Art 221 Study Guide 2
Art 221 Study Guide 2 Art 221
Popular in Honors Art History Survey I
Popular in Art
verified elite notetaker
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassidy_SWK2018 on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Art 221 at Meredith College taught by Dr. Beth Mulvaney in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Honors Art History Survey I in Art at Meredith College.
Reviews for Art 221 Study Guide 2
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/13/16
Etruscans 1. Architecture a. Porta Marzia, Perugia, 2 century BCE i. Used arch, Greeks only used post and lentil ii. Figural sculpture, influenced Romans b. Model of Etruscan temple (from description by Vitruvius) i. Wrote a treatise and described the Etruscan and Greek architecture ii. Built of clay and mud (wattle and doub) iii. Similarities to Greeks but also significant differences 1. Greeks used periptural columns, but Etruscans have columns all the way through 2. Etruscans – distinct entry way with porch 3. Stairs are only at front 4. No sculpture on pediment, sculpture on ridgeline of roof 2. Sculpture a. Apollo (Apollo of Veii), from roof of temple, ca. 510-500 BCE, painted terra cotta, 5’ 11” i. Made of terracotta and 5’10’’ ii. Uniform and stylized drapery iii. Stylized hair iv. Archaic smile v. Would have to be hollow to dry, required skill vi. Decorative strut between legs to support vii. Vigorous energy b. Capitoline Wolf, ca. 500-480 BCE bronze i. Babies added much later ii. Fear in wolf’s face iii. Mom protecting young, shows thinness of breastfeeding iv. Stylized c. Etruscan, Chimera of Arezzo, ca. 399-350 BCE bronze i. Stylized ii. Goat head extends from side iii. Tail is serpent iv. Pointing down reveals artist’s ability to reveal intensity 3. Funerary Art a. Necropolis at Cerveteri, Italy, 7 -2 centuries BCE i. limestone b. Tomb of the Reliefs, Cerveteri, Italy, late 4 -3 century BCE i. Carved around pillars ii. Carved on wall, tools, pots, an animal 1. Things the deceased might need in the after world 2. Might paint them as frescoes c. Banqueters and Musicians, detail of a wall painting form the Tomb of the Leopards, Tarquinia, ca. 480 BCE i. Looks Egyptian ii. Some are naked iii. Darker skin tone indicates males, draping only on lower half iv. Light skin tones are female and fully covered v. Naked guy is servant d. Sarcophagus with Reclining couple from Cerveteri, ca. 520 BCE, painted terra-cotta i. Archaic smile ii. Animated in conversation, talking with hands 1. That’s what the artist is really interested in iii. No interest in their legs e. Sarcophagus of Lars Pulena, from Tarquinia, late 3 century or early 2 century BCE i. Holds scroll, which tells his life’s accomplishments ii. Front of sarcophagus is demons pounding humans 1. Pessimistic view of afterlife 2. Towards end of civilization st a. Aule Metele, early 1 century BCE, bronze i. Etruscan, Etruscan artist working in republican period iii. Older, mature face of republican era iv. Segway between Etruscan and roman v. Aged face vi. Realistic hair vii. Right arm raised as a gesture of address 1. Shows he’s an orator viii. Fully clothed, form isn’t well defined under his robe 1. Clothing covers flaws ix. Etruscan script on hem of robe 1. Disproportionate hands Rome: Republic 4. Architecture a. Temple of Portunus, Rome, ca. 75 BCE i. Ionic columns, but not in tablature ii. Etruscan aligned entrance iii. Etruscan porch iv. Back columns are “engaged” 1. They aren’t freestanding and are flush with the wall v. Used local tufa stone, volcanic rock 1. Stuccoed over to make it look marble vi. On a podium like Etruscans (not stylobate like Greeks) b. Temple of Vesta, Tivoli, early 1 century BCE i. Like Greek round temple ii. Southwest of Rome (outside of city proper) iii. Using Corinthian order iv. Reliefs on frieze 1. Cow heads linked by garland v. Marble columns, but building behind is poured concrete, faced to disguise actual material c. Sanctuary of Fortuna primigenia, Palestrina, late 2 century BCE i. Linked by ramps and stairways ii. Hellenistic, grandiose building iii. Can create somethings so big by using the arch 1. Barrel vault a. Or tunnel vault, extended in depth 2. Groin vault: two barrel vaults that intersect at 90 degree angles 3. *only way they could build this* iv. Concrete 1. Mix of lime mortar, volcanic sand, water, and small stones 2. Inserted different small stones (shiny) to give it a decorative surface 5. Sculpture st a. Head of an old man, from Osimo, mid-1 century BCE i. Demand for