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Critical Thinking Midterm Study Guide

by: chgaudette

Critical Thinking Midterm Study Guide IS 1111.07

Marketplace > Plymouth State University > ENGLISH (ENG) > IS 1111.07 > Critical Thinking Midterm Study Guide


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This study guide is complete with ALL topics that will be on the midterm, plus page numbers and definitions, all formatted in an easy-to-read outline. This includes information about arguments, fal...
What is art for?
Dr. Elizabeth A. Ahl
Study Guide
critical thinking
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by chgaudette on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to IS 1111.07 at Plymouth State University taught by Dr. Elizabeth A. Ahl in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see What is art for? in ENGLISH (ENG) at Plymouth State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
“Asking the Right Questions” Exam Complete Study Guide Chapter 1 pg 2 CRITICALTHINKING  Critical thinking refers to o the awareness of a set of interrelated critical questions o the ability to ask and answer critical questions in an appropriate manner o the desire to actively use the critical questions Chapter 1 pg 3 THINKINGSTYLES  “Sponge” thinking the process of thinking that refers to simply absorbing information  “Panning for gold” thinking the process of thinking that refers to actively engaging with and asking questions of information Chapter 1 pg 7 WEAK- ANDSTRONG-SENSECRITICALTHINKING  Weak-sense critical thinking using critical thinking to defend your current beliefs  Strong-sense critical thinking using critical thinking to evaluate all claims and beliefs, including your own Chapter 3 pg 24 KINDS OF ISSUES  Issue a question of controversy responsible for the conversation or discussion; the stimulus for what is being said  Descriptive issues issues that raise questions about the accuracy of descriptions of the past, present, or future o Does…? o What is…? o Is…?  Prescriptive issues issues that raise questions about what we should do or what is right or wrong, good or bad o Should...? o What ought to be done…? o Must…? Chapter 3 pg 26 THE CONCLUSION  Conclusion the message that the speaker or writer wishes you to accept Chapter 3 pg 25 FINDINGTHEISSUEANDCONCLUSION  How to find the issue: o Ask “What is the author reacting to?" o Understand the background of the author  How to find the conclusion: o Ask “What is the write or speaker trying to prove?” o Ask “What is the communicator’s main point?” o Ask what the issue is o Look for indicator words:  consequently  suggests that  therefore  thus  it follows that  the point I’m trying to make is  shows that  proves that  indicates that  the truth of the matter is o Look at the beginning or the end o Remember that conclusions are not  examples  statistics  definitions  background information  evidence o Use the context of the communication and the author’s background Chapter 4 pg 33 REASONS  Reasons beliefs, evidence, metaphors, analogies, or other statements that support or justify conclusions; explanations for why we should believe a claim Chapter 4 pg 34 ARGUMENTS  Argument a combination of a conclusion and reasons that allegedly support it Chapter 4 pg 36 FINDINGTHEREASONS  Answer “Why does the author believe in their claim?”  Words that identify reasons: o as a result of o for the reason that o because of the fact that o in view of o is supported by o because the evidence is o studies show o first…second…third Chapter 7 pg 77 FALLACIES  Fallacy a reasoning “trick” that authors may use while trying to persuade their audience to accept a conclusion  List of fallacies Fallacy Pg # Definition Straw Person 83 Distorting our opponent’s point of so that it is easy to attack; thus we attack a point of view that does not truly exist Appeal to Questionable 81 Supporting a conclusion by citing an authority who lacks special Authority expertise on the issue at hand Searching for the Perfect 80 Falsely assuming that because part of a problem remains after a Solutions solution is tried, the solution should not be adopted Slippery Slope 80 Making the assumption that a proposed step will set off an uncontrollable chain of undesirable event, when procedures exist to prevent such a chain of events Either-or (False Dilemma) 83 Assuming only two alternatives when there is more than two Ad Populum 81 An attempt to justify a claim by appealing to sentiments that large groups of people have in common; falsely assumes that anything favored by a large group is desirable Chapter 8 pg 93 TYPESOF EVIDENCE  Factual claim conclusions, reasons, or assumptions that the communicator wants us to accept as “facts” o When encountering a factual claim:  First, ask, “Why should I believe it?”  Then ask, “Does the claim need evidence to support it?”  If yes and there is no evidence, it is a mere assumption and is most likely not dependable information  If there is evidence, then ask, “How good is the evidence?”  Then ask about the dependability of the evidence by asking, “Can we count on such beliefs?”  Determining dependability: ask…  What is your proof?  How do you know that’s true?  