Abnormal Psych Exam 2 Study Guide
Abnormal Psych Exam 2 Study Guide PY 358
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katelynn Jones on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 358 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Theodore Tomeny in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 240 views.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Chapter 5 Key Terms: • Amnesia- the inability to recall important information and usually occurs after a medical condition or event • Conversion Disorder- pseudoneurological complaints, such as motor or sensory dysfunction • Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder- feelings of being detached from one’s body or mind, a state of feeling as if one is an external observer of one’s own behavior • Dissociative Amnesia- an inability to recall important information, usually of a personal nature, that follows a stressful or traumatic event with no biological explanation to why their memory is lost • Dissociative Disorders- a set of disorders characterized by disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment • Dissociative Fugue- a disorder involving loss of personal identity and memory, often involving a flight from a person’s usual place of residence • Dissociative Identity Disorder- a presence within a person of two or more distinct personality states, each with its own pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self • Factitious Disorder Imposed On Self- occurs as an individual imposes deceptive practices designed to produce signs of illness on self • Factitious Disorder Imposed On Another- occurs as an individual produces physical symptoms on another, normally mother imposing on a child • Iatrogenic- the term describing a disease that may be inadvertently caused by a physician, by a medical or surgical treatment, or by a diagnostic procedure • Illness Anxiety Disorder- fears or concerns about having an illness that persist despite medical reassurance • Malingering- occurs when an individual intentionally produces physical symptoms to avoid military service, criminal prosecution, or work, or to obtain financial compensation or drugs • Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders- conditions in which physical symptoms or concerns about an illness cannot be explained by a medical or psychological disorder Application of terms/concepts: 1. What do somatic symptom disorders all have in common? - All somatic symptom disorders cannot be explained by a medical or psychological disorder. 2. You won’t be asked to list every symptom of the somatic symptom, dissociative, and factitious disorders, but be able to recognize which major symptoms are associated with which disorders and know how these disorders are differentiated from one another. - Somatic symptom disorder: the presence of many symptoms that suggest a medical condition, but without a recognized organic basis. Any one somatic symptom may not be continuously present, the state of being symptomatic is persistent and typically is longer than 6 months. Excessive thoughts, feelings, or behaviors related to somatic symptoms or associated with health concerns as manifested by at least one of the following: 1. Disproportionate and persistent thoughts about the seriousness of one’s symptoms 2. Persistently high level of anxiety about health concerns 3. Excessive time and energy devoted to these symptoms or health concerns. Conversion Disorder: pseudoneurological complaints, such as motor or sensory dysfunction; paralysis or blindness. Seizures/convulsions. Glove anesthesia can occur as loss of sensitivity in hand and wrist. Illness Anxiety Disorder: fears or concerns about having an illness that persist despite medical reassurance. Obsessive about their health and often elicit negative reactions from physicians. High levels of anxiety about health. Illness preoccupation must be present for at least 6 months. Factitious Disorder: factitious disorder imposed on self occurs as an individual imposes deceptive practices designed to produce signs of illness. Factitious disorder imposed on another occurs as an individual produces physical symptoms on another normally a mother on a child. Dissociative Identity Disorder: alternative personalities or “alters”. Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder: characterized by incidence of comorbidity with other medical conditions or other psychiatric disorders or feelings of being detached from one’s body or unfamiliarity with one’s surroundings. 3. How is malingering different from factitious disorder? - Malingering occurs when an individual is trying to avoid a situation such as military service, criminal prosecution, work, or to obtain financial compensation. A person with factitious disorder produces physical symptoms on themselves or another for attention to take on the “sick role”. 4. What are some unique challenges when it comes to detecting somatic symptom/factitious disorders? What are some unique challenges to treating these disorders? - Some people with somatic symptom/factitious disorders will go to different doctors to avoid suspension. There is no real disorder or cause of a person’s symptoms which can make it difficult for a doctor to detect these things. Some people may not seek the help that they need. 5. Apply the major theories (e.g., psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral, biological) to somatic symptom, and dissociative disorders. How does each theory explain these disorders (i.e., what causes the disorders based on the different theories)? What are common treatments based on these theories? - Biological somatic symptom disorders: brain malfunction vs. structural abnormalities. Psychodynamic somatic symptom disorders: intrapsychic conflict, personality, and defense mechanisms. Cognitive somatic symptom