vessels?  Skeletal muscles and respiratory pumps Lymphatic vessels merge to create lymph trunks. How many trunks do these lymphatic vessels make up?  5 Lymphatic trunks merge to create lymphatic Ducts. How many Ducts do these lymphatic trunks make up?  2 Are lymphatic vessels associated with lymph nodes?  YES What do lymph ducts do?  Return lymph to blood at vena cave What are ‘specialized lymphatic capillaries in the small intestine’ called?  Lacteals What do Lacteals do?  Absorb lipid molecules from diet that are to large to enter the blood capillaries Lipids travel through the _______ ________ before entering blood?  Lymphatic System What are the sites where stem cells give rest to mature, innunocompent cells?  Primary lymphatic organs Where does the primary lymphatic organs rise to mature as cells?  Red bone marrow and Thymus Does primary or secondary lymphatic organs have the most immune response?  The secondary Where does the secondary lymphatic organs rise to mature as cells?  Lymph nodes & Spleen Where does pluripotent stem cells give rise to immunocompetent B cells & T cells?  Red Bone Marrow Where do B cells migrate?  Directly to blood or lymph nodes Where do Pre T cells migrate?  Thymus to finish maturation How many lobes does the thymus have?  2; left & right The thymus has two lobes. Each lobe has two lobules. What are these called?  Cortex  Medulla Where do Pre T cells go through the maturation process?  Cortex of Thymus – some emigrate to the medulla Where do the T cells COMPLETE the maturation process?  Medulla of the thymus After the T cells finish in the medulla, where do they go?  Migrate through blood, lymph nodes and spleen The lymph nodes have two functions. What are they?  Filter lymph  Destroy Pathogens The (3) layers of the lymph nodes are:  Outer cortex  Internal cortex  Medulla What is the outer cortex made of?  B cells What are the masses of b cells found in the outer cortex called?  Lymphatic nodules What is the body’s ability to ward off disease and damage?  Immunity What is the opposite of immunity?  Susceptibility Which immunity type is nonspecific and present at birth?  Innate Immunity Which immunity type is specific and develops after exposure to a particular pathogen?  Adaptive Immunity The innate immunity has an internal and external defense. Which of these contain physical and chemical barriers of the skin and mucous membrane?  External Defense Saliva, gastric juices, vaginal secretions are all examples of what kind of immunity?  External Defense NK cells, Phagocytes, inflammation and fever are examples of what kind of immunity?  Internal defenses Where are Antimicrobial proteins found?  In the blood plasma and interstitial fluid Interferon, Transferrin’s, complement System are all inside ___________ _________?  Antimicrobial Proteins Cells that have been invaded by a virus produce what?  Interferons ____________ inhibit some microbes by limiting availability of iron.  Transferrins This system assist in the processes of inflammation and immune response.  Complement System Where can NK cells be found?  Blood, spleen, lymph nodes and red marrow What does NK cells bind to?  Bacteria, cells infected by viruses, or cancer cells and release proteins that destroy the target cells Neutrophils, eosinophil, and microphages are all examples of what?  Phagocytes What is the relationship between phagocytes and microbes?  The phagocytes engulf the microbes What are the (4) stages of phagocytosis? 1. Chemotaxis 2. Adherence 3. Ingestion 4. Digestion C.A.I.D In what stage of phagocytosis does the phagocytes migrate to sites of infection as a response to chemical signals?  Chemotaxis (1) In what stage of Phagocytosis does the phagocyte bind to the microbe?  Adherence Stage (2) In what stage of Phagocytosis does the phagocyte extend to pseudopodia to engulf the microbe?  Ingestion Stage (3) In what stage of Phagocyte does the phagocyte release lysosomes and other proteins to destroy?  Digestion Stage (4) Redness, pain, heat, swelling and loss of function is all symptoms of _________.  Inflammation What are the (3) functions of inflammation?  Kills Microbes  Prevents them from spreading to other tissues  Prepares the site for tissue repair How many stages of inflammation are there?  3 Increased body temperature is known as _____.  