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Dr Fus, Midterm 2 study Guide:Chapter 4 - 7.5

by: Sakinah Ali

Dr Fus, Midterm 2 study Guide:Chapter 4 - 7.5 1210

Marketplace > Ohio State University > 1210 > Dr Fus Midterm 2 study Guide Chapter 4 7 5
Sakinah Ali

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This is my notes for the second midterm in Dr Fus's chemistry 1210 class.
General Chem 1
Dr. Stoltzfus
Study Guide
General Chemistry
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sakinah Ali on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1210 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Stoltzfus in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Chemistry 1210 midterm 2 study guide Yellow= Important Green=definition Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Electrolytes Electrolytes: Any substance that dissolves into ions once introduced to a medium or melted.  Non electrotypes: a substance that does not disassociate in an aqueous solution. o Usually molecular compounds  Weak electrolytes: a substance that partially disassociates in an aqueous solution o Usually a weak acid or weak base  Strong electrolytes: a substance that disassociates completely in an aqueous solution o Usually ionic compounds and these are great at conducting electricity Strong Acids Strong Bases HCl – hydrochloric H 2O 4 sulfuric LiOH – lithium Ca(OH) 2 calcium acid acid hydroxide hydroxide HNO3– Nitic Acid HClO4 – percholric NaOH – sodium Sr(OH)2– acid hydroxide Strontium hydroxide HBr- Bromic Acid NH 4 ammonium KOH – potassium Ba(OH) 2 Barium hydroxide Hydroxide HI – Hydroiodic RbOH – rubidium NH 3 ammonia acid hydroxide HClO 3 chloric CsOH – cesium acid Hydroxide **An acronym to remember the strong acids is HC and Brian Invented Notorious Candy and Sold it for Profit. **An acronym to remember strong bases is all group 1 hydroxides with exception of the last three. Precipitation reactions Precipitate: insoluble solid formed by a reaction in a solution  Are formed when oppositely charged paired ions are attracted to each other so strongly, that an insoluble ionic solid forms. The solubility rules chart is used to predict whether or not mixing of certain compounds will create a precipitate or remain aqueous. This is used by writing the molecular equation and then determining the net ionic equation in which spectator, ions that do not react, are removed from the balance chemical equation. Oxidation- Reduction Reactions Oxidation – Reduction reactions: When the transfer of electrons from one reactant to another occurs.  Oxidation: when an ion becomes more positively charged  Reduction: when an ion becomes more negatively charged **An acronym is OIL RIG: oxidation is loss, Reduction is gain Oxidation number: the value given to an ion or molecule regarding oxidation but there are some rules to remember: 1. An atom in its elemental form has an oxidation number of 0 2. The sum of the oxidation is the overall charge of the compound 3. Any monoatomic atom has an oxidation number of its elemental charge a. Group 1A = +1 b. Group 2A= +2 c. Group 3A = +3 d. As well as H = +1, F=-1, and O=-2 When determining oxidation- reduction reactions, an ion must gain or lose an electron within the reaction. Activity Series Activity series: a list of metals arranged in decreasing order of the metals that can be easily oxidized.  Any metal can be oxidized by the metal below it. If not, the reaction will not happen and the metal being looked at has to be in its solid form. Concentrations of Solutions Molarity = Moles of solute / Liters of solute  When calculating molarity, remember that you need moles of the substance and the volume in Liters Dilution problems are when a certain molarity solution it diluted by adding another aqueous solution. These problems can be approached by using M1V1=M2V2 equation but this is the only time this equation can be used. Solution Stoichiometry and Chemical Analysis The true meaning of this is to just understand how when given one aspect of a compound or element, you would be able to solve the components of the second substance involved. For example, when given the molecular mass of substance A but need to determine the Molarity of Substance B, one should be able to know that mass can be converted to moles, then the stoichiometry coefficient from the balanced equation, to grams of substance B to Molarity using the molarity equation. Titration Titration equations use a lot of stoichiometric chemical analysis in order to come up with the answer. These problems are solved by going from one aspect of a substance to another. Chapter 5: Thermochemistry Kinetic Energy: The energy of motion 2  Equation is ½ x mass x velocity Potential Energy: positon relative to other objects  Equation is mass x gravity x height Electrostatic Potential Energy: the energy that happens between charged particles  Equation is kQ1Q2/ d o K is the proportionally constant= 8.99 x 10 j-m/C o Q 1s the charge of the first particle o Q 2s the charge of the second particle o D is the distance between the particles Electrostatic potential energy increases if the charges are opposite but decreases if the charges are the same due to the repulsion of them. Internal energy is defined as the Efinal – E intial meaning the total energy in the entire system.  The sign of deltaE just shows which direction it is going. o Negative sign for energy means exothermic o Positive sign for energy means endothermic Delta E can also equal the sum of heat and work done on the system For Q (heat) + means heat was gained  means system lost heat For W (work) + means work was done on  means work by system system For delta E + means net gain of energy  means a net loss by system of energy by system Internal energy is also a state function meaning it only depends on the end goal of the system, and not the route it took to get there. In other words, it only depends on the initial and final state of the system. Enthalpy Enthalpy: the internal energy plus the product of pressure and volume of the system.  