disorders: distorted cognitions. Behavioral somatic symptom disorders: modeling and reinforcement. Treatment of somatic symptoms disorders: basic education of the mid-body connection when it comes to symptoms and CBT (psychological). Biological/Psychosocial in Dissociative disorders: abnormal brain functioning, structural abnormalities, neurochemical changes and other neurological conditions (Biological). Failure of normal personality integration, severely abused children, childhood sexual abuse, recovered or false memories, a method to cope or block a traumatic event, viewed as an iatrogenic disease (psychosocial). Treatment of Dissociative disorders: antidepressants, exposure therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy. 6. What are some of the controversies related to the possible causes of dissociative disorders? - Some people believe that people are just faking these disorders. Some people say that their dissociative disorders come from childhood abuse, however, most children that are abused do not have any dissociative disorders. Some people believe that dissociative disorders are iatrogenic and brought on by medical professionals. Chapter 6 Key Terms: • Antidepressants- a group of medications designed to alter mood regulating chemicals in the brain and body that are highly effective in reducing symptoms of depression • Bipolar Disorder- both episodic depressed mood and episodic mania • Bipolar I- full blown mania alternates with episodes of major depression • Bipolar II- hypomania mood elevation that is abnormal yet not severe enough to impair functioning or require hospitalization • Cyclothymic Disorder- a condition characterized by fluctuations that alternate between hypomania and depression • Depression- abnormally low mood • Double Depression- a combination of episodic major depressions superimposed on chronic low mood • Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)- the controlled delivery of electrical impulses, which cause brief seizures in the brain and reduce depressed mood • Hypomania- a mood elevation that is clearly abnormal yet not as extreme as frank mania • Learned Helplessness- a term meaning that externally uncontrollable environments and presumably internally uncontrollable environments are inescapable stimuli that can lead to depression • Lithium- a naturally occurring metallic element used to treat bipolar disorder, which moderates glutamate levels in the brain • Major Depressive Disorder- persistent sad or low mood that is severe enough to impair a person’s interest or ability to engage in normally enjoyable activities • Mania- abnormally high mood; a period of abnormal elevated or irritable mood lasting at least one week or requires hospitalization • Mixed State- a state characterized by symptoms of mania and depression that occur at the same time • Mood Disorders- a psychological disorder characterized by the elevation or lowering of a person’s mood; such as depression or bipolar disorder • Persistent Depressive Disorder- a chronic state of depression; the symptoms are the same as those of major depression, but are less severe • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)- a group of medications that selectively inhibit the reuptake of serotonin at the presynaptic neuronal membrane, restoring the normal chemical balance; drugs thought to correct serotonin imbalances by increasing the time that the neurotransmitter remains in the synapse • Suicidal Ideation- thoughts of suicide that range from thoughts to detailed plans Application of terms/concepts: 1. How are mood disorders different from regular happiness or sadness? - Mood disorders can take the for of low or high mood, however, it is abnormally low or abnormally high. Regular happiness or sadness does not last as long and does not interfere with a person’s ability to work or function in their daily lives. Major Depression is persistent and regular sadness is not. 2. How are Bipolar I and Bipolar II disorders differentiated? - Bipolar I is full blown mania that alternates with episodes of major depression. Bipolar II is hypomania mood elevation that is abnormal yet not severe enough to impair functioning or require hospitalization. 3. You won’t be asked to list every symptom of the mood disorders, but be able to recognize which major symptoms are associated with which disorders and know how these mood disorders are differentiated from one another. - Bipolar Disorder: mood shifts between two emotional “poles”. Depression and mania. Cyclothymic Disorder: fluctuations between hypomania and depression. Episodes are not as severe as with mania or major depression. Must persist for at least two years. Major Depressive Disorder: disturbance in psychological, emotional, social, and physical functioning. It is episodic where a single episode can last two weeks to several months and can be recurrent. Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia): chronic state of depression. Symptoms are similar to major depression but are less severe. Lasts two or more years and an individual is never without symptoms for more than two months. Can lead to social isolation, high suicide risk, and mislabeled as moody. 4. Depression is more than just sadness. What are all the different ways that depression can affect someone? - Depression can cause someone to sleep more or less than usual, eat more or less than usual, it can cause a disturbance in psychological, emotional, social, and physical functioning. Depression can cause unemployment, lack of education and financial resources. It can also impact reproductive events. 5. How might mood disorders look different depending on the person’s age? - In children, mania may be more chronic; irritability and temper tantrums. Onset in children and adolescence is more severe. There can be a difficultly in differentiating bipolar disorder from ADHD, conduct disorder, ODD and schizophrenia in children. 