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Ecology Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Sijil Patel

Ecology Exam 3 Study Guide BIOL 30403

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Sijil Patel

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I've converted all of the powerpoint into a convenient chart format! I include all bold terms and emphasized general concepts Dr. Chumchal will test over.
Ecology and the Environment
Dr. Drenner
Study Guide
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sijil Patel on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 30403 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Drenner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Ecology and the Environment in Biology at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Biomes -areas of similar biology/geology -poles are colder -equatorial areas are tropical -30 deg are deserts (tropic of cancer/Capricorn) -some patterning -there is a a relationship between temperature and precipitation Environmental Biology -scientific study of how plants and animals interact with the environment and respond to human activities Conservation -scientific study of the phenomena that affect the maintenance, loss, and restoration of biological diversity Interaction bw Ecology Scientists: and Non-Natural Science -conservation Disciplines -environmental biology -research in applied ecology informs non-science disciplines  Non Scientists: -politics, law, ethics, economics -policies/attitudes/decisions made I nnon-science disciplines impact ecosystems  Ecosystems -conservation and environmental biologist study ecosystems influenced by humans Why a Section on -environmentally at the most critical point in history of humanity Environmental Biology -current population of students/professionals has unique place in and Conservation? history: -no previous generation had had to respond to possible annihilation of large percentage of the species diversity on the planet by humans Ex of human impact: -AddRan Male and female in 1873 (Waco) -TCU in current location 1920’ -TCU in 1952 (oak trees planted) -TCU Today --FW was panther city in 1873 (Panther Island Pavilion) -Downtown 1876 -Downtown 1950’s -Downtown today -FW prairie Park (near Lake Benbrook)- what things in downtown used to look like Animals that used to be -used to have billions of passenger pigeons in the US present in TX -Flyovers could reach 300 million per hour -extinct by 1914 -Buffalo -population was once as high as 30 million individuals -went extinct earliest in the South and East (first colonies/europeans) -expanded West -passed laws protecting Buffalo in TX, but after Civil War, protection turned into Bounty  buffalo overharvest—skulls used for fertilized, 40,000 bison hides bailed and ready for shipment (to Europe) Recent Headlines About -deal with an entire overarching group going extinct Extinction -not just a species going extinct anymore The Red List -International Union for Conservation of Nature 2012 -animals threatened by extinction or already extinct -animals on the list could be extinct within the next several decades -birds-13% -mammals 21% -amphibians-30% -reptiles-21% -bony fish 20% How is it possible that the -from 1950 to 2000 30% decline in commercially important wild world could change so caught seafood dramatically, but yet so -70% left in the supermarket few people seem to -if we keep going at this rate, by 2050, there will be none left notice? -answered by shifting baseline syndrome Shifting Baseline -Pauly asked” How did we allow fisheries collapse to happen? Syndrome -each generation of fisheries scientists accepts as a baseline the stock size and species composition that occurred in the beginning of their careers and use it to evaluate changes -when next generation starts, it’s career the stocks have further declined. But it is the stocks at the time that serve as the new baseline -we should look at larger time spans Ex: Dr. Chumchals line of succession What has caused TX and -human population growth—exponential the rest of the world to -human footprint is HUGE change so dramatically? now: avg land is 20% more affected by humand than it was 10 ya (some areas have seen a reduction) Conservation Biology -serious scientific discipline in the 1980’s (people have involved with conservation for 1000s of yrs) -response to heightened understanding of the issues facing the biosphere -major issues will be focus of section Mass Extinction of -1/3 amphibian species at risk of extinction Amphibians -43% have populations seriously declining Ex: unnamed frog species known only form dead individuals collected during a die-off in Panama -- species now extinct --understanding why these and other organisms have gone extinct requires understanding