BIOL 102 Exam 3 Comprehensive Study Guide
BIOL 102 Exam 3 Comprehensive Study Guide BIOL 102 - E01
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zach Notetaker on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 102 - E01 at University of South Carolina taught by Thomas J Reeves (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Biological Principles II in Biological Sciences at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
BIOL 102 Exam 3 Study Guide 5 Derived Traits of Seed Plants Reduced gametophytes Microscopic male and female gametophytes (n) nourished and protected by sporophyte (2n) Heterospory Microspore (gives rise to male gametophyte) Megaspore (gives rise to female gametophyte) Ovules Ovule (gymnosperm) • Integument (2n) • Megaspore (n) • Megasporangium (2n) Pollen Pollen grains make water unnecessary for fertilization Seeds Seeds: survive better than unprotected spores, can be transported long distances • Seed coat • Food supply • Embryo • Transforming the World: o Seeds changed course of plant evolution enabling bearers to become dominant producers in terrestrial ecosystems o Seed = embryo and nutrients surrounded by protective coat § Can disperse over long distances by wind or other means • Common traits to seed plants (derived traits) o Reduced gametophytes § Advantages: • Develop w/in walls of spores that are retained w/in tissues of parent sporophyte (dependent gametophyte) o Heterospory § Megasporangia produce megaspores that give rise to female gametophyte § Microsporangia produce microspores that give rise to male gametophytes o Ovules § Ovule: consists of megasporangium, megaspore, + 1 or more protective integuments § Gymnosperm megasporangia have 1 integument § Angiosperm megasporangia usually have 2 integuments o Pollen § Microspores develop into pollen grains (contain male gametophytes) § Pollination: transfer of pollen to part of a seed plant containing ovules § Eliminates need for film of water and can be dispersed great distances by air or animals § Pollen grain germinates à gives rise to pollen tube that discharges sperm into female gametophyte with ovule § Sporopollenin of pollen grain has function like seed coat (most durable organic polymer) • Evolutionary Advantage of Seeds: o Seeds develop from whole ovule o Seed is sporophyte embryo, along w/ food supply, packed in protective coat! o Some evolutionary advantages over spores: § May remain dormant for days to years, until conditions favorable for germination § Seeds have supply of stores food § May be transplanted long distances by wind or animals • Gymnosperms have “naked” seeds, typically on cones o Seeds are exposed on sporophylls that form cones o Angiosperms found in fruits, which are mature ovaries o Cone-bearing plants à conifers o Diversity: § Angiosperms dominate more terrestrial ecosystems, though conifers still dominate ecosystem in regions including northern latitudes § Four phyla: • Cycadophyta (cycads) o Flagellated sperm • Gingkophyta (one living species: Ginkgo biloba) o Flagellated sperm o High tolerance to air pollution and popular ornamental tree • Gentophyta (three genera: Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia) • Coniferophyta (conifers, such as pine, fir, and redwood) o Largest gymnosperm phyla o Most are evergreens and carry out photosynthesis year round 2 o Needlelike leaves, w/ adaptive advantage of decreased surface area, reducing water loss • Angiosperms are seed plants w/ reproductive structures called flowers and fruits o Most widespread and diverse of all plants • Characteristics of Angiosperms: o SINGLE PHYLUM, Anthophyta o 2 Key adaptations: § Flowers • Specialized for sexual reproduction • Many are pollinated by insects or animals while some species are wind-pollinated • Flowers that have all 4 organs called complete flowers • Those lacking one or more organs called incomplete flowers • Specialized shoot w/ up to 4 types of modified leaves called floral organs: o Sepals: enclose the flower o Petals: brightly colored and attract pollinators o Stamens: produce pollen § Consists of stalk called filament, sac called anther where pollen is produced o Carpels: produce ovules § Consists of an ovary @ base and style leading up to a stigma, where pollen is received • Symmetry: o Radial symmetry: § For flowers w/ this any imaginary line thru central axis divides the flower into 2 equal parts 3 o Bilateral symmetry: § Flower can only be divided into 2 equal parts by a single imaginary line • Perfect flowers: flowers w/ both functional stamens and carpals • Imperfect flowers: flowers w/ stamens and carpals that occur on separate flowers § Fruits • Formed when ovary wall thickens and matures • Fruits protect seeds and aid in their dispersal • Mature fruits can be either fleshy or dry • Various adaptations help disperse seeds • Angiosperm Life Cycle o Flower of sporophyte composed of BOT male and female structures o Male gametophytes contained w/in pollen grains produced by microsporangia of anthers o Female gametophyte or embryo sac: develops w/in ovule contained w/in ovary @ base of stigma o Most flowers have mechanisms to ensure cross-pollination b/w flowers from different paths of same species o Pollen grain lands on stigma, germinates and pollen tube of male gametophytes grows down to ovary o Ovule entered by pore called micropyle o Double fertilization occurs when pollen tube discharges 2 sperm into female gametophyte w/in ovule and 2 things form: zygote and endosperm o 1 sperm fertilizes egg, other combines w/ 2 nuclei in central cell of female gametophyte and initiates development of food-storing endosperm o The triploid endosperm nourishes developing embryo § w/in a seed, embryo consists of root and 2 seed leaves called cotyledons 4 • Angiosperm Phylogeny: o Ancestors of angiosperms and gymnosperms diverges 305 million yrs ago o May be closely related to Bennettitales, extinct seed plants w/ flowerlike structures o Amborella & water lilies likely descended from 2 of most ancient angiosperm lineages • Evolutionary Links w/ Animals: o Animals influence evolution of plants and vice versa § Ex) herbivory selects for plant defenses § Ex) interactions b/w pollinators and flowering plants select for mutually beneficial adaptations o Bilateral symmetry affects movement of pollinators & reduces diverging populations § Plants w/ this may have increased rates of speciation • Angiosperm Diversity: o Comprise 250,000+ living species o Previously 2 main groups § Monocots (one cotyledon) • More than ¼ of angiosperms species are these • Largest groups à orchids, grasses, & palms § Dicots (two cotyledons) • More than 2/3 angiosperm species are these • Include large legume family and rose family § DNA studies suggest dicots are PARAPHYLETIC • Human Welfare & Seed Plants: o Key sources of food, fuel, wood products, medicine o Reliance on seed plants makes preservation of plant diversity critical o Products from seed plants: § Most food from angiosperms § 6 crops yield 80% of calories consumed by humans § Modern crops = products of relatively recent genetic change resulting from artificial selection § Many seed plants provide wood § Secondary compounds of seed plants used in medicines • Threats to Plant Diversity o Destruction of habitat § Reduces absorption of atmospheric CO2 that occurs during photosynthesis o Loss of accompanied animal species o Tropical rain forests = medical compounds? • Fungi diverse and widespread o Essential for well-being of most terrestrial ecosystems § Break down organic material and recycle vital nutrients • Body Structure: o Multicellular filaments and single cells (yeasts) o Morphology enhances ability to absorb nutrients 5 o Consist of mycelia, networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption § Maximizes surface-to-volume ratio § Cell walls contain chitin o Divided into cells by septa: pores allowing cell-to-cell movement of organelles o Coenocytic fungi lack septa & have continuous cytoplasmic mass w/ hundreds or thousands of nuclei o Some have specialized hyphae called haustoria that allow them to penetrate tissues of their host o Ectomycorrhizal Fungi: form sheaths of hyphae over root and grow into extracellular spaces of root cortex o Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: extend hyphae thru cell walls of root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of root cell membrane o Mycorrhizal fungi: deliver phosphate ions & minerals to plants (because of mutually beneficial relationship b/w fungi and plant roots) • Sexual reproduction: o Fungal nuclei normally haploid, w/ exception of transient diploid stages during sexual life cycles o Sexual reproduction requires fusion of hyphae from different mating types o Use sexual signaling molecules called pheromones to communicate mating type o Plasmogamy: union of cytoplasm from two parent mycelia o In most fungi, haploid nuclei from each part DO NOT fuse right away, coexist in mycelium à called heterokaryon o In some fungi, haploid nuclei pair off 2 per cell à dikaryo ic 6 o Karyogamy: nuclear fissio § Haploid nuclei fuse, produce diploid ce ls § Diploid phase short-lived & undergoes meiosis, producing haploid spo es • Produce genetic variatio o Molds and yeasts w/ no known sexual stage = deuteromycetes • Fungi more closely related to animals than plants or other eukary tes o Multicellularity arose separately