veristic (true and real and factual) ii. May add more wrinkles to make them seem more wise st b. Man with portrait busts of his ancestors, late 1 century BCE, marble i. Not the original head, but likely similar c. Portrait of a roman general ca. 75-50 BCE i. As a general he should be virile and fit and able to lead ii. But he has the veristic, wizened face to seem like a good leader 6. Painting a. Plan of a typical roman house i. Lived very densely ii. Many had businesses in the front iii. Had fast food restaurants iv. Front part is most public, back is most private v. Atria used, shallow pool used under first atrium 1. Larger atria in back with garden underneath 2. Romans like the countryside, so the brought it inside with gardens and paintings b. Atrium, house of the Vetii, Pompeii, 2 century BCE; rebuilt 62-79 CE i. Usually floors were all mosaic ii. Peristyle garden 1. Paintings on wall c. Roman wall painting styles i. 4 categories ii. I stile 1. Plainest and earliest 2. Stucco relief and faux painting 3. Polychrome marble panels 4. Makes home look more expensive iii. II stile 1. Still used I stile 2. Architectural stile 3. Uses architectural elements to subdivide a wall and frame illusionistic views d. Second style paintings i. Villa of the mysteries, near Pompeii, ca. 60-50 BCE 1. Maybe used for initiation 2. II stile 3. Maybe used for a mystery cult (common) a. Maybe cult of Dionysus 4. Black strips function like columns to subdivide a. Gives a 3D sense 5. Red and green are compliments and intensify each other ii. Cubiculum from house, Boscoreale, ca. 50-40 BCE 1. II stile 2. Subdivide wall 3. Detail a. Opens small room iii. Gardenscape from villa of Livia, Primaporta, ca. 30-20 BCE 1. Aristocratic 2. 1 small window, nor views on unfolding landscape 3. Fences subdivide a. Wooden lattice in forefront and white fence in background b. Cultivated garden with wild growth in back ground e. III stile roman wall painting from Boscotrecase, ca. 10 BCE i. Short, narrow wall, ii. Insinuated, delicate columns iii. Very fantastical iv. Dark colors make it seem larger v. Tiny painting in the middle vi. Utterly different from II stile f. IV stile roman wall painting, “Ixion Room,” House of the Vetii, Pompeii, ca. 70-79 CE i. Includes all previous stiles ii. Profusion 7. Mosaic a. roman mosaic, Neptune and Amphitrite, mosaic, Herculaneum, ca. 62-79 CE i. sea gods ii. roman mosaics typically on ground, this is on wall iii. marble stone or glass (tesserae) Rome: Early and High Empire 8. Early Empire a. Augustus Primaporta, copy of bronze original, ca. 20 BCE i. Comparable to Greek 5 c. Classical by Polykleitos, Doryphoros, c. 450-440 BCE ii. Pacified Spain and Gaul (France) iii. Brings 150 years of peace: Pax Augusta or Pax Romana iv. Augustus wanted to rival Pericles v. Stud is disguised with cupid riding a dolphin, also a hint of divine lineage vi. Breastplate has significant relief where a standard is being passed in reference to the Peace 1. Historical event seen amidst cosmography vii. Returned to idealization in face viii. Three locks of hair that are specific to Augustus ix. Distinctive ears x. Based on Doryphorus in relaxed contrapposto xi. Hand is raised like he is addressing troops b. Ara pacis augustae, Rome, 13-9 BCE (compare to Parthenon) i. Shows war booty obelisk ii. In its original location, during fall equinox the sun pointed at the altar inside. Believed to mark the time of Augustus’s conception iii. Dedicated on wife Livia’s birthday iv. Meant as an altar of peace v. Response to the Parthenon vi. Iconography 1. Illusionistic reliefs framed by pilaster columns a. Similar to II stile paintings vii. Sides 1. Vegetal design on lower register 2. Procession on top viii. What’s roman about it 1. 1 entrance 2. Stairs and on a platform 3. Augustus brought use of marble ix. “Tellus” relief, Ara pacis Augustae, Rome, 13-9 BCE 1. Personification of land and sea at her feet 2. Why it’s diff from Greek a. Plants and animals (Greeks focused on human form) b. Babies c. Concern for illusionism (plants further in depth) d. Peaceful scene x. Imperial Procession, Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, 13-9 BCE 1. Conscious imitation of Greek Panthonic procession 2. Diff b/c a. Children b. Augustus, Livia, children c. Who’s who of roman society 3. Historical specificity – always keep in mind when talking about roman art 4. this is a real event with people who were really there c. Maison Carée, Nîmes, France, ca. 1-10 CE i. Exporting culture to conquered areas ii. Podium and axilial