fundamental concepts of biodiversity Biodiversity -how many species? -how many have gone extinct? -why does it matter? -what are threats to it? -short for biological diversity -describes variety of all the genes, species and natural communities that exist within a particular place -refers to all species that exist within a particular place Components of Diversity 1) Species Richness- number of species 2) Evenness (Equitability)-relative abundance of each species Naming and Describing -fish/bird collection at Smithsonian Species ***** Number of described -1.4-1.6 million species have been identified species -it is a range bc there is some disagreement and redundancy bw species Avg number of species -15,000 new species identified each year described each year -very few vertebrates are identified annually bc most of them have already been discovered -many people can observe/ID -Only experts can ID nematodes—we don’t know anything about them Number of Species on -since we have not been able to identify all species on the planet, we World have to estimate the number -approx 8.7 million Common Methods for 1) Extrapolation from fractions Estimating Biodiversity 2) Extrapolation from taxonomic-scaling patterns Lecture 2: Relationship bw species -more species in tropical regions than in temperate regions Richness and Latitude -2x as many species in tropical areas compared to temperate regions -less richness in N American species (subtropics-arctic) # of Described Species -2/3 described species identified are from the temperate zone History of Identification -most natural history museums and their curators in Europe and N America (Cambridge, London, Vienna) Peter Raven -for mammals, birds, and other large, well-documented animals, roughly 2x as many tropical as temperate species -same ratio is true for other organisms then with 1.5 million species described and two-thirds of these being temperate zone -global total around 3 million Terry Erwin -studied beetles in S American rainforest -tropical rain forest of Panama (Borneo) -most diversity is found in the canopy level (40 m up) -almost 25% of all species are beetles How do you study beetles more than 100 ft up in a canopy? -with a fog machine loaded with insecticide -fogging machine produces warm rising cloud of knock down insecticide -insects fall to ground and are collect on plastic sheets -fogged 19 trees all the same species Fogging study Estimate -163 host specific species of beetle per tree -50,000 species of tropical tree -8,150,000 beetles -took into account generalist beetles and ground-dwelling beetles approx. 12,000,000 tropical beetles -beetles make up 40% arthropods -30,000,000tropical arthropod species Criticism of Erwin’s study -many of his assumptions have turned out to be incorrect—most importantly he probably overestimated the number of host-specific beetles -methodologies that attempt to estimate global patterns from small areas are considered to be highly problematic -Irwin’s study (and others like his) are considered to be gross overestimates Linnaean classification -used today (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species) scheme -10 edition of Systema Naturae printed in 1758 classified approx. 12,000 species of plants and animals -lots of vertebrate “classes” Camila Mora -know more about “higher” taxonomic groups than species -if the assignment to these higher groups follows a consistent pattern, can use the information to identify the number of species -for all known taxa, looked at how our awareness of taxonomic groups has changed over time Change in number of -taxa identified linearly until 40’s-50’s when it flatlines known taxa over time -species still increasing linearly Predicted number of -based on the number of taxa identified species -8.7 million species Current Best Estimate of -current estimates of 3-100 million the number of species -some consensus among scientists that the number of species is likely around 12.5 million Percentage of Species -only a small fraction of the species on the planet have been Already described described -of those that are described, we know almost nothing about their biology or population size -this basic info is known for about 15% of named species Problem for Biodiversity -species are going extinct at a time when we don’t even know how many species there are How many species go -currently estimated that about 30,000 species go extinct annually extinct every year? -15,000 new species identified annually -for every species discovered, 2 go extinct History of Extinction -extinction has always been a normal part of life on earth -4 billion species have lived on earth, 99% have gone extinct -5 masse extinctions (extinction rates rise suddenly for a “short” period of time resulting in loss of 75% of species; usually