Fever What are the (3) functions of fever?  Increased reaction rates and interferon  Increased reaction rates of tissue repair mechanisms  Inhibits growth of some microbes Adaptive Immunity is a response to what?  A specific antigen What is a specific antigen?  Virus, bacteria, parasites, toxins, foreign tissue  Typically, the antigen is a protein molecule on surface of the pathogen or parasite The adaptive immunity must distinguish between self and non- self. How does it do this?  Memory – secondary exposure to previously encountered antigens which provoke strong and rapid responses What are the 2 types of adaptive immune responses?  Cell-mediated Immune responses  Antibody – mediated immune responses The cell-mediated immune response deals with which type of cells?  T cells – mature thymus cells The Antibody-mediated immune response deals with which type of cells?  Involved b cells – mature in red bone marrow What kind of cell can only recognize fragments of antigens that have been processed or presented?  T cells What do B cells mainly target?  Extracellular pathogens What kind of receptors allow B&T cell to recognize and react to foreign antigens  Antigen receptors What is composed of cartilage rings and plates connected by muscle? It contains the epiglottis and is involved in the production of vocalization.  Larynx What is the common passage for the respiratory and digestive systems?  Pharynx (throat) What is the structure of Antibodies?  To recognize & bind to epitope of antigens that trigger the antibody’s production. Also to Disable pathogens What is proliferation?  This is when cells replicate themselves to form a clone. They produce thousands of copied cells. These cells are genetically identical What types of cells remind your body that it has already been presented with this foreign substance?  Memory Cells There are three types of Memory cells. What are these?  Memory helper T cells  Memory cytotoxic T cells  Memory B cells Cytotoxic T cells target what mainly?  Intracellular pathogens What are the (2) parts of the upper respiratory tract?  Nose  Pharynx What are the (4) parts of the lower respiratory tract?  Larynx  Trachea  Bronchi  Lungs When are B cells activated?  When B cells are presented with an antigen Are effector cells Active?  Yes, they react immediately and to what is currently happening Effector cells include what 2 types of cells?  Helper T cells  Cytotoxic T cells What is the function of the respiratory system?  Gas exchange  pH balance What is the three functions of the nose?  Warms and filters incoming air  Detects smells  Modifies speech What is it called when the immune system “remembers” specific antigens that have triggered an immune response in the past?  Immunological memory What kinds of cells are activated by the first exposure to an antigen?  Memory B cells  Memory T cells What happens upon 1 exposure to the foreign antigen?  Only a few immnocompetent cells recognize the foreign antigen; proliferations are slow What happens upon the 2 nd exposure to the foreign antigen/  Thousands of memory cells recognize the foreign antigen; proliferation is rapid When are extracellular pathogens recognized?  Only when they are processed and presented by antigen – presenting cells (APC’s) What are antibodies made of?  Immunoglobulin proteins  4 polypeptide chains What are pleural cavities?  These are fluid filled sacs that anchor the lungs How many lobes does the right lung have?  3 How many lobes does the left lung have?  2 Why is the left lung smaller than the right?  To accommodate the heart What are the 3 major steps of gas exchange? 1. Pulmonary ventilation 2. External (pulmonary) respiration 3. Internal (tissue) respiration What includes inhaling and exhaling? – do not overthink  Pulmonary ventilation – breathing What process exchanges gases between blood and interstitial fluid in the tissues?  Internal (tissue) respiration What process exchanges gases between the atmosphere and blood in the lungs?  External (tissue) respiration What monitors movement of joint and muscles? This also increases ventilation rate in response to exercise.  Proprioceptors What monitors the levels of O2, CO2, and H+ in the blood? It is located in the medulla oblongata, aorta, and carotid arteries.  Chemoreceptors What is a cup shaped structure that is arranged in sacs?  