alignment iii. Pseudo peripteral columns iv. DISTINGUISHING FACTOR this uses Corinthian order capitals, Portunus used Ionic d. Port du Guard, Nîmes, France** i. No concrete, individual blocks cut ii. Gravity holds it in place iii. Importance of keystone iv. 5% decline to gently deliver water into the city e. Porta Maggiore, Rome, ca. 50 CE i. Gate to city, links the aqueduct ii. Mini tablature and pediment 1. Greeks would never do this f. Portrait of Vespasian, ca. 75-79 CE i. Not royal or aristocratic ii. Much older and not idealized iii. Suggests republican practicality iv. He wants to be seen as truthful and has to restore the office of emperor b/c he comes after crazy Nero g. Colosseum, Rome, ca. 70-80 CE i. Done by Vespasian to regain people’s trust ii. Takes land stolen by Nero and giving it back to the people iii. Giving them entertainment iv. Arches framed by columns to decorate 1. 1 floor is form of Doric nd 2. 2 is ionic 3. 3 is Corinthian 4. Using them to articulate weight loads v. 12,000 Jewish slaves used in 24/7 shifts vi. Vespasian conquered Jerusalem and sold the loot to finance the colosseum vii. Real name is Flavian amphitheater viii. Poles on top were used to give awning ix. Barrel and vaults x. Seating by social order xi. Basement had cages for animals and gladiators h. Arch of Titus, Rome, after 81 CE i. Functioned like a billboard for Titus ii. Spoils of Jerusalem, Arch of Titus, Rome, after 81 CE 1. Historical specificity (Menara) 2. Replicating what you yourself are doing at that moment by placing them walking through the archway 3. TYPICAL OF ROMAN a. Illusionistic architecture b. Historical specificity c. different layers of relief to look like they are turning into the archway 4. Roman armies displayed what they had captured in the forum iii. Triumph of Titus, Arch of Titus, Rome after 81 CE 1. After Titus had died and was deified 2. Winged figure of victory riding in chariot 3. Below, guy with the chest is Honor 4. Woman at front leading horses is Valor 5. First time these personifications mix with a deified historical figures 6. Vault of arch, square relief is Apotheosis of Titus a. Titus is in heaven, taking his place among the gods 9. High empire a. Apollodorus of Damascus, Forum of Trajan, Rome, ded. 112 CE i. Assembly hall ii. Early Christians adapted the basilica style for churches iii. Ancestral busts lined interior courtyard iv. Wrapped around are markets of Trajan v. Basilica Ulpia, Forum of Trajan, Rome, ded. 112 CE 1. Entry is on the long side 2. Columns for support 3. Semicircular “apse” on either side 4. 385 ft. long not counting the apses 5. 183 ft. wide vi. Apollodorus of Damascus, Markets of Trajan, Rome, ca. 100-112 CE 1. Multiple levels with 150 stores to create more space 2. Construction is a series of fenestrated groin vaults a. Fenestrated – has windows b. Groin vaults – two barrel vaults at 90 degree angles 3. Interior for storage, goods out in front 4. Roman problem solving and advanced construction vii. Column of Trajan 1. Shaft is 125 ft. 2. Large podium or base where remains of Trajan and wife are buried 3. Relief wound around shaft 4. Relief, if unwound, is over 600 ft. long 5. Shows two different assaults against Dacians (modern Romanians) 6. Typical of Roman, the subject employs historical specificity 7. 2500 figures displayed 8. 150 separate episodes, often featuring Trajan 9. Only allegorical figure is at the bottom representing the River Danube 10. INTERSTING NOTE: doesn’t seem to mock or belittle the enemy, just seems to say that the Romans had better technology 11. Low relief, different from Altar of Zeus at Pergamin a. Purpose is to increase visibility and legibility 12. Surmounted by a nude figure of Trajan, but replaced in 16 century by Saint Peter (represents Christian Rome) b. Portrait bust of Hadrian as general, ca. 130-138 CE i. Greek short bobbed hairstyle ii. Considers himself amateur architect c. Pantheon, Rome, 118-125 CE i. Collimated courtyard with freestanding arch in the center 1. Axial approach, controlling where you enter ii. Concrete iii. Lower walls are thick to support the dome 1. Gradually thin as you go up to remove weight iv. Altered recipe of concrete to make it lighter 1. Used lighter stones in mix v. Oculus at top of dome vi. Pantheon is a temple to all gods vii. Recessed copper vaults in dome had bronze roses in middle to reflect light d. Hadrian’s Villa, Tivoli, ca. 125-128 CE i. The romans inherit ideas from Greek architecture but they don’t always follow the rules ii. Canopus (canal) and