caused by natural causes) -5 mass extinction was caused in part by a series of meteor collisions with the earth -16% of families were lost including dinosaurs and ammonites (baking theory) -background extinction rate: 10-100 species per year -current rate of 30,000 per year is well above background rate and would result in half of all species becoming extinct over next 200 years 6 mass extinction -7/10 biologist believe that we are in the midst of a mass extinction of living things, and that this dramatic loss of species poses a major threat to human existence in the next century -this mass extinction is the fastest in Earth’s 4.5 billion yr history Why does biodiversity 1) moral, ethical, aesthetic values matter? 2) utilitarian values 3) ecosystem services Moral, Ethical, Aesthetic -monarch butterfly , African elephant, alomerus (tropical ant), values of biodiversity argentine lake duck Utilitarian Values of -Agriculture:-all domestic plants originated as wild species Biodiversity -genetic modified crops are a critical component of the global food supply. -genes inserted into domesticated crop genomes come from other organisms—often wild organisms -many new drugs are discovered in natural products Amphibians and Drug Epibatidine-analgesic 200 times more powerful than morphine Discovery without man of the side effects (Trials ongoing) –tricolor poison dart frog caerin-strong inhibition of HIV virus by skin puptides –australian green tree frog Notable drug discoveries Taxol-breast and ovarian cancer from natural products Lovastatin- cholesterol lowering drug Resperine-sedative Artemisinin- antimalarial Micafungin- antifungal Ecosystem functions -ecological processes that control the fluxes of energy, nutrients, and organic matter through the environment Ex: primary production- the primary process by which trees (and other plants) use sunlight to convert inorganic matter into new organic tissue Ecosystem services -benefits that ecosystems provide to humanity Ex: production of wood – also a provisioning service -uptake of CO2 and subsequent regulation of climate is a regulating service Lecture 3: Global Temperature and -latitudinal variation in sunlight intensity Rainfall Patterns -angle at which sunlight strikes the earth -S Argentina and NYC have similar temperatures -sun strikes equator straight on -equator surrounding by tropics and then 30 degrees Global air circulation and -a lot of sunlight and evaporation at the equation preceipitation patterns -warm air moves up -a lot of rain at the equator -northeast and southeast trades surrounded by westerlies (at N and S Antarctic circle) -at equator warm ascending moist air releases its moisture -in the arid zone at 30 degrees, descending dry air absorbs moisture Timber Production -wood produced on timber plantations that often contain a single species of tree—monoculture Daniel Piotto -2008 -relationship bw ecosystem services and diversity -investigated how forest plantation diversity affects timber production by performing a meta-analysis of all relevant studies -compared growth of Eucalyptus in fertilized monocultures to Eucalyptus gown without fertilization alongside albizia -Albizia planted in different density within each plot (some had a lot, others had little) -growth of eucalyptus was monitored over 4 years -assessed 14 studies and concluded that trees grow larger in mixed plantations due largely to facilitation (one tree facilitates growth of the other) Eucalyptus -common commercial species Albizia -member of legume family Relationship bw %Albizia and -with fertilizer added, diameter approx. 48 cm Eucalyptus growth -with no fertilizer but more albizia mixed in, diameter increases past the fertilizer group with more time and more diversity -mixed forest as good or better than fertilized forest Nitrogen Cycle -N2 in atm had to be converted to a usable form such as ammonium or nitrate to be used by animals/plants Legumes -contain specialized nodule containing rhizobia bacteria for nitrogen fixation -peanuts, beans, mesquite -nitrogen fixation benefits other plants -decomposition and crop residue sink into soil and used as mineral nitrogen/nutrients by other plants Facilitation of Eucalyptus -Albizia presence enhances amount of nitrogen in the soil growth by Albizia -Higher levels of Nitrogen lead to higher Eucalyptus production Other examples of ecosystem -purification of the air and water services -mitigation of droughts and floods -generation and preservation of soils and soil fertility -detoxification and decomposition of wastes -pollination of crops and natural vegetation -dispersal of seeds -control of many agricultural pests by natural enemies -protection of coastal shores from erosion -protection from UV rays -partial stabilization of climate -moderation of extreme