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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Consuela Horton

Exam 2 Study Guide 2050

Consuela Horton
GPA 3.65

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About this Document

The study guide for our second exam in Speech.
Media, Culture, and Society
Study Guide
Media and Society
50 ?




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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Consuela Horton on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2050 at Georgia State University taught by Staff in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see Media, Culture, and Society in Speech & Communication at Georgia State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/16
Thursday, October 13, 2016 Exam 2 Study Guide Development of Morse Code • Morse code developed by Samuel Morse - A series of dots and dashes that stood for letters in the alphabet • Marconi and his 1895 communication device - Sent Morse code (dots and dashes. on/off tones that could be understood by someone who was trained to interpret the code) • 1897 - Marconi received patent on wireless telegraphy - Form of voiceless point to point communication • Marconi is cited as the Father of Radio Important Personalities in the Development of Radio • Reginald Fessenden is credited for the first voice broadcast - He worked with GE to make continuous wave transmitter for voice and music - Broadcasting became possible • Frank Conrad (Westinghouse Engineer) started broadcasting recorded music and sports in his garage • Marconi First Networks FM developed by Edwin Armstrong • - Rights to manufacture FM-receiving sets sold-1940 • Programming - diversion from depression-era circumstances - Action-adventure Lone Ranger - Soap operas - News 1 Thursday, October 13, 2016 - War updates • Talk Shows became popular on AM • FM format specialization continued • Merger between XM and Sirius satellite radio companies: commercial free music and talk Telecommunications Act of 1996 • Telecommunications Act of 1996 passed - Encouraged competition in communication technologies - Increase in acquisitions and mergers —> More consolidation - Few large owners dominant - Talk Shows became popular on AM - FM format specialization continued Controlling Content • Change in sponsorship structure - Single sponsors—>influence on program content - Program lengths changed from 15 minutes to 30 minutes Led to increase in program costs which led to a change in sponsorships - New program format incorporated news, talk, comedy and music Also led to a change in sponsorships Spot ads offered in shows rather than single sponsor - Quiz shows: Highly Successful Example: Revlon’s sales before sponsorship was 1.2 million. Their sales after was 10 million - Quiz Shows were sponsored by various products/companies • Major Scandal 2 Thursday, October 13, 2016 - Geritol sponsored quiz show accused of rigging - Congressional hearing-Charles Vandoren admitted to cheating • Quiz show scandals hurt the promise of TV - Scandal and fraud led to the end of sponsors’ role in creation of content - Americans’ expectation of the democratic promise of television was undermined People believed what they saw more than what they heard (radio) and read in print (newspapers) - Quiz shows scandals magnified division between high and low culture altitudes toward television Intellectuals were already skeptical about TV TV had become a popular new medium for Americans in general • After the quiz show scandals quiz shows were kept out of network for 40 years - 1999, AB reintroduced a highly successful quiz show, Who Wants To Be a Millionaire in prime time. Screens - First: Movie Screens - Second: Traditional TV sets - Third: Computer Screens - Fourth: Smartphones and Mobile Video Eighty-four percent of smartphone and tablet owners say they use these devices as an additional screen while watching TV at the same time Technology and Convergence • Non-television delivery systems are among the biggest technical innovations in television • Television now reinvented via - DVRs 3 Thursday, October 13, 2016 - Laptops - Mobile Devices • Due to technological developments, television audiences are - Fragmented - Growing • Use of technology for - Downloading - Streaming - DVR - Smartphones/tablet • What are other ways in which content is viewed? - Movie screens - Traditional TV screens • Youtube - Largest viewing site - Owned by Google - 2014: > 1 Billion unique viewers per month Unique: You only count once as a viewer even if you watch a certain video more than once. - Reported > 6 billion hours of video watched per month 100 hours of video are uploaded every minute - Competition HULU Netflix Comcast 4 Thursday, October 13, 2016 - Third screen sites act as Catch-up services Allows viewers to catch up on content that played earlier in theatres and television Advertising Agencies • First American advertising agencies - Space Brokers Individuals who purchased space in newspapers and sold it to various merchants • First full-service modern ad agency - N.W. Ayer & Son Worked primarily for advertisers and product companies, not newspapers Helped create, write, produce, and place ads in newspapers and magazines Money from advertising client for each ad placed They charged clients the media fee plus 15% • According to the general classification system, there are two types of advertising agencies - Mega Agencies and Boutique Agencies • Four Departments - Planning Development of effective advertising strategy by coordinating with team members