in animals and f ngi • Fungi were among earliest colonizers of lan s o Fossil evidence indicates fungi formed mutualistic relationships w/ early land plants • Basidiomycetes: o Include mushrooms, puffballs & shelf fun i o Some form mycorrhizae, some plant parasites o Phylum defined by club-like structure called basidium, transient diploid stage in life cyc e § AKA club fung o Many are decomposers of wood 7 o Can produce mushrooms quickly, some produce “fairy rings” • Fungi play key roles in nutrient cycling, ecological interactions, and human w lfare o Decomposers, mutualists, pathogens o Efficient decomposers or organic material including cellulose and l gnin o Essential recycling of chemical elements b/w living and nonliving w rld o Form mutualistic relationships w/ plants, algae, cyanobacteria, & ani als • Fungus-Plant Mutualisms: o Endophytes: fungi that live inside leaves or other plant arts § Make toxins that deter herbivores and defend against pathogen § Most endophytes are ascomycetes • Fungus-Animal Mutualisms: o Some fungi share digestive services w/ anima s o Help break down plant material in guts of cows & other grazing mammals o Ants use digestive power of fungi by raising them in “far s” • Lichen = symbiotic association b/w photosynthetic microorganism and a fungu o Millions of photosynthetic cells held in mass of fungal hy hae o Photosynthetic component is green algae or cyanobacteria § Occupy inner layer below lichen surfac • Algae provides carbon compounds • Cyanobacteria provide organic nitrogen • Fungi provide environment for growth 8 § Fungi can reproduce sexually & asexual y § Asexual reproduction = fragmentation or formation of soredia: small clusters of hyphae w/ embedded algae o Fungal component often ascomycete • Fungi as Parasite : o 30% of known fungal species = parasites or pathoge s o 10-50% of worlds fruit harvest lost due to fungi p r yr o Some fungi that attack food crops are toxic to huma s • Fungal infection in animals = myco is o Systemic mycoses spread thru body o Some are opportunistic • Practical Uses of Fun i: o Humans eat fungi and use others to make cheese, alcoholic beverages, and bread o Some used to produce antibiotics for treatment of bacterial infec ions o Genetic research on fungi leading to applications in biotechn logy • Kingdom of Consumers: o Most animals are mobile and use traits like strength, speed, toxins, or camoflauge to detect, capture, & eat other organis s § Ex) Chameleon captures insect prey w/ long, sticky, quick-moving ton ue • Animals = multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes w/ tissues that develop from embryonic layers o Nutritional Mode: § Animals are heterotrophs that ingest their food • Cell Structure and Specializati n: o Animal cells lack cell w lls o Bodies held together by structural proteins like col agen o Nervous tissues & muscle tissues unique, defining characteristics of a imals o Tissues: groups of similar cells that act as a functio al unit • Reproduction & Development: o Most animals reproduce sexually, w/ DIPLOID stage DOMINATING life cycl o After sperm fertilizes egg, zygote, undergoes rapid cell division called leavage o Cleavage leads to formation of multicellular, hollow, bla tula 9 o Blastula undergoes gastrulation, forming a gastrula w/ different layers of embryonic tissues o Most animals have @ least 1 larval stage o Larva = sexually immature and morphologically distinct from the adult; eventually undergoes metamorphosis to become a juvenile § Juvenile resembles an adult, but isn’t yet sexually mature § Most animals have Hox genes that regulate development of body form • Steps in Origin of Multicellular Animals: 10 o Morphological & molecular evidence points to a group of protists called choanoflagellates as closest living relatives to anima s o Origin of multicellularity requires evolution of new ways for cells to attach and signal to each other o Molecular analysis has revealed similarities between genes for proetins involved in adherence and attachment in choanoflagellates and animals • Zoologists sometimes categorize animals according to a body plan: set of morphological and developmental traits o Symmetry: § Animals can be categorized according to the symmetry of their bodies, or lack of i § Some animals have radial symmetry, w/ no front and back, or left and right 11 o Two-sided symmetry is called bilateral symmetry § Bilaterally symmetrical animals have • Dorsal = top side, and a ventral = bottom sid • A right and left si e • Anterior = front side and posterior = back end o Most have sensory equipment, such as brain, concentrated in their anterior en • Radial animals are often sessile or planktonic (drifting