weather events Wetlands -areas that hold water and species of plants adapted to wet conditions -wetlands known to remove nutrients form water -marsh, fen, swamp -Wetlands (among other services) remove nutrients before they enter lakes or oceans -Puget Sound, Washington (Pacific Ocean) and Lake Superior Process of Eutrophication -oligotrophic --sewage input and agricultural runoff— -eutrophic Engelhardt and Ritchie -2001 -investigated how plant diversity affects the ability of wetlands to remove nutrients -manipulated species richness of rooted submerged aquatic plants in experimental wetland mesocosms -each mesocosm contained 1-3 different species of plants Relationship bw plant -as diversity increased, P decreased diversity and P removal Wetland plants remove 1) Filtering out particulate matter that contains nutrient nutrients from water by 2 --Sago pond weed with particulate matter coating leaves mechanisms --sago pond weed have thin, dense leaves that act like filters 2) Providing habitat for periphyton that absorbs nutrients from the water --broad leaves of curly leaf pond weed aren’t good filters, but they serve as good substrate for periphyton Wetlands often drained and -the Everglades (Palm Beach County, Florida) converted -deveopments -inexpensive to develop but a lot of profit Variation of ecosystem -New Jersey is one of the first states to attempt a valuation of services in New Jersey ecosystem services -should a particular wetland be drained and developed for commercial purposes or maintained “as is” to serve as a wildlife habitat, [nutrient removal] and storm water buffer? Freshwater wetland, Saltwater wetland, forest land, Urban -look at revenue brought in and if ecosystem value doesn’t exceed it, then make it! Global Ecosystem Value -tundra and rainforests have high ecosystem values Mass Extinction of Amphibians 1) Habitat destruction/alteration 2) Chytrid fungus Biocomplexity paradign -no single factor can explain the loss of amphibians Frog extinction and chytrid -embeds in integument and it is very lethal fungus (Batrachocytridium -spores have growth in diameter/complexity discharge dendrobatidis) papilla formsmortality (2 weeks)cap lost and zoospores escape through skin motile zoospores—swim in water and penetrate skin and form zoosporangium Preganancy Tests -1940-1960 -American Clawed frog -take urine and inject frog -if woman is pregnant, frog lays an egg Chytrid fungus out of Africa -chytrid fungus and clawed frogs are native to S Africa Hypothesis -co-evolved with chytrid fungus -low-population infection rate with no apparent clinical effects -enormous quantities exported around the world -frogs that did not evolve with chytrid fungus are not adapted to cope with it and are devastate --yellow-legged frogs in Cali—fungus came from these frogs Lecture 4: Elephant Phylogeny -there are 3 living species of elephants in Africa and Asia -many elephant relatives are now extinct -relatives lived from 10s of million ya to around 10,000 ya (mammoths) Elephant Dispersal and -some in S America Distribution -in Africa, evolved here and there and were confined to that location Ex: African Bush elephant, Asian elephant African Bush elephant -dispersal ability limits distribution distribution Cattle Egrets and Dispersal -evolve with large African mammals -flew elsewhere first in the 30’s Elephants in Maputo, Elephant -Behavior limits distribution Reserve, Mozambique -confined to forested areas bc of human presence Lion predation on elephants in -biotic factors, interatcions with other species, limit distribution Savuti, Botswana Satellite tracking study in -abiotic factors (physical factors) can limit an organisms kruger National Park, S Africa distribution What limits an organism’s -dispersal activity distribution? -behavior -biotic factors -abiotic factors What’s causing the loss of -disease and pollution biodiversity? -invasive species -climate change -overharvest -habitat destruction/alteration Distance from the sun -too close is too hot -too far is too cold -Earth is in the “goldilocks zone” that is just right the GreenHouse Effect -sun has solar radiation -CO2 and other gases coming from earth -Earth has radiated heat and re-radiated heat -some heat is reflected -Greenhouse gases absorb and re-radiate heat—“the greenhouse effect” -avg temp 14 degrees C -without greenhouse gases, avg temp on Earth would be -18 degrees C Greenhouse gases -refers to the most common molecules in the atm that can absorb infrared radiation (heat) -CO2, methans, Nitrous Oxide CO2 -most common greenhouse gas (72% of all emissions) -released by burning of fossil fuels Methane -released as byproduct of agricultural activities =, fossil fuel processing, and waste disposal and treatment Nitrous Oxide -released as a byproduct of agricultural activities