Alveolar sacs What are tightly adhered to the outer surface of the Alveolar?  Circulatory Capillaries How many layers are in the respiratory membrane?  4 Breaths per minute is called what?  Ventilation rate (Rt) The volume of one breath is called what?  Tidal Volume (Vt) The volume of air inhaled and exhaled per minute is called what?  Minute Ventilation (MV) What are the two ‘folds’ found in the larynx?  Ventricular fold (false vocal cords)  Vocal Folds These adjust the tension of vocal folds to change pitch by contracting and relaxing?  Intrinsic laryngeal muscles What is Boyle’s law?  The pressure of gas in a closed container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container o (As volume increases, Pressure decreases) What drives pulmonary ventilation (breathing)?  Breathing is driven by changes in pressure within the lungs Is inhalation an active or passive process?  Active Is exhalation an active or passive process?  Passive What decreases the length of inhalation and increases ventilation rate?  Pneumotaxic Area What increases the length of inhalation and decrease the ventilation rate?  Apneustic Area Why would the chemoreceptors for blood )2 be located in coracoid arteries?  Because it is essential for the brain to have oxygen What is the site of gas exchange?  Type 1 Alveoli cells What secretes alveolar fluid?  Type 2 alveolar cells o These are few in numbers What are surfactants?  Alveolar fluid that prevents the alveoli from collapsing Why is the respiratory membrane a thin structure?  To maximize gas exchange Which area of the respiratory center of the brain is always active and establishes basic rhythm?  Inspiratory Area Which area of the respiratory center of the brain is only active during forced breathing and can voluntarily increase force of exhalation?  Expiratory Area What are the two layers of the pleural membrane?  Parietal pleura  Visceral pleura What is Henry’s law?  It states the quality of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to its partial pressure and it solubility What is Dalton’s Law?  Each gas in a mixture exhorts it own pressure What allows different gases in a mixture to diffuse in different directions?  The fact that they have their own partial pressure What happen in External (pulmonary) respiration?  Deoxygenated blood in pulmonary capillary exchanges gases with aveolar air What happens in the Internal (tissue) respiration?  Oxygenated blood in systemic capillary exchanges gases with tissue cells That is the GI Tract?  Gastrointestinal Tract List the 7 main parts (pieces) of the GI tract  Mouth (oral Cavity )  Pharynx  Esophagus  Stomach  Small intestine  Large interstine  Anus What are the 6 assesory digestive organs?  Teeth  Tongue  Salivary glands  Pancreous  Liver  Gallbladder What are the 3 functions of the digestive system?  Digest and absorb food  Absorbs water, vitamins, and minerals  Eliminates waste What can food provide?  Chemical energy for metabolism  Nutrients for tissue growth and repair What are the four layers of the GI tract wall?  Mucosa  Submucosa  Muscularis  Serosa What is the Serosa made of?  Connective tissues and epithelium What does the Serosa do?  Connects the GI tract to surrounding tissue What is the Muscularis made of?  Muscles and neurons o Inner layer of circular muscles o Outer layer of longitudinal muscles What does the muscularis do?  Muscle contraction What is Submucosa made of?  Connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels, neurons What does the Submucosa do?  Site of gas and fluid exchange What is the mucosa made of?  Some blood and lymph vessels and smooth muscle What does the mucosa do?  It is the site of absorption What are the two parts of the peritoneum?  Parietal  Visceral What line the abdominal cavity?  Parietal What surrounds most digestive organs?  Visceral peritoneum What is the peritoneal cavity filled with?  Serous fluid What are the three functions of the peritoneum?  Attached an anchor the digestive organs to the body  Provides movement and expansion of the digestive tract  Supplies digestive organs with blood and lymph vessels and neurons What three things does the mouth ‘house’?  Teeth  Tongue  Saliva Glands What are the three functions of the mouth?  Mechanical digestion  Chemical digestion  Forms the bolus by the tongue What are the three parts of a tooth?  