6. What are common risk factors for suicide? Who is more likely to attempt suicide? Who is more likely to commit suicide? What are common approaches to treating suicide? - Risk factors include: family history, mental disorders, substance abuse, bullying, chronic disease, low levels of serotonin and loss of social network. Females have higher suicidal thoughts, but males commit suicide more often. Some treatments for suicide include: follow up psychiatric care psychosocial intervention, and psychological intervention. 7. Apply the major theories (e.g. psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral, biological) to the mood disorders. How does each theory explain these disorders (i.e., what causes the disorders based on the different theories)? What are common treatments based on these theories? - Biological: genetics and family studies neuroimaging studies, environmental factors and life events. Both genes and environmental factors are involved in the onset of depression. Genes double the risk of depression following life stressors. Psychological: psychodynamic theory states “anger turned inward”. Attachment theory says as babies we develop strong bonds with caregivers and without it depression can be a result. Cognitive: distortions in thoughts about oneself. Behavioral: learned helplessness is a person that says there is nothing I can do about the situation and has that kind of attitude. Psychological treatment for Bipolar Disorder: CBT to develop skills to change inappropriate or negative thought patterns. Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy promotes adherence to regular daily routines. Biological treatment for Bipolar Disorder: lithium, anticonvulsants, atypical antipsychotics and ECT. Psychological treatment for Major Depression: focus on understanding how thoughts, perceptions, and behaviors influence depression; CBT, interpersonal psychotherapy, behavioral activation (focuses on increased contact with positive reinforcement for healthy behaviors which results in positive mood). Biological treatment for Major Depression: first generation antidepressants (Tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors), second generation antidepressants (SSRIs), ECT, light therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. Chapter 7 Key Terms: • Amenorrhea- an abnormal absence of menstruation • Anorexia Nervosa- a serious condition marked by an inability to maintain a normal healthy body weight • Bigorexia- not ever feeling big enough; spending a lot of time in the gym and sometimes taking steroids • Binge Eating- consuming a larger amount of food than most people would eat in a discrete period of time and having a sense that eating is out of control • Binge Eating Disorder- a disorder characterized by regular binge eating behaviors, but without the compensatory behaviors that are part of bulimia • Body Mass Index (BMI)- a weight to height ratio, calculated by dividing one’s weight in kilograms by the square of one’s height in meters • Bulimia Nervosa- a disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating in combination with some form of compensatory behavior aimed at undoing the effects of the binge or preventing weight gain • Enmeshment- a concept introduced by Salvador Minuchin to describe families where personal boundaries are diffused, sub systems undifferentiated, and over concern for others leads to a loss of autonomous development • Inappropriate Compensatory Behavior- any actions that a person uses to counteract a binge or to prevent weight gain • Osteoporosis- a medical condition in which the bones become brittle and fragile from loss of tissue, typically as a result of hormonal changes, or deficiency of calcium or vitamin D • Purging- self inducing vomiting or using laxatives, diuretics, or enemas to reverse the effects of a binge or to induce weight loss Application of terms/concepts: 1. How does one distinguish Anorexia Nervosa from Bulimia Nervosa? - Someone with anorexia has a low body weight and someone with bulimia has normal or above normal body weight. 2. What are some medical problems associated with the different eating disorders? - Anorexia: low body weight, dehydration, tooth decay, malnutrition, osteoporosis, death. Bulimia: dehydration, heart problems, tooth decay, ulcers. Binge Eating Disorder: diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, obesity. 3. Eating disorders aren’t just about food. What are some of the other psychological issues often present that drive the development and maintenance of eating disorders? - Personality traits such as perfectionism, obsessionality, neuroticism, low self- esteem or worriers. Developmental tasks such as leaving home for college. Segments of the population where emphasis is placed on body shape/weight such as actors, dancers, models, athletes, etc. patterns of family dysfunction like enmeshment, rigidity, overprotectiveness, poor conflict resolution. Distorted cognitions related to body shape, weight, eating and personal control. Society and culture such as western “thing ideas” and culture value on beauty. 4. You won’t be asked to list every symptom of the eating disorders, but be able to recognize which major symptoms are associated with which disorders and know how these eating disorders are differentiated from one another. - Anorexia: restricting food or binging/purging. Below normal body weight. Intense fear of getting fat. Bulimia: binging/purging with a normal or above normal body weight. Recurrent episodes of binge eating. Binge eating disorder: recurrent binge eating behaviors without purging. People with this disorder may be overweight. Report distress over binge eating. Associated with three or more of the following: eating rapidly, eating past feeling full, eating large amounts when not hungry, eating alone due to embarrassment, or feeling disgusted, depressed or guilty with oneself. 