Annual Greenhouse Gas -most common greenhouse gases are released by power plants Emissions -Power stations, industrial processes, transportation, agricultural byproducts, fossil fuel retrieval, residential commercial sources, land use and biomass burning, waste disposal and treatment Changes in atm CO2 -Mauna Loa, Hawaii -late 50’s to today -levels >400 -Industrial revolution has caused a dramatic rise in CO2 -Ice Age CO2 cycles --- used ice cores to find CO2 levels Global Temperatures -increasing -avg temp has increased by 0.6 degrees C Recent Sea Level Rise -has increased in the last 150 years -increased 20 cm -use tide levels of 23 tide gauges N Hemisphere Snow cover -decreased snowfall over millions of km Alaskan glaciers have all gotten smaller (Pedersen, muir and riggs glaciers) Analyses of Climate Impacts on -several studies have reviewed literature looking for evidence Species of climate change on living organisms -by 2006, 866 studies involving more than 1500 species found an effect of climate change on biota -more than 80% species examined exhibit changes that would be predicted due to climate change -authors also identified types of changes that would be predicted due to warming Types of changes due to -density changes warming -range shifts -phenology -morphology and behavior -genetic frequencies Penguin density over time -density changes—emperor penguin reduced by 50% in some parts of Antarctica (breeding pair dropping starting in 70’s) Antarctic food web -krill is a small shrimp (zooplankton) -huge ocean biomass and primary penguin food source Krill -emperor penguins are dependent on krill -krill abundance has decreased 80% in the SW Antarctic in 30 yrs -3cm -algae (phytoplankton) in krill digestive organ Krill Life Cycle -krill reproduce from December to March -juvenile krill begin to grow during winter -primary diet of juvenile krill is ice algae -egg deep, larva ascend and adult at surface -young krill spend life under sea ice Ice algae -krill eat sea ice when they are growing (ice algae below sea ice) Annual Variation in Antarctic -end of summer to end of winter (all around continent) sea ice -cycle of ice forming and melting Antarctic Temperature -3 degrees C increase in temp since 1981 -6 degrees C increase in temp sing 1950’s -largest temperature increase on Earth Krill and Sea Ice -higher krill density when there is more winter ice -higher krill density the further the ice is from the center of the continent Changes in Antarctic -temperature increase ecosystem -sea ice decrease -as ice algae declinekrill declines penguins decline upper level carnivores decline Lecture 5: Polar Bears -hunt animals on ice -ice is melting -polar bear swimming 60 miles form shore -viral pics of emaciated polar bear in summer (2015 rallying cry for this issue) -break was likely starving due to leg injury -other bear easily could have starved due to ice melting Rep. Stockman -bad argument -eventually reach viscous molten rock and mountin pressure causes height increase Temperature and Latitude -temperature bands are isotherms -cooler areas just shift upwards Temperature, precipitation, -as aire is forced over mountains, it rises and cools altitude -cool air can hold less moisture -air flow up causing rain shadow -lleward side of mountains is a desert -variation in temperature with altitude Elevation and habitat -temperature decline with pressure decline -premontaine woodland to slower montaine thorn steppe to montains desert scrub to mountaine steppe to subalpine mountaine scrub to subalpine moist forest to alpine and tundra to polar desert Altered habitat due to climate -whole communities of organisms are predicted to shift change higher in elevation or be eliminated with climate change -increase in 3.5 degrees C and 10% precipitation  premontaine thorne woodland to lower montane thorn steppe to mountain steppe to small level of subalpine steppe, alpine wet tundra, and polar desert Camille Parmesan -studies effect of climate change on Edith's checkerspot butterfly -larvachrysalisadulteggs are larval on larval food plants (dwarf plantain and exserted indian paintbrush) -host plants at low elevation or southern latitudes now senesce (or die) earlier than they used to due to climate change induced changes in rainfall and temperature -host plants senesce before the larval development is complete -this leads to a shift in the rand of suitable habitat for the butterfly Latitude and extinction -each shaded area represents multiple populations -different colors represent percentage change of population that went extinct from 1860-1996 - a lot of info available bc people are interested in butterflies -butterflies at southern latitutdes have gone extinct Altitude and extinction -butterflies at low elevations have gone extinct All range