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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Skylar Hertel

Exam 2 Study Guide 1302-001

Skylar Hertel

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About this Document

This study guide covers chapters 4-6 in the book and DVD 4-6 watched in class.
Michael Drake
Study Guide
intro, to, Jazz, Appreciation
50 ?





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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Skylar Hertel on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1302-001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Michael Drake in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see JAZZ APPRECIATION in Music History at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Jazz Appreciation Exam 2 DVD 4­6 DVD 4: ● Swing music broke down the barriers that separated everyone for decades. ● Savoy Ballroom was New York’s biggest and most popular ballroom/first dance  club to be completely integrated(Harlem, NY. ● Louie Armstrong:  ○ Tommy Rockwell promised to make him a hit if he came to New  York as a soloist, he brought his hot five anyways. ○ He essentially invented American singing. ○ He is the single­most influential singer in American History. ○ Obligato: In the moment scat singing. ● Lindy Hop is the dance that evolved with Swing music. ● Chick Webb: ○ Very talented swing drummer ○ TB of the spine, was only 4 feet tall(eventually killed him) ● Duke Ellington: ○ Prospered through the Great Depression ○ Best known black bandleader in America and was known for his  Jungle Music. ○ Irving Mills arranged for him to appear in the movie, “Check and  Double Check.” ○ Half the people did not dance when he played because they were  so amazed ○ He would always represent “the very best” for struggling  Americans. ○ Erased the color line between African music and classical music. ○ Fell apart when his mother died. ● Thomas “Fats” Waller: ○ Mayor of Harlem ○ Very talented piano player, mentored by James P. Johnson. ○ Sold 400 songs numerous times to different people because he was payed so little. ● 19 Piece Big Band: ○ 5 trumpets ○ 5 trombones ○ 5 saxophones(woodwinds) ○ Rhythm section: drummer, piano, bass, guitar ○ Guitar is the first one to go if their are budget constraints. ● Roseland: most popular ballroom where fletcher henderson played for almost 20  years. ● Lindy Hoppers could not dance to Sydney Bechet’s music. ● No money to play a march at Buddy Bolden’s funeral ● John Hammond: ○ Central to the history of jazz ○ Non Musician, but wrote seriously about jazz and heard “no color” in music. ○ Many musicians would not have been heard or discovered w/o  him. ● Billy rose wanted Benny Goodman to play at his new dance hall ● Benny Goodman: ○ CREATED SWING MUSIC/USHERED IN SWING ERA ○ He didn't have books(sheet music) for all his radio gigs so fletcher  henderson shared his and wrote more for him. ● Art Tatum: ○ Sounded like 4 men playing the piano at once. ○ Almost completely blind, but had an insane memory for melody. ○ Influenced every type of musician with improvisation. ○ Invisible man of jazz DVD 5 ● Billie Holiday became the greatest female jazz singer. ● Swing rescued the recording industry ● Swing became the defining music of an entire generation ● Swing provided Hollywood with its theme music ● Lindyhop was now called jitterbuggin’ ● Benny Goodman: ○ Became a matinee idol ○ His records were 1,2,3 at californian record stores. ● Duke Ellington:  ○ Never complained about Goodman being the king of sing ○ Refused to be categorized ○ “Jazz is a music, swing is a business” ● Louie Armstrong: ○ Hired Joe Glazner to be his new manager who helped get him out  of “trouble” ○ Louie appeared in movies (A rhapsody in black and blue was the  1st of many) which made him even more famous and displayed him very  differently than Ellington. ● Jimmy Lancford: ○ Had America’s greatest show band that was always at its greatest  peak. ● Glenn Miller: ○ Led one of the greatest swing bands of all time ○ Dave Brubeck: jazz pianist and composer ● Artie Shaw: ○ Benny Goodman’s greatest rival ○ Hated autograph seekers ○ 1936 disbanded orchestra because he hated the business part of  music. ● Teddy Wilson: ○ Black pianist of Goodman’s trio ○ Light, lyrical tech ○ Very fast player ● Goodman’s Trio: ○ Gene Krupa: drums ○ Teddy Wilson: pianist ○ Benny: Clarinet ○ Goodman was reluctant to bring Wilson on to record together until  Helen Oakley convinced him ● Lionel Hampton: ○ Vibraphone ○ Transformed ^ into a quartet ● Billie Holiday: ○ Had a very rough childhood; worked as a prostitute much of her  young adulthood(by age 12) ○ Tiny vocal range just over an octave, sung just behind the beat ○ Greatest American jazz singer behind Louie Armstrong ○ Most important female vocalist in the history of jazz. ● Chick Webb: ○ Had to nail down his bass drum so that his kick wouldn't knock  over the bass ● Benny Goodman vs Chick Webb: ○ At savoy ○ Battle of the “kings of the Swing” ○ Gene Krupa bowed down to Webb ○ Chick Webb won ● John Hammond: ○ Claimed sing was too commercial and wanted to bring Count Basie and his sound to the rest of the country. DVD 6: ● Saxophone has emerged as a central part of jazz ● Coleman Hawkins: ○ Tenor saxophone ○ Responsible for making tenor saxophone a jazz instrument  ○ Established tenor saxophone as a soloist instrument ○ Fletcher Henderson hired him ○ “Body and Soul” was = to Armstrong’s “West End Blues” and was a hit to Americans of every color. ● Lester Young: ○ Coleman Hawkins greatest rival ○ Tenor saxophone ○ Held it to the side when he played( very unorthodox) ● Kansas City, Missouri flourished even in the depths of the depression ● Kansas City called “The Territory” ● Head Chart: music is memory ● Mary Lou Williams: ○ Changed the view that jazz was a man’s world ○ Pianist ● Billie Holiday: ○ Began working with Count Basie ○ Called him Daddy Bassie and he called her “William” ○ She was like a man only feminine ○ Became lifelong friends with Lester Young ○ Young and Her created some of the most memorable records in  jazz history ● Count Basie: ○ Came to Savoy to face off Chick Webb in a playing contest ○ Judge ruled Webb the winner but the audience stayed divided ○ Left the biggest memory on the 1st outdoor jazz festival for both  black and whites. ● Benny Goodman: ○ Was known to give “the ray” (a stern look) to those musicians who didn't play their parts perfectly. ● Charlie Christian: ○ Electric guitar ○ Turned the guitar into a major jazz instrument as well as a soloist  instrument ○ Hired on the spot by Benny Goodman ● Ella Fitzgerald: ○ Like holday, she had a troubled past ○ She joined Chick Webb’s band ○ Won the woman’s greatest jazz singer in 2 different magazines  (downbeat and Metronome) ○ “The first lady of swing” ● Chick Webb: ○ First king of swing ○ Died at just age 30 of TB of the spine ○ His orchestra stayed together but changed its name to “Ella  Fitzgerald and her famous orchestra.” ● Holiday  ○ left Basie’s band for Artie shaw's but America wasn't ready for a  black singer in a white band. ○ Later vowed to never tour with a dance band again. ○ Abel Meeropol wrote a poem for her to sing called “Strange Fruit”  about Lynching and she often cried while singing it and later claimed to have  written it. ● Duke Ellington: ○ Sailed for europe and was reigned supreme in Europe ○ Fans filled his room with flowers for his 40th birthday ○ Played in underground orchestra hall in France built to sustain  German bombs. 


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