Serapeum (“pumpkin” dome) iii. Around the edges of the Canopus are Greek Corinthian columns, BUT it alternates the lentil and arcuated lentil (Greeks would have flipped) e. Al-Khazneh (treasury), Petra, Jordan, 2 century CE i. Carved out of living rock ii. Functioned as a tomb iii. Used Greek architecture in an un-Greek way iv. Columns aren’t evenly spaced v. Tholos inserted into broken pediment on second level f. Bronze Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, ca. 175 CE i. All over empire as a propaganda ii. Christians preserved it b/c they thought it was the first Christian emperor, Constantine iii. Effortless control of horse (he’s on bareback) iv. Emperor is really large g. Sarcophagus with myth of Orestes, from Rome ca. 140-150 CE i. Popular subject for sarcophagi ii. Greek works were freestanding and decorated on all four sides iii. This one is only on 3 sides iv. People liked to see themselves as gods and goddesses v. Orestes is avenging his father’s death vi. Still have the influence of Greek idealized figures Roman: Late Empire and the Age of Constantine 10. Late Empire a. Battle of the romans and barbarians, Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus, Rome, ca. 250-260 CE i. Chaotic and overcrowded 1. Horror Vacui ii. Figures are stacked vertically up the front iii. More uniform relief iv. Looks uncomfortable, like he’s not securely seated v. Lack of canonical proportions 1. hand is bigger than head, they wanted you to see him urging the troops on 2. designed to draw attention to him as leader 3. signals shift b. Bust of Caracalla, ca. 211-217 CE i. So paranoid he murdered his wife and father-in-law ii. Bust looks angry iii. Shows upper torso 1. Nakedness is emphasized by mantle and belt 2. Looks like a wrestler, very powerful and strong a. This presentation is meant to represent a god iv. Short curls started a new trend c. baths of Caracalla, 212-216 CE i. covered 50 acres ii. started by septimius severus iii. gift to the roman people iv. largest completed project in late period v. swimming pool could accommodate 1600 bathers at once vi. either side is a gymnasium vii. lectures available viii. brothels around the edges ix. vaults are 140 ft. high x. made of concrete faced with sheer marble panels and stucco inlaid with gold xi. mosaics covered floors d. The four tetrarchs, ca. 300 CE i. Made of purple marble from Egypt ii. TYPICAL of late empire 1. Disregard of canonical proportion 2. Emphasized united front of tetrarchs iii. Bearded fellow may be Augustus, clean-faced guy may be Caesar 1. Identical pairs iv. Diocletian retires 298-306 CE e. Palace of Diocletian at split, ca. 298-306 CE i. Thick walls, recognizes need for defense ii. Huge watchtowers iii. Laid out according to a roman city plan, north/south/east/west axis iv. Represents a fusion of military engineering and roman imperial building v. Peristyle court, palace of Diocletian at split, ca. 298-306 CE (gable of glorification) 1. To address crowd, Diocletian would stand under arch 2. Pediment broken by arch 3. Shows roman willingness to break Greek rules 11. Age of Constantine a. 313—Edict of Milan i. Christianity officially recognized b. 325—Council of Nicaea i. Christianity became state religion of Rome c. Arch of Constantine, Rome 312-315 CE i. Resources are scant at this point ii. Adjacent to coliseum iii. Incorporated spolia (spoils)– older statues and reliefs reused in Late Roman monuments iv. Incorporated items from Hadrian, Augustus, and Trajan (only the “good emperors”) d. reliefs from the Arch of Constantine i. Hadronic medallions, ca. 130-138 CE (installed on), installed on Arch of Constantine, Rome 312-315 CE 1. Nature ii. Constantinian frieze (below medallions), arch of Constantine, Rome 312-315 CE 1. Constantine is frontal, hierarchical 2. Surrounded by advisors 3. Distributing bread to the hungry 4. Proportions tend to be squattier, not imitating nature 5. Important thing is message 6. Frontal figure of Constantine is authority and power, also able to help the citizens e. Portrait of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, ca. 315-330 CE i. Head alone is 8’ 6’’ tall ii. Probably a wooden scaffolding core with bronze need torso over top, and marble appendages iii. god-like presentation iv. conceptual rather than modeled on nature 1. abstract f. Basilica Nova (Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine), Rome, ca. 306-312 CE i. 300 ft. long 215 ft. wide 114 ft. high 1. Grand empirical scale
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'