shift studies -not just butterflies -there have now been long-term range shift studies in 30 different regions involving >700 species -these studies indicate that the distributions of organisms are moving northward at a rate of 17 m per decade and to higher elevation at 11 m per decade Seasons in the N and S -N spring equinox when equator faces son (S autumnal hemispheres equinox) -N has winter when facing away from sum and S has summer -N autumnal equinox when equator faces son (S spring equinox) -constant 23.5 degree tilt -N summer as it tilts to sun and S has winter when facing away Phenology -the study of the timing of natural events Japanese Cherry Flowers -Sakura -flowering: a lot of variation in when, last 100 yrs there hasn't been bouncing around -recent trend shows that flower shows up earlier -@Mt. Kyoto: temperature has increased while flowering rate has come sooner over time Washington DC Cherry Blossoms -cherry blossom festival -spring comes 8 hours earlier per year -Peak bloom in 1970's was April 5 and now it is April 1 st Pollinators -pollinators and flowering phenology have coevolved -a mismatch due to climate change could be disastrous for some species -matters bc of our food supply Shifts in over all phenology -invert., amphibians, birds shift 5 days earlier per decade -non-trees, trees and combined shift 3 days earlier per decade Ladybird Beetles -ranching ants protect aphids from ladybug—symbiotic relationship -aphid infestation on plants -cause a lot of damage -ladybirds eat aphids Temperature and Ectotherms -as ambient temp increases so does body temperature -as body temperature increases so does metabolic rate Endotherm -make heat and maintain it – homeotherm Poikilotherm -an organism whose body temperature varies according to the temperature of its surroundings -endotherms – don’t make own heat Thermal melanism hypothesis non-melanic vs melanic Non-Melanic -ladybugs we normally see -heats up slowly -slowly loses heat in wind -favored in warm or high wind environments Melanic -heats up fast -rapidly loses heat in wind -favored in cool, low wind environments Change in percentage of melanic -the Netherlands 0km-120km forms over time -20% melanic at 0 and then 50:50 distribution at 120 (1980) -today overall amounts of melanics have declined -in 1980 brakefield and colleagues surveyed the percentage of melanic ladybird beetles across the Netherlands -near coast there isn't a lot of melanic -less and less melanic forms inland Geographic variation of wind -wind speeds faster closer to coast speed in Netherlands -non-melanic forms are favored on the coast bc it's windy -average wind speeds have remained constant Temperature change in the -the temperature in the Netherlands has increased since the Netherlands time of the original ladybird survey Ladybird Beetles -melanics non favored on coast due to high winds -no change in population with increasing temperatures at coast -melanics favored in the W due to low temp and low wind -with climate change temps have increased inland and the percentage of melanics has decreased Lecture 6: Extirpation -extinction at a local place Salamander Distributions in -different colors represent different genera of salamanders – Guatemala except red which meant that population is extinct -In case of P. rex fewer salamanders are found at lower elevation -shift most likely bc climate change lead to change in temp and rainfall with elevation resulting in change in salamander populations -example of a range shift Genetic frequencies -affect of climate change on genetic frequencies is difficult to document (for now) -for most species long term genetic data are nonexistent or rare, especially at continental or global scale Drosophila -fruitfly -important model systems -as a result, we've known more, for a longer period of time about Drosophila genetics than for most organisms Human Karyotype -have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes -sometimes part of a chromosome can become inverted Homozygote inversion -due to mutation -part of chromosome invert, but does not affect organism bc part of both parts inverts Heterzygote Inversion -chromosomal loops form in individuals that are heterozygotes for the inversion in homologous chromosomes -inversion of one and not the other -need a loop to match up -can be deleterious if they are translocated -common in individuals with hemophilia A and leukemias Genetic frequencies and -temperature gets cooler as you move away from the equator temperatures -inversion frequency changes along a latitudinal gradient -less inversion further from the equator -similar pattern found in N America, Europe, and S America -inversion frequency and temperature was surveyed in the 1980's and again in late 90's and 2000's -temperature and the frequency of