Popular in Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Department
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Myrissa Webb on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2010-006 at Auburn University taught by Brian Nowell in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 157 views.
Reviews for Exam 2
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/13/16
1 What is the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors? 2 What is learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequence (as in operant conditioning)? 3 What is any event or situation that evokes a response? 4 What is the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching other, or through language? 5 Why are habits, such as having something sweet with that cup of coffee, so hard to break? 6 What is a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events? 7 What is the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes? 8 What, in classical conditioning, is a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning? 9 What, in classical conditioning, is an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth)? 10 What, in classical conditioning, is a stimulus that unconditionally - naturally and automatically- triggers a response? 11 What, in classical conditioning, is a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)? 12 What, in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR)? 13 What, in classical conditioning, is the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response? (In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response) 14 What is a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus? 15 What is the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced? 16 What is the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response? 17 If the aroma of cake baking sets your mouth to watering, what is the US? The CS? The CR? 18 The first step of classical conditioning, when an NS becomes a CS, is called? 19 When a US no longer follows the CS, and the CR becomes weakened, this is? 20 What is the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses? 21 What, in classical conditioning, is the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus? 22 In Watson and Rayner's experiments, "Little Albert" learned to fear a white rat after repeatedly experiencing a loud noise as the rat was presented. In this experiment, what was the US? The UR? The NS? The CS? The CR? 23 With ____________ conditioning, we learn associations between events we do not control. 24 With _____________ conditioning, we learn associations between our behavior and resulting events. 25 What is a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher? 26 What is Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely? 27 What, in operant conditioning, is a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforce; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking? 28 What, in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows? 29 What is an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforces guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior? 30 What increases behaviors by presenting positive reinforces? 31 What increases behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli? 32 What is an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need? 33 What is a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer? 34 What is a patter that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced? 35 What is reinforcing the desired response every single time it occurs? 36 What is reinforcing a response only part of the time? 37 Does the question above result in slower or faster acquisition of a response? 38 In operant conditioning, what is the reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses? 39 In operant conditioning, what is the reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses? 40 In operant conditioning, what is the reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed? 41 In operant conditioning, what is the reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals? 42 What is an event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows? 43 Telemarketers are reinforced by which schedule? 44 People checking the oven to see if the cookies are done are on which schedule? 45 Airline frequent flyer programs that offer a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel are using which reinforcement schedule? 46 What the behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus? 47 What is the behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences? 48 Salivating in response to a tone paired with food is what kind of behavior? 49 Pressing a bar to obtain food is what kind of behavior? 50 What is a mental representation of the layout of one's environment? 51 What is the learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it? 52 What is the desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake? 53 What is the desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment? 54 What is learning by observing others? 55 What is the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior? 56 What are frontal lobe neurons that some scientist believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so? 57 What is the positive, constructive, helpful behavior? 58 How is intelligence defined? 59 What are the arguments for and against considering intelligence as one general mental ability? 60 How od Garner's and Sternberg's theories of multiple intelligence differ? 61 What is creativity, and what fosters it? 62 What are the four components of emotional intelligence? 63 To what extent is intelligence related to brain anatomy? 64 To what extent is intelligence related ot neural processing speed? 65 What's the difference between achievement and aptitude tests? 66 What are standardization and the normal curve? 67 What are reliability and validity? Answers: 1 Learning 2 Associative learning 3 Stimulus 4 Cognitive learning 5 Habits form when we repeat behaviors in a given context and , as a result, learn associations-often without our awareness. For example, we may have eaten a sweet pastry with a cup of coffee often enough to associate the flavor of the coffee with the treat, so that the cup of coffee alone just doesn’t seem right anymore! 6 Classical conditioning 7 Behaviorism 8 Neutral stimulus (NS) 9 Unconditioned response (UR) 10 Unconditioned stimulus (US) 11 Conditioned response (CR) 12 Conditioned stimulus (CS) 13 Acquisition 14 Higher-order conditioning 15 Extinction 16 Spontaneous recovery 17 US: the cake CS: aroma CR: Salivation 1 Acquisition 2 Extinction 3 Generalization 4 Discrimination 5 US: loud noise UR: fear response NS: rat before the noise pairing CS: rat after the pairing CR: fear 1 Classical 2 Operant 3 Operant conditioning 4 Law of effect 5 Operant chamber 6 Reinforcement 7 Shaping 8 Positive Reinforcement 9 Negative Reinforcement 10 Primary Reinforcer 11 Conditioned Reinforcer 12 Reinforcement schedule 13 Continuous Reinforcement 14 Partial Reinforcement 15 Slower 16 Fixed ratio schedule 17 Variable ratio schedule 18 Fixed interval schedule 19 Variable interval schedule 20 Punishment 21 Variable-ratio schedule (after a varying number of calls) 22 Fixed-interval schedule 23 Fixed-ratio schedule 24 Respondent behavior 25 Operant behavior 26 Respondent behavior 27 Operant behavior 28 Cognitive map 29 Latent learning 30 Intrinsic motivation 31 Extrinsic motivation 32 Observational learning 33 Modeling 34 Mirror neurons 35 Prosocial behavior 36 Intelligence is a mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situation. An intelligence test aims to assess these qualities and compare them with those of others, using a numerical score. 37 Charles Spearman proposed that we have one general intelligence (g). He helped develop factor analysis, a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related mental abilities. L.L. Thurstone disagreed and identified seven different clusters of mental abilities. Yet a tendency remained for high scorers in one cluster to score high in other clusters. Studies indicate that g scores are most predictive in novel situations and do not much correlate with skills in evolutionarily familiar situation. 38 Savant syndrome seems to support Howard Gardner's view that we have multiple intelligences. He proposed eight independent intelligences: linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and naturalist. Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory proposes three intelligence areas that predict real-world skills: analytical (academic problem- solving), creative, and practical 39 Creativity, the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas, correlates somewhat with intelligence, but beyond an IQ score of 120, that correlation dwindle. Sternberg has proposed that creativity has five components: expertise, imaginative thinking skills; a venturesome personality; intrinsic motivation; and a creative environment that sparks, support, and refine creative ideas. 40 Emotional intelligence, which is an aspect of social intelligence, is the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions. Emotionally intelligent people achieve greatr personal and professional success. Some critics question whether ccalling these abilites "intelligence" stretches that concepts too far. 41 Some studies have found a positive correlation between intelligence score and brain size and activity, especially in the frontal and parietal lobes. Ample gray matter and white matter enable efficient communication between brain circuits. 42 People who score high on intelligence tests tend also t have agile brains that score high in speed of perception and speed of neural processing. The direction of correlation has not been determined, and some third factor may influence both intelligence and processing speed. 43 Achievement tests are designed to assess what you have learned. Aptitude tests are designed ot predict what you can learn. 44 Standardization establishes a basis for meaningful score comparison by giving a test to a representative sample of future test-takers. The distribution of test scores often forms a normal (bell-shaped) curve around the central average score, with fewer and fewer scores at the extremes. 45 Reliability is the extent to which a test yields consistent results (on two halves of the test, or when people are retarded). Validity is the extent is the extent ot which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. A test has content validity if it samples the pertinent behavior (as a driving test measures driving ability.) It has predictive validity if it predicts a behavior it was designed to predict. (Aptitude tests have predictive ability if they can predict future achievements).
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'