Crown  Neck  Root ▯ What are pulp cavities and root canals made of? ▯  Blood & lymph vessels and neurons What calcifies connective tissue?  Dentin What is enamel?  Calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate  The hardest substance in the body What teeth are chisel shaped for nipping and cutting?  Incisors What teeth are pointed for piercing and tearing?  Canines What teeth are broad and flat crowns for crushing and grinding? They have one or two roots.  Premolars What teeth are broad and flat crowns for crushing and grinding? They have two or three roots.  Molars What are the three major glands of the mouth?  Parotid  Submandibular  Sublingual What is the function of the oral glands?  Secrete saliva in the oral cavity via salivary ducts What is Deglutition?  Swallowing – movement of food from mouth to stomach What are the three stages of deglutition?  Voluntary stage  Pharyngeal Stage  Esophageal Stage What is involuntary movement of bolus from pharynx?  Pharyngeal stage of deglutition What is voluntary movement of bolus from mouth into pharynx?  Voluntary stage of deglutition What is involuntary movement of bolus through esophagus into stomach?  Esophageal stage of deglutition What drives the esophageal stage of deglutition?  Peristalsis – a progression of coordinated contractions and relaxations of smooth muscles What does the Alkaline mucus do?  Protects mucosa from acidic gastric juice from pepsin What do gastric glands do?  Secrete gastric juice What are the four functions of the stomach?  Secrete gastric juices  Mixes saliva and food with gastric juices  Serves as a reservoir for food  Digestion How does the stomach digest mechanically?  Peristalsis – mixing waves What is 1% of cell clusters in the pancreas?  Pancreas islets What is 99% of cell clusters in the pancreas?  Acini Are pancreatic islets an endocrine or exocrine function?  Endocrine Are Acini an endocrine or exocrine function?  Exocrine How many lobes are in the liver?  Two What secretes bile?  Hepatocytes in the liver What is bile composed of?  Walter  Bile salts  Bile pigments What is the function of bile?  Emulsification What is emulsification?  Bile salts break up drops of fat or oil (lipid) into smaller droplets What are the three functions of the Gallbladder?  Receives bile from the liver  Stores and concentrates bile  Secretes bile into the small intestine What composes the very large surface are of the small intestine?  Circular folds  Villi  Microvilli What are ridges of mucosa and submucosa?  Circular folds in the small intestine What are projections of epithelium of mucosa?  Villi in the small intestine What are projections of the plasma membrane of absorptive cells?  Microvilli in the small intestine What are 3 examples of Mucosal cells?  Absorptive cells  Goblet cells  Intestinal gland cells What part of the small intestine collectively forms the ‘brush border’?  Microvilli What are called brush-border enzymes?  Absorptive cells What do absorptive cells do?  Produce several digestive enzymes  They are inserted into the plasma membrane of the microvilli ENZYME SUBSTANCE: PRODUCE ACTIVITY NAME: D IN: SITE: Salivary Digest Salivary Oral cavity Amylase starches gland & stomach Lingual Digest lipids Salivary Lipase gland Pepsin Breaks down Chief cells Gastric peptone of the glands binds stomach Gastric Chief cells Gastric Lipase of the Glands stomach LINK TO QUIZLET FLASHCARDS: ANSWER KEY TO PRACTICE TEST PRACTICE TEST 20. A 18. D 1: 19. B 1. C PRACTICE TEST 20. D 2. D 3: 3. S 1. D PRACTICE TEST 4. D 2. B 5: 5. D 3. A 1. C 6. D 4. B 2. C 7. A 5. A 3. A 8. A 6. B 4. B 9. C 7. D 5. D 10. D 8. D 6. A 11. D 9. B 7. C 12. A 10. D 8. A&D 13. B 11. C 9. A 14. D 12. D 10. B 15. B 13. B 11. B 16. A 14. B 12. C 17. C 15. D 13. B 18. B 16. A 14. A 19. D 17. A 15. B 20. D 18. B 16. C 19. A 17. B PRACTICE TEST 20. B 18. B 2: 19. C 1. D PRACTICE TEST 20. C 2. C 4: 3. C 1. B PRACTICE TEST 4. C 2. B 6: 5. D 3. C 1. C 6. C 4. B Sorry guys, 2. C 7. D 5. C didn’t mean 3. B to make a 8. B 6. B pattern! 4. C 9. A 7. C 5. B 10. A 8. C 6. D 11. A 9. B 7. A 12. A 10. C 8. D 13. A 11. B 9. C 14. D 12. C 10. C 15. C 13. D 11. D 16. C 14. D 12. D 17. B&D 15. A 13. B 18. D 16. D 14. A 19. C 17. B 15. A 16. A 17. B 18. D


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