inversion has increased -climate change has caused a change in genetic frequency in fruit flies -over the next several decades we will have the opportunity to test this prediction with other species IPCC Conclusions regarding -intergovernmental panel on climate change climate change an d human climate change has: health -contributed to the global burden of disease and premature death -increased heat-wave related deaths -altered the distribution of some infectious disease vectors -altered the seasonal distribution of some allergenic pollen species Climate change and Human climate change direct exposures, Indirect exposures, social Health and economic disruption  health impacts 3 Modifying influences: environmental conditions, social conditions (upstream determinants of health) and health system conditions Climate change has: -increased heat wave related deaths -increased the prevalence of some plant associated allergens and health related metabolites (ragweed and poison ivy) -altered patterns in infectious disease occurrence (schistosomiasis and hanta virus) Urban "Heat Island" Effect -climate change has lead to higher temps -changes in land cover can exacerbate the effects of climate change by leading to increased temperature -urban areas act as "heat islands" -dark surfaces 30-40 degrees C (70-120 F) warmer than surrounding air -cities are 8-17 degrees F warmer than surrounding rural areas Ex: thermal image of Atlanta (May 1997, white areas are 122 F) Evaporative Cooling -emergent properties of water—cohesion of water molecules allow tension-cohesion-adhesion theory of transpiration through stomata -transpiration in plants leads to evaporative cooling -plants do not store heat like dark surfaces Turf Fields and sports Parks -turf fields get as warm as black asphalt roofs -when grass is 86 F, turf is 140 F Heat related mortality and avg -heat related deaths occur when temp is higher than average temperature -"j-shaped" curve -more heat related deaths earlier in the summer than ever Increase in allergy and asthma -increase in allergies and asthma over time -Hay fever/allergic rhinitis -allergen in body leads to altered cells and then histidine released in attempt to remove allergen from body Wind pollination -pistillate flower -staminate flower (tassel)—produces pollen -Corn is an imperfect flower -try to make as much pollen as possible Pollen -SEM image of microscopic pollen -pollen covering cars in Atlanta Annual Ragweed distribution -it's everywhere Costs associated with allergy -v high costs -$7.9 billion per year (4.5 direct care, 3.4 on indirect costs) -rhinitis affects 20% adults and 40% children -16.7 million physician visits due to allergic rhinitis -allergic rhinitis and asthma are the two leading causes of absenteeism due to chronic illness -on any day 10,000 American kids miss school bc allergic rhinitis (total 2 million school days) CO2 -atm CO2 has been increasing over time -Photosynthesis uses CO2+water+sun energy to create glucose Liebig's Law of the Minimum -the rate of any biological process is limited by a single factor that is least available relative to an organisms requirements General Response to plants in -photosynthesis increases with CO2 concentration enhanced CO2 -growth rate increases with more CO2 -root:shoot increases with CO2 conc -more roots in relation to above ground plant Relationship bw ragweed pollen -at 1958 levels of CO2 pollen quantity produced by ragweed production and CO2 was lower than at today's levels -increasing levels of CO2 will result in increasing pollen production Lecture 7: Federal Legislations -no federal legislation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but several states have voluntarily taken steps to do so -there is a great deal of flux at the state level -some states continue to encourage more renewables, some states have rolled back their previous efforts, other states have done nothing -carbon emissions have not been reduced by any country Poison Ivy -allergic reaction -Toxicodendron sp -literally everywhere -toxicity via urushiol—made form excess CO2 not Poison Ivy Toxicity -via urushiol -determined by: -concentraton of urushiol -ratio of unsaturated: saturated congeners Duke-FACE experiment -some structure release elevated amounts of CO2— control structure release ambient air -poison ivy grew in response to elevated CO2 -ratio unsaturated: saturate congeners of uroshiol increased in response to elevated CO2 Schistomiasis -aka snail fever -eggs in h2o penetrates snail enter skin scistomulae migrate to lungs and then to liver  adults migrate to mesenterics  eggs enter small intestine eggs in feces deposited in water -2 most socioeconomically devastating parasitic disease after malaria -in 74 countries, 200 million people infected -more than alf of those affected