or weakly swimming) • Bilateral animals often move actively and have central nervous system • Tissues: o Animal body plans vary according to organization of animal’s tissu s o Tissues = collections of specialized cells isolated from other tissues by membranous layers o During development, 3 germ layers give rise to tissues and organs of animal embryo § Ectoderm: germ layer covering embryo’s surface (ecto – outside of § Endoderm :innermost germ layer and lines the developing digestive tube, called archenteron o Sponges & a few other groups lack true tissue § Diploblastic animals have ectoderm and endoderm • Include cnidarians and a few other groups § Triploblastic animals have intervening mesoderm layer; these include bilaterian • Also include flatworms, arthropods, vertebrates & other • Most triploblastic animals possess a body cavit • A true body cavity is called a coelom and is derived from mesoderm • Coelomates are animals that possess a true coelom • Protostome and Deuterostome Development: o Based on early development, many animals can be categorized as having protostome development or deuterostome development o Cleavage: § Protostome development à cleavage is spiral and determinate § Deuterostome development à cleavage is radial and indeterminate • Indeterminate cleavage, each cell in early stages of cleavage retains capacity to develop into complete embryo 12 o Makes possible identical twins, embryonic stem cells o Coelom (body cavity) Formation: § Protostome development splitting of solid masses of mesoderm forms coelom § Deuterostome development, mesoderm buds from wall of archenteron to form the coelom • Fate of the Blastospore: o Blastospore forms during gastrulation and connects archenteron of exterior of gastrula o Protostome development: blastopore becomes the mouth o Deuterostome development: blastopore becomes anus 13 5 IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT RELATIONSHIPS AMONG LIVING ANIMALS REFLECTED IN THEIR PHYOLOGENY 1. All animals share a common ancestor 2. Sponges are basal animals 3. Eumetazoa (“true animals”) is a clade of animals with true tissues 4. Most animal phyla belong to clade Bilateria 5. There are 3 major clades of bilaterian animals, all of which are invertebrates, animals that lack a backbone, except Chordata, which are classified as vertebrates because they have a backbone • Bilaterians divided into 3 clades: o Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa o Deuterostomia includes hemichordates (acorn worms), echinoderms (sea stars and relatives) and chordates o Clade includes both vertebrates and invertebrates • Animals call vertebrates get name from series of bones that make up the backbon o Gave rise to modern amphibians, reptiles, and mammals o More than 57,000 species of vertebrates, including largest animals ever to live on Earth • Chordates (phylum Chordata) are bilaterian animals that belong to the clade of animals known as Deuterostomia o Comprise all vertebrates and two groups of invertebrate • Derived Characters of Chordates: o All share set of derived characte s § Some species have some of these traits only during embryonic development § 4 Key characters: • Notochord: o Longitudinal, flexible rod b/w digestive tube and nerve cord o Provides skeletal support thru most of length of a chord te o More complex, jointed skeleton develops, adult retains only remnants of embryonic notochord • Dorsal, hollow nerve cord o Nerve cord of chordate embryo develops from plate of ectoderm that rolls into a tube dorsal to notoch rd o Nerve cord develops into central nervous system: brain and spinal cor • Pharyngeal, slits or cle ts 14 o Grooves in pharynx called pharyngeal clefts develop into slits that open to the outside of the b dy o Functions of pharyngeal slits § Suspension-feeding structures in many invertebrate chordates § Gas exchange b/w vertebrates § Develop into parts of the ear, head, and neck in tetrapods • Muscular, post-anal tai o Chordates have tail posterior to anu o Many species tail is greatly reduced during embryonic development o Tail contains skeletal elements and muscle o Provides propelling force in many aquatic speci s o Lancelets: § Names for bladelike shape § Marine suspension feeder that retain characteristics of chordate body plan as adult • Early Chordate Evolution: o Ancestral chordates may have resembled lancelets o Same Hox genes that organize vertebrate brain are expressed in lancelets simple nerve cord ti o Sequencing of tunicate genome indicates that… § Genes associated w/ heart and thyroid are common to all chordates § Genes associated w/ nerve impulses are unique to vertebrae 15
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