5. Apply the major theories (e.g., psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral, biological) to the eating disorders. How does each theory explain these disorders (i.e., what causes the disorders based on the different theories)? - Psychological: patterns of family dysfunction, distorted cognitions, and society and culture. Biological: role of the hypothalamus, brain structure and brain functioning, family genetics may also play a part in the development of eating disorders. 6. What are common treatments for eating disorders? Which care providers are typically involved in the treatment of eating disorders and why? What is the role of each? - Anorexia: have to eat a certain amount of food and gain/stabilize weight. Will go to therapy. May see a dietician or nutritionist to discuss necessary nutrients. All these people make up a multi-disciplinary team used a lot in the treatment of anorexia. Bulimia: some medications or SSRIs can be prescribed to treat bulimia. Normalization of eating; eliminating binging/purging. Therapy and may also see a dietician or nutritionist. Binge eating disorder: eliminating binge eating. Weight stabilization or weight loss. Therapy to improve psychological factors such as depression, self-esteem or self-efficacy. Chapter 8 Key Terms: • Erectile Disorder- a condition with persistent and recurrent inability to maintain an adequate erection until completion of sexual activity • Exhibitionistic Disorder- exposure of one’s genitals to unsuspecting viewers • Female Orgasmic Disorder- persistent and recurrent delay or absence of orgasm following the normal excitement phase • Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder- a condition with persistent or recurrent inability to maintain adequate vaginal lubrication and swelling response until the completion of sexual activity • Fetishistic Disorder- fantasies, urges, or behaviors that involve nonliving objects • Frotteuristic Disorder- rubbing against a nonconsenting person • Gender Dysphoria- a strong and persistent cross sex identification in which a person’s biological sex and gender identity do not match • Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder- consistent genital pain associated with sexual intercourse • Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder- a condition with reduced or absent sexual desires or behaviors, either with a partner or through masturbation • Pedophilic Disorder- sexual urges, fantasies, or actual behavior directed toward a prepubescent child • Premature Ejaculation- consistent ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation also known as rapid ejaculation • Sexual Dysfunctions- absence or impairment of some aspect of sexual response that causes distress or impairment • Sexual Masochism Disorder- sexual arousal as a result of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer pain • Sexual Sadism Disorder- infliction of pain or humiliation, but in this case the physical or psychological suffering is inflicted on another person • Transgender Behavior- the behavioral attempt to pass as the opposite sex through cross dressing, disguising one’s own sexual genitalia, or changing other sexual characteristics • Transsexualism- another term for gender dysphoria commonly used to describe the condition when it occurs in adolescents and adults • Transvestic Disorder- sexual arousal in men that results from wearing women’s clothing and is accompanied by distress and impairment; only occurs in heterosexual men • Voyeuristic Disorder- seeing an unsuspecting person naked, undressing, or engaging in sexual activity Application of terms/concepts: 1. Be familiar with the sexual response cycle and which disorders are associated with the different parts of the sexual response cycle. - The sexual response cycle is 1. Desire phase, 2. Arousal phase, 3. Orgasm phase, and 4. Resolution phase. Sexual interest/desire disorders are associated with the desire phase of the sexual response cycle. Sexual arousal disorders such as female sexual interest/arousal disorder and male erectile disorder are associated with the arousal phase of the sexual response cycle. Orgasmic disorders such as female orgasmic disorder, male orgasmic disorder, and premature ejaculation are associated with the orgasm phase of the sexual response cycle. 2. What’s the difference between “sex” and “gender” as it relates to this set of disorders? - Sex is what is biologically determined. Gender is a subjective identification of being either male or female. 3. How are disorders of sexual dysfunction, gender dysphoria, and paraphilias different? - Sexual dysfunctions are the absence or impairment of some aspect of sexual response that causes distress or impairment. Gender dysphoria is a strong and persistent cross sex identification in which a person’s biological sex and gender identity do not match. Paraphilias are sexual urges or behaviors that involve unusual situations, objects or activities and considered unusual or “out of the norm”. 4. How do the major models explain the development of these disorders? - Biological: hormonal imbalances (hypothyroidism or hypogonadism), menopause/ decreased levels of estrogen, decrease in testosterone levels, physical disorders, alcohol and drugs, androgens, and antidepressants which increase sexual desire but decrease sexual performance. Psychosocial: Depression, anxiety, stress, “performance anxiety”, classical conditioning, couple distress, negative life events, environmental factors, and aging. 