live in Africa -more than 423 million praziquantel tablets are needed every year to treat schistosomiassi worldwide—aprox $85 mill -mainly in coastal Africa, S America, Taiwan Scistosomiasis control in -wanted to invade Taiwan but thousands infected in China process -intensive control efforts since 1950s -"eradicated" in four provinces (blue) -lower morbidity in other provinces -since mid1990's disease resurging -Schistosomiasis is not present in the white provinces Snails are intermediate hosts -is one of several species of tropical snails -snails have limited tolerance for freezing temperatures -controlled by abiotic factors -herbivores -red dots represent weather stations -0-1C avg Jan 1960-1990 -0-1C avd Jan 1970-2000 -overall temp increased throughout china -Blue band and north too cold for snails most years -new snail habitat at risk for disease -41,000 km2 -20.7 million more people at risk in China alone—to treat these people with prazinquantel tablets would cost approximately 4 million dollars per year Current and predicted -High risk areas have only increased schistosomiasis -authors predict additional 700,000 km2 at risk El Nino Southern Oscillation -warmer than normal sea temps in the equatorial pacific lead to predictable climate change around the globe -naturally occurring phenomenon -could occur more frequently due to climate change -wet/cool winter -why Vancouver Olympics melted La Nina -cooler than normal sea temps in the equatorial pacific Hanta Virus -humans exposed by inhaling the virus -virus is present in the droppings of some speices of rodents -symptoms initially resemble flu but lead to respiratory failure in the Americas, hemmoragic fever in Asia and Europe -Mortlity >50% -outbreak of mysteriours illness in 4 corners region beginning in 1993 -cause was eventually identified as a hanta virus -previously unknown in the Americas -was bc of v strong El Nino event in early 1990's -rain and wind created food for mouses/rates and increased population and when people started cleanin it spread Connection bw El Nino, climate -we know that climate has strong effects on diseasae change and disease -if global warming leads to climate change and alters events like El Nino, likely that disease will be effected Climate change has: -altered patterns in infectious disease occurrence -dengue -malaria -leishmaniosis -lyme disease -leptospirosis -plague Climate Change mortality -estimated 150,000 people die annually due to climate Rates change -most impacted areas are in the tropics The Bottom Line on Climate -anthropogenic global warming has already affected Change Earth's biota and human health -the direct impacts of anthropogenic climate change have been documented on every continent, in every ocean, and is most major taxonomic groups Ocean Acidification -occurs bc of high CO2 levels in the environment -dissolved CO2 forms carbonic acid and then bicarbonate and carbonate releasing H+ in the process -high levels of CO2 lead to more H in water -favors production of bicarbonate which organisms cant use to make shells -even if animals can build shell, they may have to spend extra energy to do so, taking resources away from other activities -even higher amounts of CO2 leads to more H in the water, creating an even more acidic environment and causing existing CaCO3 structures to dissolve Important shell building -pteropods marine organisms -coral -mussels CO2 time series in the N Pacific -Co2 is increasing in atm Ocean -seawater CO2 concentration is increasing -seawater pH is decreasing Impacts of Ocean Acidification -reef building corals found in tropical and subtropical on Coral oceans -reefs highly productive and support a high diversity of marine life -coral made up of corallite cups (CaCO3 skeleton) and polyps where zooxanthellae reside -coral polyos form symbiotic relationships with zooxanthellae algae -90% polyp carbon (energy) needs are supplied by the algae Different forms of coral: coralline algae (forms CaCO3 skeleton in other corals), massive corals, staghorn corals Coral Bleaching Experimental approach to study effects of temperature and CO2 on coral: 1) coral in aquaria 2) manipulate CO2 conc and temperature 3) measured response variables after 8 weeks -enhance CO2 led to bleaching and reduction in calcification -coralline algae most impacted by enhanced CO2 -act as "glu" that hold reef together -important settlement cue for reef invertebrates including corals Coral Results -coralline algae and staghorn coral more sensitive to CO2 increase -temp increase had a negative effect, but increase in CO2 was more destructive Calcification Results -high CO2 led to coralline algae dissolution -reduction in calcification at highest CO2 scenarios in the other 2 corals


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