Where’s the  Why do you believe that? evidence?  Can you prove it?  Are you sure that’s true?  Evidence explicit information shared by the communicator that is used to support or justify the dependability of a factual claim o In prescriptive arguments, evidence will be needed to support reasons that are factual claims o In descriptive arguments, evidence will be needed to directly support a descriptive conclusion  List of types of evidence Type Ch/ Definition Pros Cons/Questions to ask Pg # Intuition 8/96 “common  unconsciously making  private, no one but you can judge sense” or “gut decisions may be the dependability feelings” influenced by relevant  usually incapable of explanation and dependable personal experiences and readings Personal 8/97 experiences  might be easy to relate  hasty generalization fallacy: Experiences that the to drawing a conclusion about a large communicator group of people based on has been a experiences of one or few part of or members of the group witnessed  possible but not always probable Case 8/98 detailed  often vivid and/or  appeal to emotions fallacy: using Examples and/or catchy interesting strong words to distract you from descriptions  easy to visualize the value of the evidence itself of one or  possible but not always probable several individuals or events Testimonials 8/99 quotes from  look appealing  selectivity – testimonial collectors customers or  might be easy to relate often only choose testimonials that celebrities to best sell their point that explain  personal interest – some their feelings testimonial collectors only use about a testimonials to obtain personal product gain (similar to  omitted information – personal testimonials may be too vague to experience) provide sufficient information  human factor – testimonials often come from seemingly enthusiastic and trustworthy people who may not be trustworthy or are just actors Appeals to 8/100 quotes from  dependable authorities  authorities’ backgrounds need to authority experts who are a good resources be researched to determine their most likely of information; you dependability know more would listen to your  How much expertise, training, or information doctor if he told you to knowledge does the authority have about a do something to in their subject? certain topic improve your health or  Did the authority have good than other to take a prescribed access to pertinent information? people drug  Would the authority have been free  dependable authorities of distorting influences? (bias, add extra oomph to personal gain, etc.) your argument  Does the authority have a good reputation?  Is the authority authentic?  Do other authorities of the same topic agree? Personal 9/106 evidence  basis of many  not “pure”, as single personal Observations witnessed by scientific studies observations are filtered through a the  reliable when set of values, biases, attitudes, and communicator witnessed by multiple experiences individuals with no apparent expectations or biases Research 9/107 scientifically  the scientific method  vary in quality, only well-done Studies observed and allows for research is reliable interpreted o replication:  other research studies can data done publically contradict each other, so single systematically verifiable by research findings used as evidence through the other qualified are not always reliable scientific professionals  used to support conclusions method to get the same through interpretation, not to prove results them o control: the use  researchers can have biases of special  researcher findings may be procedures to distorted or oversimplified reduce error in  facts change over time; only recent finding research studies are truly reliable observations  research studies may be artificial and and may not truly represent how interpreting the real world works findings o precision:  researches may have reasons to research misinterpret their study or results for personal gain reports are  survey or questionnaires may be made to be distorted or biased easily  the sample used may be to understood generalized, given the number, breadth, and randomness of the sample  What is the quality of the source of the report?  Does the report detail the strengths of the research?  How recently was the research conducted, and are there reasons to believe that the findings have changed over time?  Has the study been replicated?  Was strong-sense critical thinking used?  Would the researchers have reasons to distort the research?  Are the research conditions too artificial?  How far can we generalize, given the research sample?  Are there biases or distortions in the surveys, questionnaires, ratings, or other measurements that the researcher uses? Analogies 9/117 comparable  helps others visualize  may be misleading claims in and understand the  open to interpretation which one is a communicators actual  might have more differences than claim you are claim similarities trying to  may have completely irrelevant prove and the similarities and significant other is differences widely accepted and  cannot stand alone as evidence  faulty analogy fallacy: when an easy to analogy used has important understand relevant differences


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