Symbol is a delta H  Also a state function and only occurs under constant pressure  Equation is deltaH = delta E + P delta V Enthalpies of equations When computing the delta H of an reaction, you must subtract the summation of the DeltaH of products minus the summation delta H of the reactants.  Delta H = deltaHproducts – delaHreactants o Element in their elemental form, have an enthalpy of zero. Hess’s law is another method that can be used when you’re trying to turn multiple equations to one particular equation but there are rules you have to remember: 1. Delta H is an extensive property meaning it is based on the amount of reactants and products present 2. Reversing the direction of the reaction, changes the sign of delta H but keeps that same magnitude 3. Delta H is also dependent on the form, either it is a gas, liquid, or solid, because all of those have different enthalpy values Specific Heat:  Equation is Q = Mass x Specific heat x change in temperature Chapter 6: Electronic Structure of Atoms Speed of light: 3.0 x 10 m/s Every electromagnetic radiation has certain properties: 1. The distance between the two waves is called the wavelength 2. The number of complete cycles is called the frequency o Wavelength and frequency is inversely proportional meaning wave with high frequency must have short wavelength. The equation to represent the inverse relation between wavelength and frequency is frequency x velocity = speed of wave Photon: a particles representing a quantum of light of other electromagnetic  The energy of a photon is planks constant x frequency o Plank’s constant has a value of 6.626 x 10 -3Joules/second A photon must have enough energy to make it past the barrier of the electrons attracting it in order to be emitted but if not, it will be absorbed. Atomic Orbitals Wave a function can determine where an electron can be in an electron cloud.  This yields an electron probability which is just where ever the wave is densest, that is where you can find an electron Quantum number is a way to determine the orbital shapes and amount of electrons in an atom. 1. Quantum number (n) are only positive integers which identical the period it is on the periodic table 2. The angular momentum (l) can only have values from (n-1) were it determines which orbital is associated with the electron Value of l 0 1 2 3 Orbital s p d f 3. The magnetic quantum number (m ) can save values from -l t l including 0. The s orbital can hold 4 electrons, each orbital can hold 2 electrons, and is the shape of a sphere. The p orbital can hold 6 electrons, has 3 orbitals, and is a dumbbell shape. The d orbital hold 10 electrons, has 5 orbitals, and is a donut shape over the p shaped dumbbell shape. The f orbital can hold up to 14 electrons ad has 7 orbitals. The radial probability function can show where an electron can be found and the number pf radial nodes which corresponds to where the figure shows it being at zero.  For a ns orbital, the amount of nodes is n-1  As n increases, the probability of find an electron near the nucleus decreases. When determining the electro configuration of an element, it is important to remember:  To use all quantum numbers  That the d orbital comes before the f orbital  Pauli’s exclusion rule must be used o States that each election must have opposite electron spins  Hund’s rule must be used o States that the lowest energy orbitals must be filled first When using short hand, the last Nobel gas is to be used and then all the shells after it. Transition metals are a little different are a little different as in the n -1 is the quantum number.. And the elements in the f orbitals, will have a n-2 quantum number. Some elements do not follow the above stated rules when it comes to electron figuration which is called the oddball principal electrons. Those elements are: 1. Cr and Mo with configuration s d1 5 2. Cu, Ag, and Au with configuration S d1 10 Periodic table Trends Effective nuclear charge: the attractive force between the electrons and nucleus  Force increases as nuclear charge increases and decreases as the electrons move further from the nucleus  The trend is increases as it goes from left to right as well as down a group  Equation Is Zeff = Z – S o S is the amount of amount of protons o Z is the screening constant Atomic radii: the radius of the electron o Trend is increases from top to bottom of a period and decreases left to right a period. Ionic radii is dependent upon the atom on the parent atom on which it came from o Cations are always smaller due to the attraction to the nucleus o Anions are larger due to the repulsion of the electrons o Increases as atomic radius increases and at high levels of quantum number Isoelectric series: a group of ions all containing the same number of electrons Ionization energy: the minimum amount of energy required to move an electron o ionization energy increases as more electrons are removed due to the act of pulling an electron from an increasingly positive ion o Trend is it increases as we move across a period and deceases as we go down a group **moving across a period, increase in effective nuclear chare and a decrease in atomic radii which causes ionization energy to increase. Moving down a column atomic radii increases and the ionization decreases. When removing electrons, the orbital with the highest quantum number goes away first Electron affinity: when an electron is added to a gaseous atom **The difference between ionization energy and electron affinity is IE measure the loss of an electron whereas EA measure the gain of an electron


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