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Study Guide for Exam #1

by: Melodi Harfouche

Study Guide for Exam #1 ANTH 360

Melodi Harfouche

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About this Document

these notes cover what was covered in the first exam of North American Prehistory
North American Prehistory
Meagan Elizabeth Dennison (P)
Study Guide
North, american, Prehistory, Archaeology
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melodi Harfouche on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 360 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Meagan Elizabeth Dennison (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see North American Prehistory in Anthropology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
ANTH 360 Summer 2016 Study Guide ANTH 360 ­ North American Prehistory Spring 2015 – Study Guide Exam 1 The following terms, names, and archaeological sites have been extracted from the text and in­ class lectures.  Make sure to review the chapters, class notes, and PowerPoint slides posted on  Blackboard. Together, they provide a good review.  Please note that not everything from this  study guide will appear on the exam – it is intended as a study aid and should not replace class  attendance. Your exam will consist of 25 multiple choice, 5 short answer, and 2 short essays I. Terms and Concepts to Know  Lecture 2 (8/23) Myth of the mound builders/moundbuilder controversy – why was this myth so persistent – who  are some of the earliest (and the first) men to explore these mounds?   ­believed that the earthworks could not have been built by Native Americans (past or present)  because they were too ‘uneducated’ in a way ­mounds must have been constructed by “civilized” peoples who had long since vanished ­this perspective had important political implications for colonial expansion in North America ­Thomas Jefferson excavated a mound in Virginia and made a number of observations ­he provided detailed accounts of his excavation ­Moundbuilder myth went on for so long bc it was a justification for the displacement and  mistreatment of Indian peoples; they could displace the Indian peoples because they were living  on a land that was originally the moundbuilders’ land ­Caleb Atwater refused to believe that the mounds were made by Native Americans despite  careful exaction ­Squier and Davis excavated more than 2000 mounds and assembled a huge collection of  artifacts (wrote Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley)  What were their conclusions? ­Jefferson concluded that the skeletal remains were no different from the natives in the region;  also concluded that these skeletal remains were Asiatic in origin (got coined Father of American  Archaeology) ­Atwater concluded that “white people of great intelligence and skill” were the primary mound  builders 1 ANTH 360 Summer 2016 Study Guide ­Squier and Davis believed that an ancient race of giants built the mounds (theory perpetuated by Native Americans because they said they saw them and battled them) Why are the Bureau of Ethnology and John Wesley Powell important to the moundbuilder  problem?  ­the BEA was established for the purpose of transferring archives, records, and materials relating to Native Americans ­John Wesley Powell organized research intensive multi­year projects as a means of recovering  rapidly vanishing info about Native Americans ­one of their first projects was to examine the Moundbuilder problem; allotted $5000 annually  for mound investigations Albert Koch ­showman and archaeologist ­discovers a mammoth/mastodon and assembles the bone skeleton w/bones of different animals  to make “Missourium”  ­sells Missourium for $2000 down and $1000 year for the rest of his life  Who is Cyrus Thomas – why is he connected to Moundbuilder controversy?  ­traveled throughout the Midwest surveying, digging, studying artifacts, and mapping mound  sites ­concluded that the mounds were the work of Native Americans, ancestors to modern  populations ­he was an entomologist that didn’t have any archaeological experience and was forced into the  moundbuilder business What is participant observation? (Who pioneered this method?) ­Frank Cushing pioneered this method ­dressed in Indian clothes and spent hour recording and descriptions of Zuni life, the  legends, myth, songs, etc.  ­in which an anthropologist lives for a prolonged period among his subjects Culture historical archaeology (what does this method emphasize and what are the primary  methods of analysis) ­emphasizes defining historical societies into distinct ethnic and cultural groupings according to  their material culture  2 ANTH 360 Summer 2016 Study Guide ­concerned primarily with chronology ­stratigraphy, direct historical method, and classification schemes  What are some of the primary critiques of culture history? What is the difference between Relative dating vs. absolute dating? (consider seriation versus  radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology) ­relative dating: science of determining the relative order of past events, without necessarily  determining their absolute age; just tells us the order in which events occurred ­earliest known relative dating is seriation: places artifacts into categories or  chronological order based on variations in style and decoration—also allows archaeologists to  measure the changes in the frequency of an artifacts style over time Why is New Deal archaeology important?  ­it created jobs and employed new archaeological field methods ­many young American archaeologists were trained who dominated the field for the next half  century ­made long­lasting impacts w/in the field of archaeology (established museums and  anthropology departments at many universities) ­archaeology went from a field of avocationalists to one of professionals  What is cultural ecology (who is it associated with and what does it emphasize) – what is the  primary difference between cultural ecology and culture history? Unilinear vs. Multilinear Evolution Processual Archaeology –  o Ethnoarchaeology o Experimental Archaeology Post­Processual archaeology – how does it differ from processual? Lecture 3: (8/25) What is NAGPRA – general tenants Kennewick Man – what is the primary controversy? How do cases like Kennewich Man and NAGPRA affect relationships between archaeologists  and Native Americans? Lecture 4/5/6 (8/30, 9/06, 9/13) 3 ANTH 360 Summer 2016 Study Guide What is Clovis – what is unique about this technology and cultural tradition? What is the Clovis­First Hypothesis? ­  Pre­Clovis Model – how does it differ?  What archaeological evidence must “pre­Clovis” site have in order to be considered legitimate?  Monte Verde – what is important about this site? ­only widespread accepted Pre­Clovis site ­had excellent preservation of organic artifacts ­challenges current migration models What are some of the general issues surrounding the pre­Clovis sites mentioned in class:  (Meadowcroft, Topper, Cactus Hill, and Paisley Cave?)  ­critics believe radiocarbon dates have been contaminated by either coal or fossilized wood  fragments that essentially leeched into the soil (Meadowcroft) ­both (Topper and Cactus Hill) in a sandy matrix (post depositional movement)  ­critics argues that specimens have been contaminated and that specimens are non­human  (Paisley Caves) What are the possible routes for the initial peopling of the New World?  What is the Solutrean Hypothesis –  What are the primary theories for mega­fauna extinction?  ­ “Overkill” Hypothesis: Paleo­Indians became specialist big game hunters concentrating on  game which they hunted to the point of extinction, and indirectly caused the extinction of many  smaller species as a consequence of ecological disruption ­ Climate Change: habitats begin changing and moving and the disruptions of these habitats can  cause extinction ­ Human Activity: the use of fire/increased burning led habitat destruction and reduction of mega fauna patches; humans begin changing the environment and the animals cannot adapt to the  environment (thus extinction) ­ Disease/ “Hyper Disease”: when humans brought dogs, amongst other animals (i.e. chickens),  it introduced the mega fauna to diseases that they could not handle ­extinctions were likely caused by a combination of all of those theories  Generalists vs. specialists –  4 ANTH 360 Summer 2016 Study Guide ­generalists tend to use a broad range of taxa when encountered while specialists ignore many of  the species they encounter in favor of pursuing a more limited high­ranked suite What is the Younger Dryas hypothesis? ­when the environment goes back to glacial like conditions (gets really cold)  ­suggests that a comet or meteoritic body or bodies hit and/or exploded over North America  12,900 years ago, causing the Younger Dryas climate episode, the extinction of Pleistocene  megafauna, and the demise of the Clovis archaeological culture Why Cache Tools? ­you can go back to it at any time  ­stored as insurance because you don’t know if you’ll be able to find more raw materials you can use just up the road  ­cache can be used as a storage pit ­they can be used as grave offerings Lecture 7/8 (9/15 & 9/20) In general, what are the different ways Plains people hunted bison? How does Bison hunting  change throughout prehistory in this region?  ­plains hunters lived and moved about on foot ­their weapon of choice was the atlatl and spear throwing (until the Woodland period)  ­Bison hunting persists until Europeans arrive (and even a little after they arrive)  Difference between petroglyphs and pictographs  How is rock art dated?  What are the different ways in which rock art has been interpreted?  Difference between representation and nonrepresentational rock art?  What is entoptic imagery?  Calico Hills Site­what is the significance of it?  Why do people aggregate?  Horn Rock Shelter Texas 5 ANTH 360 Summer 2016 Study Guide  1971­1973 Dated to 11kya Very important bc you have unique burials here Two individuals buried in a shallow pit and then covered w/a stone slab  Bodies arranged very carefully  Several artifacts buried with these individuals Projectile points Turtle shell  Ornamental shell  Crow Creek Massacre Occurred in 1325 A.D.  Between groups of Indians Excavated in the 1950s  Found piles of human bones Not buried bones (haphazardly thrown into a pit) Genocide?  486 people died (entire village?) 6


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