5. You won’t be asked to list every symptom of the sexual disorders, but be able to recognize which major symptoms are associated with which disorders and know how these disorders are differentiated from one another. - Gender Dysphoria: social isolation, peer rejection, negative moods, distress in parents, distress in children for being prevented from engaging in the desired behaviors, cross dressing. Sexual interest/desire disorders: diminished or absent interest in sexual activity. Sexual arousal disorders: female- can involve psychological and physiological reasons or both. Male erectile disorder- persistent and recurrent inability to maintain an adequate erection until completion of sexual activity, significant distress and/or interpersonal difficulty. Orgasmic disorders: female orgasmic disorder- persistent and recurrent delay or absence of orgasm following the normal excitement phase. Male orgasmic disorder- delayed ejaculation or the delay of or inability to achieve orgasm. Premature ejaculation- consistent ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation. Sexual pain disorders: genito pelvic pain/penetration disorder- consistent genital pain associated with sexual intercourse. Vaginismus- unwanted involuntary spasms of the vaginal muscles that interfere with intercourse or any attempt at vaginal insertion. Paraphilic disorders: fetishistic disorder- fantasies or urges that involve nonliving objects. Transvestic disorder- sexual arousal in men that results from wearing womens clothing. Sexual masochism disorder- sexual arousal as a result of being humiliated. Sexual sadism disorder- infliction of pain or humiliation, but in this case the suffering is inflicted on another person. Chapter 9 Key Terms: • Amphetamines- stimulant drugs that prolong wakefulness and suppress appetite • Barbiturates- sedatives that act on the GABA system in a manner similar to alcohol • Benzodiazepines- sedatives that can be responsibly and effectively used for the short term but still have addictive properties; safer than barbiturates, but can still be dangerous • Caffeine- a CNS stimulant that boosts energy, mood, awareness, concentration, and wakefulness • Cocaine- a stimulant that comes from the leaves of the coca plant • Crystal Methamphetamine- form of meth that produces longer physiological reactions • Detoxification- a medically supervised drug withdrawal • Ecstasy- the pill form of MDMA a common “club” drug • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome- disorder that happens to children whose mother drank during pregnancy causing cognitive delays, hyperactivity, behavior problems, and physical deficits • Hallucinogens- drugs that produce altered states of bodily perception and sensations, intense emotions, detachment from self and environment, and for some users, feeling of insight with mystical or religious significance • Inhalants- vapors from a variety of chemicals that yield an immediate effect of euphoria or sedation • Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)- a synthetic hallucinogen, first synthesized in 1938 • Marijuana- a drug derived from Cannabis sativa that produces mild intoxication • Methadone- used as a replacement for heroin • Nicotine- a highly addictive component of tobacco that is considered to be both a stimulant and a sedative • Opioids- a drug group derived from the opium poppy, which includes heroin, morphine, and codeine • Relapse Prevention- identifies antecedents and consequences of drug use, and develop ways to reduce the risk of future use • Sedative Drugs- a substance group including barbiturates and benzodiazepines, which are central nervous system depressants and cause sedation and decrease anxiety • Substance Intoxication- acute effects of substance use • Substance Use- low to moderate use of a substance that does not impair functioning • Tetrahydrocannabinol- THC active ingredient in marijuana • Tolerance- the need for more and more of a substance to achieve the desired effect • Withdrawal- an individual begins to not have a substance in their system and results in negative symptoms Application of terms/concepts: 1. Be able to differentiate between the different levels of substance use (e.g., use, abuse, dependence, intoxication) - Substance use is low to moderate use of a substance that does not impair functioning. Substance abuse is an overindulgence on an addictive substance. Substance dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug use and results in withdrawal when stopped using. Substance intoxication is the acute effects of substance use. 2. Who is at greatest risk for substance use disorders? - Men on average for most substance use disorders. 3. Be familiar with how and why certain substances are dangerous (i.e., what’s their mechanism of action/effect on the body?). Why are they so addictive? - Nicotine is highly addictive because of the impact it has on dopamine. Nicotine also has rapid effects and can relieve tension. Marijuana activates the brain’s reward system and can become addictive. CNS stimulants including amphetamines, ecstasy, and crystal meth increase dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. Addictive because of its effects of euphoria, increased energy, mental alertness, and can cause rapid speech. CNS stimulants can cause increased heart rate and blood pressure, damage blood vessels in the brain causing strokes, can cause people to lose their teeth. Tolerance to CNS stimulants develops very rapidly. Cocaine increases dopamine levels. It is highly addictive. Sedative drugs (barbiturates & benzodiazepines) can be addictive because of their withdrawal symptoms. Opioids impact endorphins in the body. Tolerance develops very rapidly (2-3 days), which is why they are so addictive. The withdrawal symptoms are very severe. LSD and Hallucinogens are not considered addictive biologically but more psychologically. They do not produce withdrawal symptoms. Inhalants can be addictive because the effects are almost instantaneous.
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