from other departments Market research assesses consumer behaviors and attitudes They may research product name, packaging, consumer reaction to create ad, new product ideas, enlist services of outside research teams to conduct regional and national studies Values and Lifestyle Strategies (VALS) Instituted by Strategic Business Insights (formerly, Stanford Research Institute) 5 Thursday, October 13, 2016 Psychological factors used to classify consumers Ad placement, product development, advertising messaging - Creative Development Writers Artists Creation of advertisements Idea conceptualization—>finished product - Media Coordination Criteria for buying advertisements Suitability to advertisement Reaching targeted audience (demographic, psychographic, geographic) Measurability - Account Management Account executives People who work in the agency on the account Liaison between advertiser and agency’s creative team Bring in new business Manage accounts Oversees budgets and research Oversees creative and media planning Regulation of Advertising • Watch over advertisements - Advocacy organizations - Better Business Bureau • Government Agencies 6 Thursday, October 13, 2016 - Federal Trade Commission • Lobby to ban advertising to children - Children’s Act of 1990 mandated that networks should provide educational and informative children’s programming Not enforced Health • - Eating Disorders Beauty standards/Attractiveness Bulimia - Tobacco Marketed as a good thing True effects not shown in ads advocating smoking Mega-Agencies Large advertising firms Formed by mergers; Several ad agencies Maintain regional offices worldwide Provide full range of services Services offered: creating ads, placement of ads, research for strategic ads Four global mega-agencies (2014) WPP Omnicom Publicis Interpublic Considered a threat to independence of smaller firms (smaller firms being bought out) Four films control more than half the distribution of advertising dollars worldwide 7 Thursday, October 13, 2016 US and European cultural values may undermine values and products of developing countries Persuasive Techniques in Contemporary Advertising Conventional • - Famous person testimonial (endorsements) - Plain Folks (Associate product with simplicity) - Bandwagon effect (Everyone is using X brand) • Association Principle - Associate product with positive culture Models of Expression • Categorization of ideas behind free expression • Differ by - Levels of freedom permitted - Attitudes of ruling and political classes toward freedoms of average citizen • Models are less relevant today, given diversity of nations and the collapse of the communist party First and Sixth Amendments • First Amendment • Freedom of Speech and press • Pentagon Papers Case - In what became known as the "Pentagon Papers Case," the Nixon Administration attempted to prevent the New York Times and Washington Post from publishing materials belonging to a classified Defense Department study regarding the history of United States activities in Vietnam. The President argued that prior restraint was necessary to protect national security. This case was decided together with United States v. Washington Post Co. 8 Thursday, October 13, 2016 • 6th Amendment - Right to speedy and public trial before impartial jury • 1st Amendment - Freedom of the Press - To do what? - Challenge:the press makes it difficult to get a fair trial with an impartial jury - Example: Freeing of Sheppard Argument that he did not receive a fair trial Prejudicial publicity in press Unprotected Forms of Expression Copyright infringement • • Copyright is the protection of creative work from unauthorized use • Protection limited to copying work - Creation of similar work—>no infringement • Fair use of copyrighted material - Teaching - Research - News Reporting - Criticism • Determining fair use - Purpose For or not for profit? - Nature of copyrighted work (fact/fiction) - Amount reproduced relative to copyrighted work - Effect of use on potential market value of copyrighted work 9 Thursday, October 13, 2016 • To bring successful copyright infringement - Access to copyrighted work must be proven • Categories of creative work - Literary - Musical - Dramatic - Pantomimes and choreography - Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural - Motion pictures - Sound Recordings • Libel, slander, defamation • Not protected under 1st amendment • Libel - PRINTED falsehood (originally) • Slander - False oral statement (originally) • Defamation - Either of the above - Collective term (includes both) - False statement about a person or organization that creates public hatred contempt or ridicule, or inflicts injury on reputation • Privacy Intrusion upon solitude • - use of recording devices • Unauthorized release of private information - medical records 10 Thursday, October 13, 2016 • Creation of false impression - superimposing narration on stock footage • Appropriation of Identity - use of name (sometimes celebrities) without permission • Obscenity • Not protected under 1st Amendment What is it? • • Principles of Obscenity test - Whether or not the average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find that the work appealed to licentious interests (unprincipled in sexual matters) - Whether whole work lacked serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value MPAA Rating System • Motion Picture Association of America movie rating system - PG - R - X • All rating designations, except X rating, have been copyrighted as trademarks 11


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